genetic variants
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2022 ◽  
Vol 124 ◽  
pp. 107186
Davor Daniloski ◽  
Noel A. McCarthy ◽  
Tatijana Markoska ◽  
Martin J. Auldist ◽  
Todor Vasiljevic

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Junyi Ouyang ◽  
Ziyan Cai ◽  
Yinjie Guo ◽  
Fen Nie ◽  
Mengdan Cao ◽  

Abstract Background Aniridia is a congenital, panocular disease that can affect the cornea, anterior chamber angle, iris, lens, retina and optic nerve. PAX6 loss-of-function variants are the most common cause of aniridia, and variants throughout the gene have been linked to a range of ophthalmic abnormalities. Furthermore, particular variants at a given site in PAX6 lead to distinct phenotypes. This study aimed to characterize genetic variants associated with congenital aniridia in a Chinese family. Methods The proband and family underwent ophthalmologic examinations. DNA was sampled from the peripheral blood of all 6 individuals, and whole-exome sequencing was performed. Sanger sequencing was used to verify the variant in this family members. Results A novel variant (c.114_119delinsAATTTCC: p.Pro39llefsTer17) in the PAX6 gene was identified in subjects II-1, III-1 and III-2, who exhibited complete aniridia and cataracts. The proband and the proband’s brother also had glaucoma, high myopia, and foveal hypoplasia. Conclusions We identified that a novel PAX6 frameshift heterozygous deletion variant is the predominant cause of aniridia in this Chinese family. Trial registration We did not perform any health-related interventions for the participants.

BMC Cancer ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Michele Sassano ◽  
Marco Mariani ◽  
Gianluigi Quaranta ◽  
Roberta Pastorino ◽  
Stefania Boccia

Abstract Background Risk prediction models incorporating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could lead to individualized prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the added value of incorporating SNPs into models with only traditional risk factors is still not clear. Hence, our primary aim was to summarize literature on risk prediction models including genetic variants for CRC, while our secondary aim was to evaluate the improvement of discriminatory accuracy when adding SNPs to a prediction model with only traditional risk factors. Methods We conducted a systematic review on prediction models incorporating multiple SNPs for CRC risk prediction. We tested whether a significant trend in the increase of Area Under Curve (AUC) according to the number of SNPs could be observed, and estimated the correlation between AUC improvement and number of SNPs. We estimated pooled AUC improvement for SNP-enhanced models compared with non-SNP-enhanced models using random effects meta-analysis, and conducted meta-regression to investigate the association of specific factors with AUC improvement. Results We included 33 studies, 78.79% using genetic risk scores to combine genetic data. We found no significant trend in AUC improvement according to the number of SNPs (p for trend = 0.774), and no correlation between the number of SNPs and AUC improvement (p = 0.695). Pooled AUC improvement was 0.040 (95% CI: 0.035, 0.045), and the number of cases in the study and the AUC of the starting model were inversely associated with AUC improvement obtained when adding SNPs to a prediction model. In addition, models constructed in Asian individuals achieved better AUC improvement with the incorporation of SNPs compared with those developed among individuals of European ancestry. Conclusions Though not conclusive, our results provide insights on factors influencing discriminatory accuracy of SNP-enhanced models. Genetic variants might be useful to inform stratified CRC screening in the future, but further research is needed.

Kathleen Mead Vandiver ◽  
Esther Erdei ◽  
Amanda G. Mayer ◽  
Catherine Ricciardi ◽  
Marcia O’Leary ◽  

This study addresses healthcare providers’ knowledge deficits in environmental health and genetics, and primarily focuses on student nurses and nurses serving marginalized, low-income communities frequently exposed to environmental toxicants. Our approach to improve public health is unique, combining hands-on modeling exercises with case-based lessons in addition to three targeted 40 min lectures on toxicology. These lectures included the team’s community-based environmental health research among Indigenous peoples of the U.S. The hands-on approach employed DNA and protein molecular models designed to demonstrate normal and dysfunctional molecules, as well as genetic variants in world populations. The models provided learners with visuals and an experience of “learning by doing.” Increased awareness of the effects of environmental toxicants is the first step toward improving health care for exposed communities. We measured knowledge gains by pre- and post-tests among student nurses and nurses serving Native Americans living both in urban and rural areas of the U.S. (n = 116). The modeling lessons illustrated genetic variants in liver proteins common in Native peoples and their resulting health vulnerabilities. Participants were engaged and enthusiastic; and pre- and post-test results reported substantial knowledge gains and a greater understanding of genetic susceptibility (p < 0.0001). Our study demonstrates the utility of this framework across diverse populations and remote communities.

Obesity Facts ◽  
2022 ◽  
Nadien AbouHashem ◽  
Roan E. Zaied ◽  
Kholoud Al-Shafai ◽  
Mariam Nofal ◽  
Najeeb Syed ◽  

Introduction: Monogenic obesity (MO) is a rare genetic disease characterized by severe early-onset obesity in affected individuals. Previous genetic studies revealed 8 definitive genes for monogenic non-syndromic obesity; many were discovered in consanguineous populations. Here, we examined MO in the Qatari population, whose population is largely consanguineous (54%) and characterized by extensive obesity (45%). Methods: Whole genome sequences of Qatar Biobank samples from 250 subjects with obesity and 250 subjects with normal weight, obtained in association with the Qatar Genome Programme, were searched for genetic variants in the genes known to be associated with MO (i.e., LEP, LEPR, POMC, PCSK1, MC3R, MC4R, MRAP2 and ADCY3). The impact of the variants identified was investigated utilizing in silico tools for prediction in combination with protein visualization by PyMOL. Results: We identified potential MO variants in more than 5% of the cases in our cohort. We revealed 11 rare variants in 6 of the genes targeted, including two disease-causing variants in MC4R and MRAP2, all of which were heterozygous. Moreover, enrichment of a heterozygous ADCY3 variant (c.1658C>T; p.A553V) appeared to cause severe obesity in an autosomal dominant manner. Conclusion: These findings highlight the importance of implementing routine testing for genetic variants that predispose for MO in Qatar. Clearly, additional studies of this nature on populations not yet examined are required. At the same time, functional investigations, both in vitro and in vivo, are necessary in order to better understand the role of the variants identified in the pathogenesis of obesity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Senlin Hu ◽  
Dong Hu ◽  
Haoran Wei ◽  
Shi-yang Li ◽  
Dong Wang ◽  

Background: Genetic variants in Scavenger receptor Class B Type 1 (SCARB1) influencing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk were identified by recent genome-wide association studies. Further study of potential functional variants in SCARB1 may provide new ideas of the complicated relationship between HDL-C and CHD.Methods: 2000 bp in SCARB1 promoter region was re-sequenced in 168 participants with extremely high plasma HDL-C and 400 control subjects. Putative risk alleles were identified using bioinformatics analysis and reporter-gene assays. Two indel variants, rs144334493 and rs557348251, respectively, were genotyped in 5,002 CHD patients and 5,175 control subjects. The underlying mechanisms were investigated.Results: Through resequencing, 27 genetic variants were identified. Results of genotyping in 5,002 CHD patients and 5,175 control subjects revealed that rs144334493 and rs557348251 were significantly associated with increased risk of CHD [odds ratio (OR): 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09 to 1.52, p = 0.003; OR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.66–4.24, p = 4.4 × 10−5). Subsequent mechanism experiments demonstrated that rs144334493 deletion allele attenuated forkhead box A1 (FOXA1) binding to the promoter region of SCARB1, while FOXA1 overexpression reversely increased SR-BI expression.Conclusion: Genetic variants in SCARB1 promoter region significantly associated with the plasma lipid levels by affecting SR-BI expression and contribute to the susceptibility of CHD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Sindhu Varghese ◽  
Subbaraj Gowtham Kumar

Abstract Background Diabetic nephropathy is known to be a leading complication of diabetes mellitus, characterized by diverse aspects such as high urinary albumin level, elevated blood pressure, and genetic susceptibility leading to end-stage renal disease. The current study was carried out to investigate the association of eNOS and TGFβ1 gene polymorphisms in the progression of diabetic nephropathy among type 2 diabetic patients in the South Indian population. The eNOS and TGFβ1 genetic variants were genotyped in 280 T2DM patients, 140 with DN, 140 without DN, and 140 controls. Genotyping was performed using ARMS PCR and the genomic variants were confirmed by the Sanger sequencing method. Results A significant (p < 0.05) association was observed in the genotypic frequencies of eNOS (G > T) polymorphism in the T2DM patients with diabetic nephropathy when compared to controls. The frequency of TT (heterozygous) genotype was observed to increase in patients with type 2 diabetes and DN when compared to the diabetic patients without DN and controls. This indicates that diabetic patients with TT genotype are at an increased risk to develop DN. However, TGFβ1 (G > C) polymorphism did not show any association in the allele and genotypic frequencies with DN when compared with T2DM and controls. Conclusion The results of the study propose a strong influence of TT genotype of eNOS gene be significantly linked with diabetic nephropathy in T2DM patients. Whereas no association was examined concerning TGFβ1 gene polymorphism and DN. Nevertheless, large sample size studies are required to confirm the part of these genetic variants in the development of DN.

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