scholarly journals A keyword on the footer: the Furtadian and the (re)current meaning of structural reforms

2022 ◽  
Vol 42 (1) ◽  
pp. 105-112
Guilherme Silva Cardoso

ABSTRACT A semantic change has occurred in the scope of structural reforms’ term. This article reviews Celso Furtado’s work, in particular, the ones related to this specific topic, and compares it with the current literature. It appears that structural reforms in the Furtadian conception connoted base transformations and were guided by the developmentalism school of thought. Nowadays, it is of general knowledge that, under the new-institutionalist influence, “structural reforms” are associated with liberal policies for monitoring fiscal consolidations, without consensus as to the power of effectiveness. The effort to rescue and understand the original conceptions of certain keywords in the economic development literature, as well as the way in which their interpretations and practices modify over time, is shown to be of paramount importance as the capitalist system struggle to find ways of adapting itself to the current situation of developing economies.

1989 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 11-26
Ruth Taplin

The field of economics has been historically a discipline that emphasises men as the primary social actors within the economic sphere of the world and national developing economies. Although women make an extraordinary contribution given the paucity of economic resources available to them in developing societies, they continue to be dealt with as marginal elements within the discipline. Development studies having reached a theoretical impasse in general is being revived by the issue of the incorporation of gender into the mainstream of development debate, especially in sociology. We suggest a missing element in the economic development literature is a micro-macro analysis that takes into account multi-level linkages which would facilitate inclusion of women into the debate, as the bulk of women in developing economies engage in some form of production largely within the sphere of the family or household. In the course of the review and criticism of the relevant literature within the two basic schools of modernisation and historical-materialism, we conclude that women are a necessary vehicle of analysis as is a multi-level methodology that takes into account the level of the household/family unit if economic development theory is to progress beyond its current state of stagnation and narrow scope of assessment.

2021 ◽  
pp. 089124242199844
Adrienne DiTommaso ◽  
Robert T. Greenbaum

While much of the economic development literature attempts to quantify the effectiveness of tax incentives on growth outcomes, less attention has been paid to the relationships between incentive use and local economic base composition, despite the fact that many economic development strategies are aimed at changing industrial base makeup. Local industrial base diversity has implications for the pace and stability of future growth. Using newly available annual data on incentives at the metropolitan statistical area (MSA) level, this article explores the relationship between incentives and economic diversity between 2005 and 2015. The descriptive analysis finds that MSAs with less diverse economic bases target incentives to industries with low concentration and that regardless of overall diversity, MSAs are more likely to incentivize industries that are less specialized locally. Panel regression models indicate that use of customized job training subsidies are associated with increases in diversity net of local government and population characteristics.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 82-106
Ryan Scoats ◽  
Eric Anderson ◽  
Adam J. White

Although there is abundant research regarding group sex between men, much of the current literature constructs group sex as homogenous and overlooks the nuance of how and why men engage in particular sexual behaviors. Accordingly, this research expands our understanding of group sex by focusing on a specific type of sex: the threesome. The results demonstrate how perspectives on threesomes may develop over time; at first appearing exciting before becoming relatively normalized and indistinct from dyadic sex. Encounters and exposure are fostered through the sexual opportunities available, in particular, geo-social networking apps. Despite their normalization, threesomes are not necessarily viewed as risk free. Thus, this research offers insight and understanding into how gay men engage in group sex and the contextual factors which make it possible.

2018 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Mumtaz Hussain Shah

The growing share of knowledge-intensive products in international trade and the increasing sensitivity of multinational firms to intellectual property theft make it imperative to analyse the effect of IPR promulgation on their FDI decision. In this perspective the current article gauge the importance of Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement under World Trade Organisation (WTO) in increasing a Latin American & Caribbean (LAC) developing economy’s appeal for investors from abroad. Infrastructure and skilled labour availability, market size, macroeconomic stability, economic development, and trade liberalization are also considered. Time-invariant phenomena such as access to the sea, regional affiliations/proximities, income groupings and ability to speak one of the international languages, though desirable were not done because fixed effect panel estimation technique does not permit the use of dummy variables. Due to the 2008-2009 recession in the developed economies, the available investment funds withered, making the investors’ sceptic apropos the safety of their tangible and intangible property, especially in the developing world, causing a decrease in FDI to these nations in general. However, LAC countries were somewhat resilient and received a steadily increasing flow of foreign investment. Thus, it demands to analyse the factors that overcame the overseas investors’ scepticism and prompted them to invest in the LAC region. By utilizing annual data for 28 years that is 1989-2016 from 24 LAC developing nations it is found that infrastructure and human capital availability, macroeconomic stability, economic development, strengthening and worldwide harmonization of intellectual property right standards through TRIPS positively effects the overseas investor's investment decision. The host population used to measure market size is found to be insignificant when tested with other conventional FDI location pull factors. Similarly, liberalization, consistent with horizontal FDI theory, exerts a significant negative effect on inward FDI.

Sushmita .

The discovery of oil in West Asia has contributed to its integration into the international capitalist system. The mono-commodity, oil, has brought tremendous wealth to West Asia. But a rising population and an ever growing demonstration effect, has caused imports to grow exorbitantly, with oil prices expected to fall, depicted explicitly by recent oil price drop, also over time as interest in climate change increases after RIO-20, and more options of renewable energy sources coming on line like Gas, Solar Energy, wind power and nuclear energy etc. the rentier mode of development followed by west Asian economies is clearly unsustainable. Further the oil producing nations are so over-specialized that they do not possess the necessary flexibility to shift their resources from one sector to another, or to develop substitution if and when the need arises. Moreover, the ability of oil producing countries to respond to deliberate or accidental economic measures taken abroad is limited. This paper theoretically analyses the standing of the West Asian mono product economies, their specific traits, benefits and disbenefit of current condition and looks into the case for diversification of West Asian Region. As diversification is a sine qua non in long Run for the sustainability of the West Asian economies.

2018 ◽  
Vol 13 (8) ◽  
pp. 217
Japhet Jacksoni Katanga ◽  
Seleman Pharles

Globalization can be defined as the process based on international cooperation strategies, the aims of globalization is to expanded the operation of a certain business or service to become into a worldwide level, Globalization facilitate the modern advance technology which help community to undergo the social, political and economic development. Globalization economic has reinforced the margination for African developing economies and make to be dependent for the few primary commodities or service whereby the price and demand are extreme determine by externally. On this outcome it lead some of the African countries to be turn into poverty or economic inequality due let their own resources being determine by developed countries. On these paper you will get a chance to oversee the effect of adaption globalization to Tanzania economic growth.

1982 ◽  
Vol 24 (4) ◽  
pp. 421-460 ◽  
John R. Bowman ◽  
Michael Wallerstein

The 1891 civil war that led to the downfall of President José Manuel Balmaceda is without doubt one of the most visible episodes of Chilean history. Already the subject of a voluminous bibliography by 1894 (Echeverría y Reyes, 1894), the “revolution's” importance to historians of Chile actually increased over time as a new generation of scholars came to view it not merely as a discrete event of limited intrinsic interest but as an important key to understanding Chile's subsequent political and economic development. In retrospect, the conflict came to be seen as a “crucial watershed” in Chilean history (Blakemore, 1974: 243), marking the replacement of a presidential system—1833-1891—notable in nineteenth-century Latin America for political stability, by a parliamentary system—1891-1924—notorious for political and monetary disorder.

2018 ◽  
Vol 04 (S1) ◽  
pp. 60
Syed Ahmed ◽  
Abdulhamid Sukar ◽  

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) was originally mandated to maintain exchange rate stability and adjustment of external imbalances in member countries and to act as a lender for countries facing short-term balance-of-payment crises. With the breakdown of the fixed exchange rate system, the IMF had to adjust its role in exchange rate management. The international banking crisis in the 1980s required a recalibration of IMF policies. Most of the policies in the 1980s and 1990s were driven by “Washington Consensus,” a doctrinaire view of economic development that called for structural adjustment through market liberalization and privatizations. However, critics indicate that the IMF, by failing to consider the unique conditions in developing economies and lumping them under a “one size fits all,” category may have caused more damage than good. In addition, it was alleged that IMF loans imposed unrealistic conditions on borrowers. All these policies are under review now in a quest for appropriate policies that will address some of these concerns and aid economic development. This paper provides a brief review of IMF policies from a historical perspective and a critique of IMF policies over the last few decades.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Veli Yilanci ◽  
Ilham Haouas ◽  
Onder Ozgur ◽  
Samuel Asumadu Sarkodie

Energy is a crucial development indicator of production, consumption, and nation-building. However, energy diversification highlighting renewables remains salient in economic development across developing economies. This study explores the economic impact of renewables (RE) and fossil fuel (NRE) utilization in 17 emerging nations. We use annual data with timeframe between 1980 and 2016 and propose a bootstrap panel causality approach with a Fourier function. This allows the examination of multiple structural breaks, cross-section dependence, and heterogeneity across countries. We validate four main hypotheses on the causal links attached to the energy consumption (EC)-growth nexus namely neutrality, conservation, growth, and feedback hypotheses. The findings reveal a causal relationship running from RE to GDP for Brazil, Egypt, Indonesia, Korea, Pakistan, and the Philippines, confirming the growth hypothesis. Besides, the results validate the conservation hypothesis with causality from GDP to RE for China, Colombia, Egypt, Greece, India, Korea, South Africa, and Turkey. We identify causality from NRE to GDP for Pakistan, Mexico, Malaysia, Korea, India, Greece, Egypt, and Brazil; and from GDP to NRE for Thailand, Peru, Malaysia, India, Greece, Egypt, and Colombia. We demonstrate that wealth creation can be achieved through energy diversification rather than relying solely on conventional energy sources.

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