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Ana Maria Mesa-Vanegas ◽  
Esther Julia Naranjo-Gomez ◽  
Felipe Cardona ◽  
Lucia Atehortua-Garces ◽  

Solanum nudum Dunal (Solanaceae) is most commonly known and used by the population of the colombian Pacific coast as an antimalarial treatment. This article study into optimization and quantitative analysis of compounds steroidal over time of development of this species when grown in vitro and wild. A new steroidal compound named SN6 was elucidated by NMR and a new method of quantification of seven steroidal compounds (Diosgenone DONA and six steroids SNs) using HPLC-DAD-MS in extracts of cultures in vitro and wild was investigated. Biology activity of extracts was found to a range of antiplasmodial activity in FCB2 and NF-54 with inhibitory concentration (IC50) between (17.04 -100 μg/mL) and cytotoxicity in U-937 of CC50 (7.18 -104.7 μg/mL). This method creates the basis for the detection of seven sterols antiplasmodial present in extracts from S. nudum plant as a quality parameter in the control and expression of phytochemicals.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Madonna L. Moss ◽  
Brittany Bingham ◽  
Raven Blankenship ◽  
Upuli DeSilva ◽  
Ryan Frome ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (01) ◽  
pp. 1-18
Laura E. Cota-Ortega ◽  
Emelio Barjau-Gonzalez ◽  
Juan Manuel López-Vivas ◽  
José Ángel Armenta-Quintana ◽  
Javier Aguilar-Parra ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 205301962110568
Joana Gaspar de Freitas

What connects the sci-fi book Dune with coastal dunes and geoengineering? The answer lies in humans and their world-making activities. This paper proposes an innovative approach to coastal dunes as hybrid environments by analyzing the dunes stabilization programs developed on the US Pacific Coast. It looks into the shifting sands of the Oregon coast and how they influenced Frank Herbert to write his novel, why local communities and federal authorities were interested in fixing the moving dunes and how these works ended up having unexpected consequences. It explores how human features acting as forcing mechanisms on beach-dune systems caused changes that turned into controlling influences in their own right, creating new environments and concerns. The paper ends with a reflection on how fiction and the history of dunes can be used to critically think about the anthropocentric hubris of building futures by geoengineering the planet for environmental repair.

Cynthia M. Le Doux-Bloom ◽  
Rebekah S. Lane ◽  
Grant J. Christian ◽  
Catherine A. Masatani ◽  
Jennifer E. Hemmert ◽  

AbstractPurposely introduced in 1879, Pacific coast Striped Bass Morone saxatilis once supported a commercial fishery and currently supports a recreational fishery in the San Francisco Estuary Watershed, CA, USA; however, the population has been in decline for decades. Since little is known about sub-adult behavior on the Pacific coast, we used acoustic telemetry to investigate seasonal movement patterns and habitat use across three regions (bay, delta, and river) and the effects of temperature and salinity on habitat use over a 2-year period. Sub-adult movement and habitat use differed by year and age. In spring, age-I and age-II sub-adults moved within the delta (60%), river (20%), and bay (20%) regions, and by summer, some individuals moved to the bay (36%), while others remained in the delta (42%) and river (22%). Fall and winter showed equal movement between the bay and delta regions. During year 2, age-II and age-III fish inhabited the bay region across all seasons with the exception of spring when a few individuals migrated up river. Generally, sub-adults did not inhabit the river region in fall or winter. Sub-adults were not detected in water temperatures < 10 °C and occurred most often in 20–25 °C. Younger sub-adults inhabited limnetic habitat where older fish inhabited mesohaline and polyhaline habitats. Our findings suggest that sub-adult seasonal movement patterns and habitat use hotspots have important fishery management implications and can be useful to address concerns over how this non-native fish’s predation impacts native and endangered fishes.

2021 ◽  
pp. 251484862110522
Carolina Domínguez-Guzmán ◽  
Andres Verzijl ◽  
Margreet Zwarteveen ◽  
Annemarie Mol

The term control used to be central to the scholarship on modern water management. More recently, however, scholars have remarked that the world is too unstable and capricious for control to ever fully succeed. They propose that technologically facilitating water to flow depends instead on care. Building on this, we here propose that holding on to a single catch-all theoretical concept, even if it is ‘care’, does not suffice. Instead, analytical terms are better adapted – and re-adapted to local specificities. To exemplify this, we here present the case of the Huallabamba, a canal that makes horticulture possible in the arid valley of Motupe on the Pacific coast of northern Peru. In this case, while ‘control’ was hard to find, ‘care’ took different forms: the tinkering that compensates for the not-quite-modern character of the infrastructures; the adaptive managerial style necessary given the absence of information; the watchful, hands-on cuidar of the men who walk along the canal high up in the Andes, repairing what is broken, cautious lest they anger the spirits; the listening to and singing for water in the catchment area; and the activism that resists the invasion of mining companies. This open-ended list is not meant to travel as a theoretical grid, but rather to inspire others to propose locally salient analytical terms to explore the sites and situations in which they are involved.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 87-110
Adrianne M Akmajian ◽  
Jonathan J Scordino ◽  
Patrick J Gearin ◽  
Merrill Gosho

A small subset of the Eastern North Pacific gray whale population does not make the full migration from wintering grounds in Mexico to feeding grounds in the Bering, Chukchi and Beaufort seas and instead feed along the Pacific Coast between northern California and northern British Columbia – this group is known as the Pacific Coast Feeding Group (PCFG). We evaluated the body condition of PCFG whales observed in northern Washington and along Vancouver Island to evaluate how body condition of gray whales changes within and between years. We found that PCFG gray whales improve body condition through the feeding season and at varying rates by year and that they have variability in their body condition at the start and end of each feeding season. The inclusion of environmental factors, particularly the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (lagged two years) and September kelp canopy cover along the Washington coast (lagged one year), drastically improved the ability of a multiple regression model to predict average whale body condition for a given year as compared to models without environmental factors included. A comparison of our findings to a previously published study on body condition of gray whales at Sakhalin Island, Russia highlight the differences of life history strategy between a group of whales with a long migration (Sakhalin whales) and those with a short migration. Whales feeding at Sakhalin Island gain body condition quicker and more predictably to a good body condition by the end of the feeding season than the whales we studied in the PCFG. Photogrammetry may be an effective method for monitoring the effects of climate change on PCFG gray whales.

Holzforschung ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Sohrab Rahimi ◽  
Stavros Avramidis ◽  
Ciprian Lazarescu

Abstract Kiln drying is admittedly a significant value-adding step in timber processing where the importance of predicting moisture within a dried batch cannot be overemphasized. This study predicts and characterizes the moisture variation in kiln-dried wood based on the initial and target moisture values using polynomial models. Four polynomial models are used to correlate initial and final moisture characteristics. First model is linear while the three others are nonlinear. The robustness of the three best models is analyzed and a closed formula is proposed to evaluate the final moisture coefficient of variation based on the target moisture and initial moisture coefficient of variation. Three models could successfully characterize the final moisture variation with the best one showing an R 2 > 96%. However, the first (linear) model is the most resilient and, thus recommended for estimating final moisture variation.

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