prospective longitudinal
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Autism ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 136236132110689
Nisha Narvekar ◽  
Virginia Carter Leno ◽  
Greg Pasco ◽  
Mark H Johnson ◽  
Emily JH Jones ◽  

Autism is diagnosed based on social and communication difficulties, restricted and repetitive behaviours and sensory anomalies. Existing evidence indicates that anxiety and atypical sensory features are associated with restricted and repetitive behaviours, but cannot clarify the order of emergence of these traits. This study uses data from a prospective longitudinal study of infants with and without a family history of autism ( N = 247; Elevated Likelihood N = 170 and Typical Likelihood N = 77). Longitudinal cross-lag models tested bidirectional pathways between parent-rated infant fear/shyness and perceptual sensitivity at 8, 14 and 24 months, and associations between these domains and parent-rated restricted and repetitive behaviours and social communication scores at 36 months. In addition to within-domain continuity, higher levels of fear/shyness at 14 months were associated with higher levels of perceptual sensitivity at 24 months. Higher levels of both fear/shyness and perceptual sensitivity at 24 months were associated with greater restricted and repetitive behaviours and social communication scores at 36 months. Results demonstrate the directionality of developmental pathways between fear/shyness and perceptual sensitivity in infancy and toddlerhood, but question theories that argue that these domains specifically underlie restricted and repetitive behaviours rather than autism. Identifying how early emerging anxiety and sensory behaviours relate to later autism is important for understanding pathways and developing targeted support for autistic children. Lay abstract Restricted interests and repetitive behaviours are central to the diagnosis of autism and can have profound effects on daily activities and quality of life. These challenges are also linked to other co-occurring conditions such as anxiety and sensory sensitivities. Here, we looked at whether early emerging signs of anxiety and sensory problems appear before symptoms of autism by studying infants with a family history of autism, as these infants are more likely to develop autism themselves. Studying infant siblings provides an opportunity for researchers to focus on early developmental markers of autism as these infants can be followed from birth. This study found that early infant signs of anxiety (e.g. fear/shyness) predicted later perceptual sensitivity, and those infants who scored higher on fear/shyness and sensitivity were more likely to experience more persistent repetitive behaviours, but also social and communication difficulties in toddlerhood. Early signs of anxiety and perceptual sensitivity may thus relate to both later social difficulties and repetitive behaviours. These findings support the importance of further research exploring the causal links between these domains in relation to autism, resulting in increased understanding of children who go onto develop autism in the future and guiding early interventions and supports.

2022 ◽  
Katherine Woolf ◽  
Mayuri Gogoi ◽  
Christopher A Martin ◽  
Padmasayee Panineni ◽  
Susie Lagrata ◽  

Background Several countries now have mandatory SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 vaccination for healthcare workers (HCWs) or the general population. HCWs' views on this are largely unknown. Methods We administered an online questionnaire to 17891 United Kingdom (UK) HCWs in Spring 2021 as part of the United Kingdom Research study into Ethnicity And COVID-19 outcomes in Healthcare workers (UK-REACH) nationwide prospective cohort study. We categorised responses to a free-text question 'What should society do if people don't get vaccinated against COVID-19?' using content analysis. We collapsed categories into a binary variable: favours mandatory vaccination or not and used logistic regression to calculate its demographic predictors, and occupational, health and attitudinal predictors adjusted for demographics. Findings Of 5633 questionnaire respondents, 3235 answered the freetext question; 18% (n=578) of those favoured mandatory vaccination but the most frequent suggestion was education (32%, n=1047). Older HCWs, HCWs vaccinated against influenza (OR 1.48; 95%CI 1.10-1.99, vs none) and with more positive vaccination attitudes generally (OR 1.10; 95%CI 1.06-1.14) were more likely to favour mandatory vaccination (OR 1.26; 95%CI 1.17-1.37, per decade increase), whereas female HCWs (OR= 0.80, 95%CI 0.65-0.99, vs male), Black HCWs (OR= 0.48, 95%CI 0.26-0.87, vs White), those hesitant about COVID-19 vaccination (OR= 0.56; 95%CI 0.43-0.71, vs not hesitant), in an Allied Health Profession (OR 0.67; 95%CI 0.51-0.88, vs Medical), or who trusted their organisation (OR 0.78; 95%CI 0.63-0.96) were less likely to. Interpretation Only one in six of the HCWs in this large, diverse, UK-wide sample favoured mandatory vaccination. Building trust, educating and supporting HCWs who are hesitant about vaccination may be more acceptable, effective and equitable. Funding MRC-UK Research and Innovation grant (MR/V027549/1) and the Department of Health and Social Care via the National Institute for Health Research.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
João Faro-Viana ◽  
Marie-Louise Bergman ◽  
Lígia A. Gonçalves ◽  
Nádia Duarte ◽  
Teresa P. Coutinho ◽  

AbstractWhile mRNA vaccines are administrated worldwide in an effort to contain the COVID-19 pandemic, the heterogeneity of the humoral immune response they induce at the population scale remains unclear. Here, in a prospective, longitudinal, cohort-study, including 1245 hospital care workers and 146 nursing home residents scheduled for BNT162b2 vaccination, together covering adult ages from 19 to 99 years, we analyse seroconversion to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and amount of spike-specific IgG, IgM and IgA before vaccination, and 3-5 weeks after each dose. We show that immunogenicity after a single vaccine dose is biased to IgG, heterogeneous and reduced with increasing age. The second vaccine dose normalizes IgG seroconversion in all age strata. These findings indicate two dose mRNA vaccines is required to reach population scale humoral immunity. The results advocate for the interval between the two doses not to be extended, and for serological monitoring of elderly and immunosuppressed vaccinees.

2022 ◽  
pp. 025371762110616
Chittaranjan Andrade

Many students are not aware that research design can be simultaneously described in many different ways; for example, a drug trial may be described as being prospective, longitudinal, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled, all at the same time. This article provides examples to explain how studies can be simultaneously prospective and cross-sectional, prospective and longitudinal, retrospective and cross-sectional, and retrospective and longitudinal. The term prospective indicates that the study data are newly collected, whereas the term retrospective indicates that the study data already exist in records and merely need to be extracted for study. The term cross-sectional indicates that the study subjects are studied on a single occasion; that is, at a single point in time. The term longitudinal indicates that the study subjects are followed up and that there is almost always more than one time point at which the subjects are assessed. This article also describes unusual designs, such as cross-sectional randomized controlled trials and retrospective studies with prospective data ascertainment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 130
Carlos L. Correa-Martínez ◽  
Annette Jurke ◽  
Janne Schmitz ◽  
Frieder Schaumburg ◽  
Stefanie Kampmeier ◽  

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) pose a public health challenge worldwide. While VRE bloodstream infections (VREBI) increase in Germany and Europe, population-based molecular data are scarce. We aimed to analyze the molecular epidemiology, demographic aspects, and geographical distribution of VREBI in the German Federal State of North-Rhine–Westphalia (NRW), located in the German–Dutch–Belgian border area, representing over 20% of Germany’s population. VREBI isolates were collected from hospitals across NRW between 2016 and 2019. Demographic data were gathered and anonymized upon sample collection. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and identification of glycopeptide resistance were carried out. Epidemiological analysis and geographical mapping were performed. Single VREBI isolates from 755 patients were analyzed. In total, 38.9% were female, and 80.0% were aged ≥ 60 years. The VREBI incidence per 100,000 inhabitants nearly tripled, from 0.52 (2016) to 1.48 (2019), particularly in male patients aged ≥ 50 years. The proportion of vanB reached 83% (n = 202/243) in 2018, overtaking vanA as the predominant glycopeptide resistance determinant, detected in close relation with ST117 isolates. The proportion of MLST sequence type (ST) 117 peaked in 2018, at 78.2% (n = 190/243). The major role of these emerging strains in invasive infections in central Europe requires novel strategies for their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Kendal Danna ◽  
Grace Jaworski ◽  
Bakoly Rahaivondrafahitra ◽  
Francia Rasoanirina ◽  
Anthony Nwala ◽  

Abstract Background The hormonal Intrauterine Device (IUD) is a highly effective contraceptive option growing in popularity and availability in many countries. The hormonal IUD has been shown to have high rates of satisfaction and continuation among users in high-income countries. The study aims to understand the profiles of clients who choose the hormonal IUD in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and describe their continuation and satisfaction with the method after 12 months of use. Methods A prospective longitudinal study of hormonal IUD acceptors was conducted across three countries—Madagascar, Nigeria, and Zambia—where the hormonal IUD had been introduced in a pilot setting within the of a broad mix of available methods. Women were interviewed at baseline immediately following their voluntary hormonal IUD insertion, and again 3 and 12 months following provision of the method. A descriptive analysis of user characteristics and satisfaction with the method was conducted on an analytic sample of women who completed baseline, 3-month, and 12-month follow-up questionnaires. Kaplan–Meier time-to-event models were used to estimate the cumulative probability of method continuation rates up to 12 months post-insertion. Results Each country had a unique demographic profile of hormonal IUD users with different method-use histories. Across all three countries, women reported high rates of satisfaction with the hormonal IUD (67–100%) and high rates of continuation at the 12-month mark (82–90%). Conclusions Rates of satisfaction and continuation among hormonal IUD users in the study suggest that expanding method choice with the hormonal IUD would provide a highly effective, long-acting method desirable to many different population segments, including those with high unmet need.

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