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2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Kelsey Werner ◽  
Gregory St. Arnold ◽  
Thomas M. Crea

Abstract Background Children with disabilities face unique challenges in humanitarian aid settings and education may provide protective measures against abuse and exploitation. There are growing calls for inclusive education of children with disabilities in formal education, but little guidance exists on how to enhance inclusion in complex and resource-constrained contexts of humanitarian settings. Case presentation This study used a community-based system dynamics approach to understand key stakeholders’ perspectives of the drivers and effects of inclusion and wellbeing for children with disabilities, and to elicit recommendations to enhance educational inclusion in a refugee camp in Eastern Africa. Community-based system dynamics sessions, designed based on group model building scripts and facilitated by a team of four people, took place with organization staff, community leaders, and parents and caregivers of children with disabilities. The process produced a causal loop diagram depicting the stakeholders’ perspectives of how multiple components interact in a system to drive inclusion and wellbeing of children with disabilities over time. Conclusions Findings indicate participants have a broad conceptualization of inclusion, highlighting the value of community interaction and importance of meeting basic needs, and also demonstrate that including children in mainstream educational settings in a complex humanitarian context requires a more nuanced approach given the lack of existing resources to support Western models of educational inclusion fully.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (14) ◽  
pp. 8100
Author(s):  
Pilar Mercader-Moyano ◽  
Paula Porras-Pereira ◽  
Carlos Levinton

According to the most recent data from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, in 2020, 82.4 million people were forcibly displaced. In addition to this situation, in the developed world, building construction consumes 40% of the world’s material resources and primary energy, while the construction industry generates 35% of industrial waste and 40% of total global emissions. Therefore, the objective of the research is to propose an eco-efficient prototype for emergency housing, from the point of view of circular economy and regenerative sustainability, that can respond to situations of natural or humanitarian disasters. To achieve this, it will be necessary to identify the problem that must be answered and develop a theoretical model that will serve as a guide for future interventions of these characteristics. Finally, to verify the applicability of the developed protocol, a field work is executed in an unorganized settlement, Subaşi camp, located in Turkey. This research presents a novel prototype that could be used as an alternative to current emergency housing, not only responding adequately to the minimum standards of habitability, but also doing so in an eco-efficient, environmentally correct way and promoting the Sustainable Development Goals and circular economy established in the 2030 Agenda.


2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (4) ◽  
pp. 439-451
Author(s):  
Vasilis S Gavalas ◽  
Maryam Shayestefar

A survey concerning the mental health of unaccompanied women (women who have immigrated alone or with their minor children illegally) was conducted in the currently biggest refugee camp in Greece on the island of Lesvos. A form of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) was used as the main screening tool of the wellbeing of 69 females. Results showed that these women reported having symptoms of bad health, anxiety, sleeping disorders and depression in a greater degree than their usual status before coming to the camp. Results differ by ethnicity. Women from sub-Saharan Africa seem to be more vulnerable than other ethnic groups, while Somalian women are the most resilient ethnic group, since they did not show critical symptoms in any of the examined health issues. Differences in health-related issues between ethnic groups proved statistically significant. On the other hand, age and duration of stay in the camp, although altered to some degree the results, did not make any statistically significant difference.


Urban Studies ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 004209802110186
Author(s):  
Hanna Baumann ◽  
Manal Massalha

Drawing on ethnographic and visual research, this article examines the role of waste in two areas of occupied East Jerusalem cut off from the city by the Separation Wall and military checkpoints, Kufr Aqab and Shuafat Refugee Camp as well as their immediate surroundings. In asking how urban exclusion operates on the margins of the city, we argue that rubbish can disclose broader socio-spatial relations at work in Jerusalem from the ground up. We find that waste serves to reduce the ambiguity at work in these interstitial zones by furthering exclusion – it operates through the urban everyday where the legal and political situations are in suspension. Conceptually, we contribute to the discussion on spatial stigma associated with infrastructural violence by arguing for a multi-layered understanding of the way waste ‘works’ in urban exclusion. Three registers mutually constitute each other in this process: the materiality of waste with its embodied and affective interactions, the symbolic and discursive violence associated with waste, as well as spatialised stigma and bordering processes.


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-36
Author(s):  
Elma Blom ◽  
Adriana Soto-Corominas ◽  
Zahraa Attar ◽  
Evangelia Daskalaki ◽  
Johanne Paradis

Abstract Children who are refugees become bilingual in circumstances that are often challenging and that can vary across national contexts. We investigated the second language (L2) syntactic skills of Syrian children aged 6-12 living in Canada (n = 56) and the Netherlands (n = 47). Our goal was to establish the impact of the first language (L1 = Syrian Arabic) skills on L2 (English, Dutch) outcomes and whether L1–L2 interdependence is influenced by the length of L2 exposure. To measure L1 and L2 syntactic skills, cross-linguistic Litmus Sentence Repetition Tasks (Litmus-SRTs) were used. Results showed evidence of L1–L2 interdependence, but interdependence may only surface after sufficient L2 exposure. Maternal education level and refugee camp experiences differed between the two samples. Both variables impacted L2 outcomes in the Canadian but not in the Dutch sample, demonstrating the importance to examine refugee children’s bilingual language development in different national contexts.


Author(s):  
Zaitun Bako ◽  
Alex Barakagira ◽  
Ameria Nabukonde

AbstractAdequate sanitation is one of the most important aspects of community well-being. It reduces the rates of morbidity and severity of various diseases like diarrhea, dysentery, and typhoid among others. A study about toward the attainment of the recommended Humanitarian Sphere Standards on sanitation in Bidibidi refugee camp, Yumbe District, was initiated. A total of 210 households distributed in Bidibidi refugee camp were randomly selected and one adult person interviewed to assess the accessibility of different sanitation facilities, and to explore the sanitation standards of the sanitation facilities in relation to the recommended Humanitarian Sphere Standards in the area. Pit latrines, hand washing facilities, and solid waste disposal areas as reported by 81.4%, 86.7%, and 51.9% of the respondents respectively, are the main sanitation facilities accessed in the refugee camp. Despite their accessibility, the standards of the pit latrines, hand washing, and solid waste disposal facilities are below the recommended standards, which might have contributed to the outbreak of sanitation related diseases (χ2 = 19.66, df = 1, P = 0.05) in Bidibidi refugee camp. The respondents in the study area were aware that the presence of the sanitation-related diseases was because of the low-level sanitation practices in place (χ2 = 4.54, df = 1, P = 0.05). The inaccessibility to some sanitation facilities by some respondents was found to be related to their low level of education (χ2 = 130.37, df = 1, P = 0.05). This implies that the sanitation facilities in Bidibidi refugee camp need to be redesigned and improved especially the pit latrines and the solid waste disposal facilities in order to meet the minimum Humanitarian Sphere Standards. Also, there should be more provision of taps with flowing water in the camp for effective washing practices to minimize the spread of sanitation-related diseases.


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