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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Bastien Lemaire ◽  
◽  
Raphaël Lenoble ◽  
Mirko Zanon ◽  
Thibaud Jacquel ◽  
...  

Most of the scientific outputs produced by researchers are inaccessible since they are not published in scientific journals: they remain in the researchers' drawers, forming what we call the Dark Science. This is a long-standing issue in research, creating a misleading view of the scientific facts. Contrary to the current literature overfed with positive findings, the Dark Science is nurtured with null findings, replications, flawed experimental designs and other research outputs. Publishers, researchers, institutions and funders all play an important role in the accumulation of those unpublished works, but it is only once we understand the reasons and the benefits of publishing all the scientific findings that we can collectively act to solve the Dark Science problem. In this article, we discuss the causes and consequences of the Dark Science expansion, arguing that science and scientists would benefit from getting all their findings to the light of publication.


Author(s):  
Pierluigi Morano ◽  
Benedetto Manganelli ◽  
Francesco Tajani

In this paper the relationship between price and rent dynamics in the Italian housing market is studied. The aim is reached through the implementation of a multivariate autoregressive model (VAR), that makes it possible to explain the interdependencies of multiple time series. The analysis considers a series of macroeconomic variables in the model that in the deductive interpretation of the phenomenon and on the basis of other experiences in current literature, were evaluated as potential keys to understanding the relationship between prices and rents. The variables selected, along with residential realestate prices and real residential rents, were: the real short term interest rate, the time series of the annual differences between the actual and the expected Gross Domestic Product, real investments in housing. The data series cover the period from 1980 to 2008. The results obtained show some peculiarities of the Italian real estate market.


Author(s):  
Sompop Bencharit ◽  
Wendy A Clark ◽  
Lisa O Stoner ◽  
Gautam Chiang ◽  
Taiseer A. Sulaiman

Digital dentistry, including CAD/CAM dentistry, is perhaps the most disruptive innovation in dentistry to date. The rapid development of digital dentistry technologies over the past several decades has enabled clinicians to improve patient care by significantly reducing the time necessary for the restorative phase of treatment. Advancements in intra-oral scanning and computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM), in conjunction with new dental CAD/CAM ceramic materials, have simplified patient care and made same-day dentistry a reality. This review aims to present the most recent advancements described in current literature as well as to document the successful implementation of digital dentistry into a predoctoral program. The overall process of CAD/CAM same-day dentistry and the accompanying advancements in software and materials were presented and discussed. Implementation of technology and personnel requirements were reviewed. CAD/CAM dentistry has been influential in shaping and improving dental practice and education, and this influence will only continue with time.


2021 ◽  
Vol 30 (21) ◽  
pp. 1226-1230
Author(s):  
Rebecca Embleton ◽  
Michelle Henderson

Low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) is a collection of symptoms that can occur as a result of a low anterior resection for bowel cancer. Transanal irrigation (TAI) can be used to manage these symptoms. This article describes a retrospective audit of 15 patients who were using TAI to manage symptoms of LARS. The aim of the audit was to ascertain whether the use of TAI improved outcomes for these patients. The data suggest that TAI has reduced both the frequency of bowel movements and episodes of faecal incontinence. Those patients using higher volumes of water seem to have experienced more benefit than those patients using lower volumes of water. These findings are consistent with current literature around TAI for LARS and suggest research into optimum volume of water would be beneficial.


2021 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Author(s):  
Ellen L. Davies ◽  
Danielle Pollock ◽  
Amy Graham ◽  
Robert E. Laing ◽  
Vikki Langton ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Amar D. Desai ◽  
Michael Lavelle ◽  
Brian C. Boursiquot ◽  
Elaine Wan

SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly spread across the globe and infected hundreds of millions of people worldwide. As our experience with this virus continues to grow, our understanding of the both short and long-term complications of infection with SARS-CoV-2 continues to grow as well. Just as there is heterogeneity in the acute infectious phase, there is heterogeneity in the long-term complications seen following COVID-19 illness. The purpose of this review article is to present the current literature with regards to the epidemiology, pathophysiology and proposed management algorithms for the various long term sequalae that have been observed in each organ system following infection with SARS-CoV-2. We will also consider future directions, with regards to newer variants of the virus and their potential impact on the long-term complications observed.


2021 ◽  
Vol 38 (05) ◽  
pp. 511-514
Author(s):  
Abin Sajan ◽  
Sandeep Bagla ◽  
Ari Isaacson

AbstractSymptomatic knee pain is one of the most common joint diseases that affects millions of people worldwide. The treatment for knee pain secondary to osteoarthritis (OA) begins with conservative therapy and progresses to surgical intervention when conservative therapy fails. Genicular artery embolization (GAE) offers an alternative option for patients who are poor surgical candidates. Multiple studies have been conducted worldwide demonstrating the safety and efficacy of GAE in patients with mild to moderate OA. The purpose of this article is to describe the current literature on GAE and highlight the latest findings from a randomized controlled trial comparing GAE versus sham embolization.


Author(s):  
Ana Belén Correa ◽  
Ángel Castro ◽  
Juan Ramón Barrada

AbstractCurrent research in attitudes towards the sexuality of adults with intellectual disabilities yields heterogeneous results. The aim of the present paper was to systematically review current qualitative and quantitative evidence of attitudes towards the sexuality of adults with intellectual disabilities. A systematic review of current literature (2000–2020) was carried out in the ERIC, PsychINFO, SCOPUS, PUBMED, and WebOfScience databases. Thirty-three articles were included for review. The present review protocol is registered in the PROSPERO database. Included studies presented attitudes towards the sexuality of adults with intellectual disabilities in samples comprised of staff, family, members of the community, and adults with intellectual disability. Community samples held more positive attitudes, followed by staff and family. Adults with intellectual disabilities reported interest in intimate relationships but perceived barriers in others’ attitudes. Factors such as familiarity, age, gender of the adult with a disability, and culture seemed to have clear relationships. Other factors such as gender or social status remain unclear. In general, attitudes were considered positive. However, a preference for low intimacy and friendship or Platonic relationships was found. Stereotypes towards intellectual disability may have a strong influence. These findings underline the need to investigate and address attitudinal changes to provide adequate support for adults with intellectual disabilities in regard to a healthy relational and sex life.Prospero registration number: CRD42021222918.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
James Holth

<p>Architects work within the medium of digital space on a day-to-day basis, yet never truly get to experience the spaces they are creating until after they’re built. This creates a disconnect in the design process that can lead to unexpected and unwanted results. Human perception is a powerful instrument and Virtual Reality (VR) technologies, coupled with more complex digital environments, could enable designers to take advantage of this. Through virtually inhabiting the space they are creating while they are creating it, designers can pre-visualise spatial qualities. These digital tools are experiencing a shift from technology still in development to a fully-fledged research instrument. With a growing level of technical literacy within the architectural discipline they could have the same revolutionary impact that the introduction of computers had in the late-twentieth century.  This thesis explores the potential of VR technology for processes of architectural design by assessing their combined ability to analyse a user’s perception of spatial qualities; in particular the sensation of people density within the work environment. Starting with a review of current literature in architecture and perception based science. A framework is proposed by which to assess the impacts of spatial characteristics within an Immersive Virtual Environment (IVE). This is followed by a design-led series of iterative framework developments centred on increasing user immersion within digital space. Through this methodology a greater understanding is obtained of users perceptions of spatial characteristics and of the process required to design iteratively within an IVE framework.</p>


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