Change Over Time
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Jingyu Cui ◽  
Jingwei Lu ◽  
Yijia Weng ◽  
Grace Y. Yi ◽  
Wenqing He

Abstract Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed a significant influence on public mental health. Current efforts focus on alleviating the impacts of the disease on public health and the economy, with the psychological effects due to COVID-19 relatively ignored. In this research, we are interested in exploring the quantitative characterization of the pandemic impact on public mental health by studying an online survey dataset of the United States. Methods The analyses are conducted based on a large scale of online mental health-related survey study in the United States, conducted over 12 consecutive weeks from April 23, 2020 to July 21, 2020. We are interested in examining the risk factors that have a significant impact on mental health as well as in their estimated effects over time. We employ the multiple imputation by chained equations (MICE) method to deal with missing values and take logistic regression with the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) method to identify risk factors for mental health. Results Our analysis shows that risk predictors for an individual to experience mental health issues include the pandemic situation of the State where the individual resides, age, gender, race, marital status, health conditions, the number of household members, employment status, the level of confidence of the future food affordability, availability of health insurance, mortgage status, and the information of kids enrolling in school. The effects of most of the predictors seem to change over time though the degree varies for different risk factors. The effects of risk factors, such as States and gender show noticeable change over time, whereas the factor age exhibits seemingly unchanged effects over time. Conclusions The analysis results unveil evidence-based findings to identify the groups who are psychologically vulnerable to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study provides helpful evidence for assisting healthcare providers and policymakers to take steps for mitigating the pandemic effects on public mental health, especially in boosting public health care, improving public confidence in future food conditions, and creating more job opportunities. Trial registration This article does not report the results of a health care intervention on human participants.

2022 ◽  
pp. 152700252110595
René Böheim ◽  
Mario Lackner ◽  
Wilhelm Wagner

We investigate the risk-taking behavior of women and men in high-stakes jumping competitions. Results indicated that female and male athletes differ in the timing and extent of their reactions to an increase in the risk of failure. Male competitors increased risk-taking in the more risky environment immediately after the changes. Female athletes, however, increased risk-taking two years after the rule change. Over time, female athletes revert to pre-reform risk-taking levels, and male athletes’ continued to make more risky decisions in the new environment. We attribute our findings to gender differences in competitiveness and risk preferences.

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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (24) ◽  
pp. 48-69
Leônidas Soares Pereira

This article aims to investigate what are the internal and external marking traits of indie games. Building up on previous efforts from other scholars, we developed a mix method research approach relying on interviews with indie game developers and a quantitative survey. Rather than trying to “re-invent the wheel” by proposing a new definition for the term, we attempt to map out what are the significant distinctive factors present in contemporary indie game from the perspective of developers and non-developers alike, while also discussing the changes of meaning it might have been subject to over time. We found that the determiningtraits of what allows one to perceive a game as indie change over time,andthat,despite thecorefact thatcreative independence remainsthe central feature of all indie games, the conditions for achieving this independence appear to be rather flexible, especially when it comes to issues of funding and publishing agreements. Additionally, our findings point to the term "indie" as being highly mutable and reliant on temporal and contextual aspects, with the qualities that divideindie fromnon-indie games being more akin to a continuum than something rigidly binary.

2022 ◽  
Fei Huang ◽  
Ross Maller ◽  
Brandon Milholland ◽  
Xu Ning

Close analysis of an extensive data set combined with independent evidence prompts our proposal to view human lifetimes as individually finite but collectively unbounded. We formulate a model incorporating this idea whose predictions agree very well with the observed data. In the model, human lifetimes are theoretically unbounded, but the probability of an individual living to an extreme age is negligible, so lifetimes are effectively limited. Our model incorporates a mortality hazard rate plateau and a late-life mortality deceleration effect in conjunction with a newly observed advanced age mortality acceleration. This reconciles many previously observed effects. The model is temporally stable: consistent with observation, parameters do not change over time. As an application, assuming no major medical advances, we predict the emergence of many individuals living past 120, but due to accelerating mortality find it unlikely that any will subsequently survive to an age of 125.

2022 ◽  
Daniel Hoyer

An avid reader of history will be quite familiar with the rich, emotive narratives detailing the tragic decline and ultimate fall of once mighty civilizations; Rome succumbing to barbarian hordes, Alexander of Macedon’s and Chinggis Khan’s spear-won empires splitting into warring factions, and the demise of the great Inca or Maya civilizations are just a few such examples. On the other side of the stacks, similarly grandiose narratives document some group’s incredible growth and spread taking over vast territories and populations. These tell typically of societies coming to dominate a region, often in the face of overwhelming odds and tribulation or through some precocious development of a key technology or strategy that later becomes widespread. Here, I take stock of previous approaches to studying function – from growth and development to crisis and collapse to resilience – and ask what is the most fruitful lens with which to view fluctuations in how societies function and change over time, as this review essay attempts to accomplish.

Ulrika Lagerlöf Nilsson ◽  
Helene Castenbrandt

AbstractThis chapter discusses the value of a capability approach in historical research on older people. Historians are generally focused on studying continuity and change over time. Their research often aims at explaining how and why certain phenomena appear and take different shapes. Capability is a way of capturing an individual’s ability to live a meaningful life, or a life that they perceive as good. A modern analytical tool such as the capability approach can be used for visualising historical patterns, even though individuals’ values of well-being change over time. In that sense, historical studies of individuals’ capabilities, or functions, can add another perspective to this theoretical framework.Old newspapers, biographies, diaries, letters, novels and government reports make it possible to understand which capabilities individuals and societies have valued for older citizens at different times. The meaning of functions differs over time and is dependent on several factors, such as gender and economic conditions, as well as social and civil status. This also means that conditions for a phenomenon such as retirement change over time, but they also differ depending on people’s previous life conditions. In this article, we explore these things using two different examples. Firstly, we discuss how Selma Lagerlöf, a woman with high social status, arranged for her retirement. The second example shows how women with low economic status struggled to retire at the time when universal pension reform was being implemented in Sweden.

Bayrta B. Mandzhieva ◽  

Introduction. In the system of artistic and visual means, the epithet occupies one of the important places. To create a heroic image, the narrator uses epithets that characterize the status of the hero, age and heroic merits of the heroes. Goal and tasks. The purpose of the article is to study artistic-identifying combinations - epithets in the recordings of the song “Shara Gyurgyu” at different times, to identify their preservation and change over time. To achieve the goal, the following tasks were solved: epithets were identified in three different-temporal texts of the song “Shara Gyurgyu” (1862, 1970, 1971), a comparative analysis of artistic-identifying combinations in the texts of different dzhangarchi was carried out. Method. To study the poetical and stylistic texture, we applied the comparative method. The material of the research was records of different times: 1) “The Song about how the famous Ulan Shovshur of the mangas khan of the Ferocious Shara Gyurgyu reproached the Maloderbet cycle of 1862; 2) an audio recording of “Songs about the duel of a lion [-the hero] Ulan Khongor the Beautiful with the Ferocious Shara Gyurgyu” by Jangarchi Telty Lidzhiev 1970; 3) audio recording of “Song of Shara Gyurgyu” by jangarchi Mikhail Mandzhiev 1971. Results. The study of epithets in recordings of the song “Shara Gyurgyu” at different times showed that over more than a century that has passed since the first recording, the epic text in its artistic embodiment has undergone changes. The song “Shara Gyurgyu” of the Maloderbet cycle of 1862 is distinguished by an abundance of epithets, while in the recordings of the late tradition of the epic, there is a transformation of the artistic level of the text. Storytellers Teltya Lidzhiev and Mikhail Mandzhiev adhere to the main plot structure in the process of performance, without sharpening attention to poetic tropes. Observations of the texts of different storytellers at different times show that Dzhangarchi, having a wider epic knowledge, performs the song in accordance with the criteria of fidelity of reproduction, following the tradition of the epic school to which he belonged. A comparative analysis of recordings of the song “Shara Gyurgyu” at different times allowed us to identify constant units at the level of textual embodiment, which accumulate the poetical and stylistic basis of the epic narrative and mark the key links of the epic narration of the Kalmyk heroic epic “Dzhangar”.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-21
Diego Santos García ◽  
Hector Canfield ◽  
Teresa de Deus Fonticoba ◽  
Carlos Cores Bartolomé ◽  
Lucía Naya Ríos ◽  

Background: Motor phenotype (MP) can be associated with a different prognosis in Parkinson’s disease (PD), but it is not fixed and can change over time. Objective: Our aim was to analyze how the MP changed over time and to identify factors associated with the changes in PD patients from a multicenter Spanish PD cohort. Methods: PD patients who were recruited from January-2016 to November-2017 (baseline visit; V0) and evaluated again at a 2-year±30 days follow-up (V2) from 35 centers of Spain from the COPPADIS cohort, were included in this study.MP was calculated at both visits based on Jankovic classification in TD (tremor dominant), IND (indeterminate), or PIGD (postural instability and gait difficulty). Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected, including serum biomarkers. Results: Five hundred eleven patients (62.57±8.59 years old; 59.2%males) were included in the study. At V0, MP was: 47.4%(242/511) TD; 36.6%(187/511) PIGD; 16%(82/511) IND. Up to 38%(194/511) of the patients changed their phenotype from V0 to V2, being the most frequent from TD to IND (8.4%) and from TD to PIGD (6.7%). A worse cognitive status (OR = 0.966) and less autonomy for activities of daily living (OR  =  0.937) at V0 and a greater increase in the globalNMS burden (OR  =  1.011) from V0 to V2 were associated with changing from TD to another phenotype after 2-year follow-up. Conclusion: The MP in PD can change over time. With disease progression, the percentage of cases with non-tremoric MP increases. PD patients who changed from TD to postural instability and gait difficulty increased NMS burden significantly.

2021 ◽  
Jiale Shi ◽  
Yuejun Shi ◽  
Ruixue Xiu ◽  
Gang Wang ◽  
Rui Liang ◽  

The receptor binding domain (RBD) of the coronavirus spike protein (S) has been verified to be the main target for potent neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in most coronaviruses, and the N-terminal domain (NTD) of some betacoronaviruses has also been indicated to induce nAbs. For alphacoronavirus HCoV-229E, its RBD has been shown to have neutralizing epitopes, and these epitopes could change over time. However, whether neutralizing epitopes exist on the NTD and whether these epitopes change like those of the RBD are still unknown. Here, we verified that neutralizing epitopes exist on the NTD of HCoV-229E. Furthermore, we characterized an NTD targeting nAb 5H10, which could neutralize both pseudotyped and authentic HCoV-229E VR740 in vitro. Epitope mapping indicated that 5H10 targeted motif E1 (147-167 aa) and identified F159 as critical for 5H10 binding. More importantly, our results revealed that motif E1 was highly conserved among clinical isolates except for F159. Further data proved that mutations at position 159 gradually appeared over time and could completely abolish the neutralizing ability of 5H10, supporting the notion that position 159 may be under selective pressure during the human epidemic. In addition, we also found that contemporary clinical serum has a stronger binding capacity for the NTD of contemporary strains than historic strains, proving that the epitope on the NTD could change over time. In summary, these findings define a novel neutralizing epitope on the NTD of HCoV-229E S and provide a theoretical basis for the design of vaccines against HCoV-229E or related coronaviruses. Importance Characterization of the neutralizing epitope of the spike (S) protein, the major invasion protein of coronaviruses, can help us better understand the evolutionary characteristics of these viruses and promote vaccine development. To date, the neutralizing epitope distribution of alphacoronaviruses is not well known. Here, we identified a neutralizing antibody that targeted the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the alphacoronavirus HCoV-229E S protein. Epitope mapping revealed a novel epitope that was not previously discovered in HCoV-229E. Further studies identified an important residue, F159. Mutations that gradually appeared over time at this site abolished the neutralizing ability of 5H10, indicating that selective pressure occurred at this position in the spread of HCoV-229E. Furthermore, we found that the epitopes within the NTD also changed over time. Taken together, our findings defined a novel neutralizing epitope and highlighted the role of the NTD in the future prevention and control of HCoV-229E or related coronaviruses.

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