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Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 125
Federica Scrimin ◽  
Giuseppina Campisciano ◽  
Manola Comar ◽  
Chiara Ragazzon ◽  
Riccardo Davanzo ◽  

The COVID-19 pandemic has carried massive global health and economic burden that is currently counteracted by a challenging anti-COVID-19 vaccination campaign. Indeed, mass vaccination against COVID-19 is expected to be the most efficacious intervention to mitigate the pandemic successfully. The primary objective of the present study is to test the presence of neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (IgA and IgG) in the breast milk and sera samples from vaccinated women at least 20 days after the complete vaccine cycle. A secondary aim is to compare the IgG antibodies level in maternal serum and breast milk. The third target is to evaluate the presence of the IgG antibodies in breast milk after several weeks from the vaccination. Finally, we collected information on the health status of infants in the days following maternal vaccination. Forty-two mothers were enrolled in the study. Thirty-six received the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine, four the Astra Zeneca vaccine, one the Moderna vaccine and another woman Astra Zeneca in the first dose and Pfizer/BioNTech in the second dose. All 42 milk samples confirmed the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, and none showed IgA presence. Regarding the matched 42 sera samples, 41 samples detected IgG presence, with one sample testing negative and only one positive for seric IgA. None of the 42 infants had fever or changes in sleep or appetite in the seven days following the maternal vaccination. The level of IgG antibodies in milk was, on average, lower than that in maternal serum. According to our analysis, the absence of IgA could suggest a rapid decrease after vaccination even if frequent breastfeeding could favour its persistence. IgG were present in breast milk even 4 months after the second vaccine dose. Information on the immunological characteristics of breast milk could change mothers’ choices regarding breastfeeding.

2022 ◽  
Iyad Sultan ◽  
Abdelghani Tbakhi ◽  
Osama Abuatta ◽  
Sawsan Mubarak ◽  
Osama Alsmadi ◽  

BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the efficacy of 3 COVID-19 vaccines in a population of health care workers at a tertiary cancer center in Amman, Jordan. METHODS: We evaluated the records of 2855 employees who were fully vaccinated with 1 of 3 different vaccines and those of 140 employees who were not vaccinated. We measured the number of SARS-CoV-2 infections that occurred at least 14 days after the second vaccine dose. RESULTS The 100-day cumulative incidence of PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections was 19.3% +/- 3.3% for unvaccinated employees and 1.7% +/- 0.27% for fully vaccinated employees. The 100-day cumulative infection rates were 0.7% +/- 0.22% in BNT162b2 vaccine recipients (n = 1714), 3.6% +/- 0.77% in BBIBP-CorV recipients (n = 680), and 2.3% +/- 0.73% in ChAdOx1 recipients (n = 456). We used Cox regression analyses to compare the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection among the different vaccine recipient groups and found a significantly higher infection risk in BBIBP-CorV (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.9 +/- 0.31) and ChAdOx1 recipients (HR = 3.0 +/- 0.41) compared to BNT162b2 recipients (P = .00039 and .0074, respectively). Vaccinated employees who had no previously confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections were at a markedly higher risk for breakthrough infections than those who experienced prior infections (HR = 5.7 +/- 0.73, P = .0178). CONCLUSIONS: Our study offers a real-world example of differential vaccine efficacy among a high-risk population during a national outbreak. We also show the important synergism between a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. e0010101
Hao Li ◽  
Luqi Wang ◽  
Mengxi Zhang ◽  
Yihan Lu ◽  
Weibing Wang

Many countries implemented measures to control the COVID-19 pandemic, but the effects of these measures have varied greatly. We evaluated the effects of different policies, the prevalence of dominant variants (e.g., Delta), and vaccination on the characteristics of the COVID-19 pandemic in eight countries. We quantified the lag times of different non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and vaccination using a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM). We also tested whether these lag times were reasonable by analyzing changes in daily cases and the effective reproductive number (Rt)over time. Our results indicated that the response to vaccination in countries with continuous vaccination programs lagged by at least 40 days, and the lag time for a response to NPIs was at least 14 days. A rebound was most likely to occur during the 40 days after the first vaccine dose. We also found that the combination of school closure, workplace closure, restrictions on mass gatherings, and stay-at-home requirements were successful in containing the pandemic. Our results thus demonstrated that vaccination was effective, although some regions were adversely affected by new variants and low vaccination coverage. Importantly, relaxation of NPIs soon after implementation of a vaccination program may lead to a rebound.

2022 ◽  
Robin Halamicek ◽  
Dirk W Schubert ◽  
Fritjof Nilsson

Abstract The ongoing Covid-19 pandemic has already caused more than 5 million casualties despite hard restrictions and relatively high vaccine coverage in many countries. The crucial question is therefore, how large vaccination rate and how severe restrictions are required to terminate the spread of the decease, assuming that the vaccine efficiency and the basic reproduction ratio (R0) are known? To answer this question, a mathematical equation was applied to visualize the required vaccination level as function of vaccine efficiency, restriction efficiency and basic reproduction ratio (R0). In addition to the modelling study, Covid-19 data from Europe was collected during 19/11-26/11 (2021) to assess the relation between vaccination rate and incidence. The analysis indicates that a vaccination rate of ~92% (2 doses) is required to stop Delta (B.1.617.2) without severe restrictions, under conditions like those in Europe late November 2021. A third vaccine dose, improved vaccines, higher vaccination rates and/or stronger restrictions will be required to force Omicron (B.1.1.529) to expire without infecting a large fraction of the population.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Kee Thai Yeo ◽  
Wan Ni Chia ◽  
Chee Wah Tan ◽  
Chengsi Ong ◽  
Joo Guan Yeo ◽  

BackgroundThere is limited information on the functional neutralizing capabilities of breastmilk SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies and the potential adulteration of breastmilk with vaccine mRNA after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination.MethodsWe conducted a prospective cohort study of lactating healthcare workers who received the BNT162b2 vaccine and their infants. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies, antibody isotypes (IgG, IgA, IgM) and intact mRNA in serum and breastmilk was evaluated at multiple time points using a surrogate neutralizing assay, ELISA, and PCR, over a 6 week period of the two-dose vaccination given 21 days apart.ResultsThirty-five lactating mothers, median age 34 years (IQR 32-36), were included. All had detectable neutralizing antibodies in the serum immediately before dose 2, with significant increase in neutralizing antibody levels 7 days after this dose [median 168.4 IU/ml (IQR 100.7-288.5) compared to 2753.0 IU/ml (IQR 1627.0-4712.0), p <0.001]. Through the two vaccine doses, all mothers had detectable IgG1, IgA and IgM isotypes in their serum, with a notable increase in all three antibody isotypes after dose 2, especially IgG1 levels. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in majority of breastmilk samples a week after dose 2 [median 13.4 IU/ml (IQR 7.0-28.7)], with persistence of these antibodies up to 3 weeks after. Post the second vaccine dose, all (35/35, 100%) mothers had detectable breastmilk SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD-specific IgG1 and IgA antibody and 32/35 (88.6%) mothers with IgM. Transient, low intact vaccine mRNA levels was detected in 20/74 (27%) serum samples from 21 mothers, and 5/309 (2%) breastmilk samples from 4 mothers within 1 weeks of vaccine dose. Five infants, median age 8 months (IQR 7-16), were also recruited - none had detectable neutralizing antibodies or vaccine mRNA in their serum.ConclusionMajority of lactating mothers had detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibody isotypes and neutralizing antibodies in serum and breastmilk, especially after dose 2 of BNT162b2 vaccination. Transient, low levels of vaccine mRNA were detected in the serum of vaccinated mothers with occasional transfer to their breastmilk, but we did not detect evidence of infant sensitization. Importantly, the presence of breastmilk neutralising antibodies likely provides a foundation for passive immunisation of the breastmilk-fed infant.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
João Faro-Viana ◽  
Marie-Louise Bergman ◽  
Lígia A. Gonçalves ◽  
Nádia Duarte ◽  
Teresa P. Coutinho ◽  

AbstractWhile mRNA vaccines are administrated worldwide in an effort to contain the COVID-19 pandemic, the heterogeneity of the humoral immune response they induce at the population scale remains unclear. Here, in a prospective, longitudinal, cohort-study, including 1245 hospital care workers and 146 nursing home residents scheduled for BNT162b2 vaccination, together covering adult ages from 19 to 99 years, we analyse seroconversion to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and amount of spike-specific IgG, IgM and IgA before vaccination, and 3-5 weeks after each dose. We show that immunogenicity after a single vaccine dose is biased to IgG, heterogeneous and reduced with increasing age. The second vaccine dose normalizes IgG seroconversion in all age strata. These findings indicate two dose mRNA vaccines is required to reach population scale humoral immunity. The results advocate for the interval between the two doses not to be extended, and for serological monitoring of elderly and immunosuppressed vaccinees.

2022 ◽  
Vol 98 (6) ◽  
pp. 706-720
A. Yu. Medkova ◽  
A. A. Lidzhiyeva ◽  
E. G. Semin ◽  
L. N. Sinyashina ◽  
R. A. Syundyukova ◽  

Introduction. A significant increase in the incidence of pertussis in the world, including among adolescents and adults, the prevalence of mild forms of the disease and asymptomatic carrier of bacteria B. pertussis, and the resulting need for mass revaccination of different age groups determine the demand for new vaccines against B. pertussis. In N.F. Gamaleya Federal Research Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology, a live intranasal pertussis vaccine for the prevention of pertussis (GamLPV) has been developed. The GamLPV vaccine underwent preclinical studies that proved its safety and effectiveness in experiments on small laboratory animals and nonhuman monkeys. Safety of vaccine is shown in clinical studies on healthy volunteers.The aim of the study is to assess the immunogenicity of different doses of the drug GamLPV when first used in healthy volunteers.Materials and methods. The study was conducted as randomized placebo-controlled, blind trial with consistent volunteer inclusion and dose escalation. Study ID in database: NCT03137927 (A Phase I Clinical Study of a GamLPV, a Live Intranasal Bordetella Pertussis Vaccine). The following parameters of humoral and cellular immune responses were assessed in dynamics: levels of specific IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies in blood serum of volunteers and the number of cytokines interleukin-17, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ produced after specific induction in vitro of blood mononuclears of vaccinated volunteers. Dynamics of attenuated bacteria persistence in nasopharynx of vaccinated volunteers was evaluated.Results. Intranasal vaccination of volunteers with the drug Gam LPV resulted in the formation of a specific humoral (IgG and IgA) and cellular immune response. The dose-dependent nature of immunoglobulin and cytokine production was shown. Attenuated bacteria persisted for a long time in the nose/oropharynx of vaccinated volunteers.Discussion. Good tolerability of all tested doses of the drug justifies the choice for further investigation of a vaccine dose equal to 4 × 109 CFU. At the next stage, the safety and immunogenicity of two-time vaccination of volunteers will be studied.

2022 ◽  
pp. annrheumdis-2021-221747
Claudius Speer ◽  
Maximilian Töllner ◽  
Louise Benning ◽  
Katrin Klein ◽  
Marie Bartenschlager ◽  

2022 ◽  
Mersine A. Bryan ◽  
Annika M. Hofstetter ◽  
Douglas J. Opel ◽  
Tamara D. Simon

OBJECTIVES: To examine inpatient vaccine delivery across a national sample of children’s hospitals. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study examining vaccine administration at 49 children’s hospitals in the Pediatric Health Information System database. Children <18 years old admitted between July 1, 2017, and June 30, 2019, and age eligible for vaccinations were included. We determined the proportion of hospitalizations with ≥1 dose of any vaccine type administered overall and by hospital, the type of vaccines administered, and the demographic characteristics of children who received vaccines. We calculated adjusted hospital-level rates for each vaccine type by hospital. We used logistic and linear regression models to examine characteristics associated with vaccine administration. RESULTS: There were 1 185 667 children and 1 536 340 hospitalizations included. The mean age was 5.5 years; 18% were non-Hispanic Black, and 55% had public insurance. There were ≥1 vaccine doses administered in 12.9% (95% confidence interval: 12.8–12.9) of hospitalizations, ranging from 1% to 45% across hospitals. The most common vaccines administered were hepatitis B and influenza. Vaccine doses other than the hepatitis B birth dose and influenza were administered in 1.9% of hospitalizations. Children had higher odds of receiving a vaccine dose other than the hepatitis B birth dose or influenza if they were <2 months old, had public insurance, were non-Hispanic Black race, were medically complex, or had a length of stay ≥3 days. CONCLUSIONS: In this national study, few hospitalizations involved vaccine administration with substantial variability across US children's hospitals. Efforts to standardize inpatient vaccine administration may represent an opportunity to increase childhood vaccine coverage.

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