Geographic Distribution
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Zootaxa ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 5047 (1) ◽  
pp. 53-67

Using literature and field sampling data, we found that Brazilian fauna of the order Ctenopoda (Cladocera, Branchiopoda) was composed of twelve species, including the locally endemic Holopedium amazonicum and Sarsilantona behningi. In Brazil, Diapahanosoma (Neodiaphanosoma) bergamini was reported out of its type locality for the first time. Ctenopoda species were reported in all Hydrographic Regions in Brazil, however, the sampling effort was clearly distinct between many areas. These findings suggest the necessity of new faunal surveys in several parts of Brazil.  

Jun-Ming Zhang ◽  
Xiang-Yong Peng ◽  
Min-Li Song ◽  
Zhen-Jian Li ◽  
Xin-Qiao Xu ◽  

Understanding the impacts and constraints of climate change on the potential geographic distribution of wild Akebia trifoliata is crucial for its sustainable management and economic development as a medicinal material or fruit. In this study, according to the first-hand information obtained on-the-spot investigation, the geographic distribution and response to climate factors of Akebia trifoliata were studied by the MaxEnt model and ArcGIS. The genetic diversity and population structure of 21 natural populations of Akebia trifoliata were studied by SSR markers. The results showed that precipitation and temperature were the two most important climatic factors that restrict the geographic distribution of Akebia trifoliata. Under the current climate scenario, the suitable growth regions of Akebia trifoliata in China were 91.7-121.9 °E and 21.6-37.5 °N. Combined with the evolutionary relationship and prediction results, 21 populations of Akebia trifoliata tended to migrate to the north. In the scenarios (SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0, and SSP5-8.5) of higher greenhouse gas emission concentration, the distribution area of Akebia trifoliata continued to expand, while in the low concentration greenhouse gas emission scenario (SSP1-2.6), the distribution area of Akebia trifoliata remained stable. The distribution center of Akebia trifoliata in China will shift to high latitude regions with the increase of temperature in the future. The results evaluated the impact of climate factors on the spatial distribution of wild Akebia trifoliata, displayed the possible changes of geographical distribution of Akebia trifoliata under different climate scenarios, and provided scientific evidence for durative protection and supervise of Akebia trifoliata.

Melani Kekulawala ◽  
Ali Samba ◽  
Yael Braunschweig ◽  
Jacob Plange-Rhule ◽  
Cornelius Turpin ◽  

Objectives: Our primary objective to determine the cumulative retention of Ob/Gyns since the inception of the program, to determine the demographic and practice characteristics of all Ob/Gyns who have been trained by the Ghana postgraduate Ob/Gyn programs, and to compare the geographic distribution of Ob/Gyns throughout Ghana between 2010 when a prior study was conducted and the current practice locations of all graduates in 2017. Design: Cross-sectional, Quantitative Investigation Setting: Fieldwork for this study was conducted in Ghana between June 21, 2017, and August 20, 2017. Methods: A roster of certified Ob/Gyns, year certified, and email contact information was obtained from the Ghana College of Physicians and Surgeons, a roster of practice locations was obtained from Ghana Medical Board. Main Outcome Measures: retention of Ob/Gyns, geographic distribution of providers, fand comparisons between 2010 and 2017 Results: Significant geographic spread and increase in in-country medical programs have occurred over the seven-year period. In recent years, the Ghana College of Physicians and Surgeons surpassed that of the West African College of Surgeons. Conclusion: Establishing an Ob/gyn training program with national certification provides a cadre of certified Ob/Gyns that can be trained and retained in low-income settings. Moreover, this allows for long term commitment in multiple relevant sectors that may serve to establish a comprehensive obstetric and gynecology capacity beyond urban centers.

ZooKeys ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1060 ◽  
pp. 183-192
Claudio Correa

For 80 years, there were no sightings of the Andean frog, Telmatobius halli, due to the ambiguity with which its type locality was described (“warm spring near Ollagüe”, northern Chile). The type specimens were collected during the International High Altitude Expedition to Chile (IHAEC) in 1935 and were subsequently described in 1938. In 2018 and 2020, two studies independently reported the rediscovery of the species, but they reached different conclusions about its identity and geographic distribution. In fact, the populations identified as T. halli in those studies are more phylogenetically related to other species than to each other, so they clearly do not belong to the same taxon. Although the study of 2020 is more in line with the geographic information of the description, it does not consider some bibliographic details and the transport limitations of the IHAEC. Here, based on a detailed analysis of the chronicles of the IHAEC and other bibliographic sources, I first refute the proposals of the 2018 and 2020 studies and then provide a possible solution. The combined information from the chronicles indicates that the type locality of T. halli is found at the sources of the Loa River, a different place from those identified in the two previous studies. By also incorporating geographic information of the time, I conclude that its true type locality is Miño, an abandoned mining camp located near the origin of the Loa River, where currently no populations of the genus have been described.

Phytotaxa ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 521 (1) ◽  
pp. 48-56

A revisional taxonomic study of Adesmia subg. Adesmia ser. Bicolores has unveiled a new species from southern Brazil. Adesmia miottoae is described and illustrated here. Its geographic distribution, phenology, conservation status and morphological similarities with its closest relatives, Adesmia punctata and A. incana, are presented. The species is distinguished by glandular trichomes covering all the aerial parts of the plant, except the corolla. These trichomes are shorter than those of Adesmia punctata. Additionally, a detailed anatomical description of the leaflet blade is provided.

2021 ◽  
Nita Parekh ◽  
Kushagra Agarwal

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) originally emerged from Hubei province, Wuhan, China, and has caused a worldwide pandemic with millions affected since December 2019. Since the first case of SARS-CoV-2 reported on 27th Jan 2020 in India, over 11 million people have been affected by the virus in the country in the past one year. To understand its demographic distribution, in this study we carried out the early distribution of clades and subclades state-wise based on the analysis of shared mutations in Indian SARS-CoV-2 isolates collected during the period 27th Jan – 27th May 2020. A total of 1279 mutations have been identified in 685 Indian isolates during this period. Principal component analysis on the mutational profile of Indian isolates revealed clusters corresponding to clades in Nextstrain and some state-specific clusters. Phylogenetic analysis of these isolates indicates multiple independent sources of introduction of the virus in the country. It is observed that clade 20A defining mutations C241T (ORF1ab: 5′ UTR), C3037T (ORF1ab: F924F), C14408T (ORF1ab: P4715L), and A23403G (S: D614G) are the predominant mutation set in Indian isolates during this period. Higher number of coronavirus cases were observed in certain states, viz., Delhi, Tamil Nadu, and Telangana. Genetic analysis of isolates from these states revealed a cluster with shared mutations, C6312A (ORF1ab: T2016K), C13730T (ORF1ab: A4489V), C23929T, and C28311T (N: P13L). Contact tracing led the spread of this cluster to a super spreader event, the Tablighi Jamaat religious congregation, and the efficacy of lockdown in containing it. Analysis of region-specific shared mutations carried out to understand the large number of deaths in Gujarat and Maharashtra identified shared mutations defining subclade, I/GJ-20A (C18877T, C22444T, G25563T (ORF3a: H57Q), C26735T, C28854T (N: S194L), C2836T) in Gujarat and two sets of co-occurring mutations C313T, C5700A (ORF1ab: A1812D) and A29827T, G29830T in Maharashtra. From the genetic analysis of mutation spectra of Indian isolates, the insights gained in its transmission, geographic distribution, containment, and impact are discussed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (10) ◽  
pp. 2638-2647
Alena Fornůsková ◽  
Zuzana Hiadlovská ◽  
Miloš Macholán ◽  
Jaroslav Piálek ◽  
Joëlle Goüy de Bellocq

Zootaxa ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 5040 (3) ◽  
pp. 414-427

Six new species of spider beetle are described from southwestern Peru: Cordielytrum silvae, sp. n., C. inca, sp. n., C. fimbriatum, sp. n., C. obscurum, sp. n., C. adustum, sp. n., and C. globuloides, sp. n. The potential for undescribed diversity in this genus is discussed, as well as the geographic distribution and biology of species.  

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (18) ◽  
pp. 4714
Margherita Patruno ◽  
Simona De Summa ◽  
Nicoletta Resta ◽  
Mariapia Caputo ◽  
Silvia Costanzo ◽  

BRCA1/2-associated hereditary breast and ovarian cancer is the most common form of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer and occurs in all ethnicities and racial populations. Different BRCA1/BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs) have been reported with a wide variety among populations. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed prevalence and geographic distribution of pathogenic germline BRCA1/2 variants in families from Apulia in southern Italy and evaluated the genotype–phenotype correlations. Data were collected from Oncogenetic Services present in Apulian hospitals and a shared database was built containing Apulian native probands (n = 2026) that had undergone genetic testing from 2004 to 2019. PVs were detected in 499 of 2026 (24.6%) probands and 68.5% of them (342 of 499) were in the BRCA1 gene. We found 65 different PVs in BRCA1 and 46 in BRCA2. There were 10 most recurrent PVs and their geographical distribution appears to be significantly specific for each province. We have assumed that these PVs are related to the historical and geopolitical changes that occurred in Apulia over time and/or to a “founder effect”. Broader knowledge of BRCA1/2 prevalence and recurring PVs in specific geographic areas could help establish more flexible genetic testing strategies that may enhance our ability to detect high-risk subjects.

Zootaxa ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 5040 (2) ◽  
pp. 283-288

Based on the geographic distribution database of the Orthoptera Species File, the diversity and distribution of the superfamily Grylloidea in the Nearctic region was studied using the statistics and Sorensen dissimilarity coefficient. A total of 164 species or subspecies belonging to 4 families, 9 subfamilies and 27 genera were recorded from this region; among which Gryllidae (93, 56.70%), followed by Trigonidiidae (44, 26.83%), Mogoplistidae (25, 15.24%), and Phalangopsidae (2, 1.22%). The diversity exhibits an asymmetric distribution pattern, with the southeastern coastal plain, the Interior Plateau and Piedmont of the United States was the most abundant. At the same time, the regional similarity of species distribution was analyzed, and the Nearctic was divided into four subregions: Boreal & Arctic zone of North America, Eastern temperate North America, Northeast temperate North America, and Southern North America & western temperate North America.  

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