life stages
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PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262613
Clara Dreyling ◽  
Martin Hasselmann

The cellular energy metabolism is one of the most conserved processes, as it is present in all living organisms. Mitochondria are providing the eukaryotic cell with energy and thus their genome and gene expression has been of broad interest for a long time. Mitochondrial gene expression changes under different conditions and is regulated by genes encoded in the nucleus of the cell. In this context, little is known about non-model organisms and we provide the first large-scaled gene expression analysis of mitochondrial-linked genes in laying hens. We analysed 28 mitochondrial and nuclear genes in 100 individuals in the context of five life-stages and strain differences among five tissues. Our study showed that mitochondrial gene expression increases during the productive life span, and reacts tissue and strain specific. In addition, the strains react different to potential increased oxidative stress, resulting from the increase in mitochondrial gene expression. The results suggest that the cellular energy metabolism as part of a complex regulatory system is strongly affected by the productive life span in laying hens and thus partly comparable to model organisms. This study provides a starting point for further analyses in this field on non-model organisms, especially in laying-hens.

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 117
Lukas Magee ◽  
Karun Pandit ◽  
Stephen Luke Flory ◽  
Raelene M. Crandall ◽  
Eben N. Broadbent ◽  

Determining mechanisms of plant establishment in ecological communities can be particularly difficult in disturbance-dominated ecosystems. Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) and its associated plant community exemplify systems that evolved with disturbances, where frequent, widespread fires alter the population dynamics of longleaf pine within distinct life stages. We identified the primary biotic and environmental conditions that influence the survival of longleaf pine in this disturbance-dominated ecosystem. We combined data from recruitment surveys, tree censuses, dense lidar point clouds, and a forest-wide prescribed fire to examine the response of longleaf pine individuals to fire and biotic neighborhoods. We found that fire temperatures increased with increasing longleaf pine neighborhood basal area and decreased with higher oak densities. There was considerable variation in longleaf pine survival across life stages, with lowest survival probabilities occurring during the bolt stage and not in the earlier, more fire-resistant grass stage. Survival of grass-stage, bolt-stage, and sapling longleaf pines was negatively associated with basal area of neighboring longleaf pine and positively related to neighboring heterospecific tree density, primarily oaks (Quercus spp.). Our findings highlight the vulnerability of longleaf pine across life stages, which suggests optimal fire management strategies for controlling longleaf pine density, and—more broadly—emphasize the importance of fire in mediating species interactions.

BMC Nutrition ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Samantha Hughes ◽  
Nikki Kolsters ◽  
David van de Klashorst ◽  
Emanuel Kreuter ◽  
Karin Berger Büter

Abstract Background Members of the Rosaceae, Solanaceae and Zingiberaceae families which include fruits such as cherries, tomatoes and ginger are known to have health promoting effects. There is growing interest in consuming these “functional foods” as a means to increase health and healthy ageing. However, many studies explore the effect of these foods in isolation, not as a blend of multiple functional foods. Methods In this study, an extract containing the dried berries, fruits, and roots of members of these families was prepared, which we called Bioact®180. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was used to evaluate the effects of Bioact®180 on lifespan and health endpoints, including muscle and mitochondria structure and locomotion. Results Exposure to the 1000 µg/mL of Bioact®180 extract, containing 4% total phenols, were healthier, as observed by an increase in mean lifespan with and small but significant increase in maximal lifespan. Nematodes exposed to Bioact®180 displayed better mobility in mid-life stages as well as enhanced mitochondrial morphology, which was more comparable to younger animals, suggesting that these worms are protected to some degree from sarcopenia. Conclusions Together, our findings reveal that Bioact®180, a blend of fruits and roots from Rosaceae, Solanaceae and Zingiberaceae family members has anti-aging effects. Bioact®180 promotes health and lifespan extension in C. elegans, corresponding to functional improvements in mobility.

2022 ◽  
Alex Dornburg ◽  
Katerina Zapfe ◽  
Rachel Williams ◽  
Michael Alfaro ◽  
Richard Morris ◽  

Across the Tree of Life, most studies of phenotypic disparity and diversification have been restricted to adult organisms. However, many lineages have distinct ontogenetic phases that do not reflect the same traits as their adult forms. Non-adult disparity patterns are particularly important to consider for coastal ray-finned fishes, which often have juvenile phases with distinct phenotypes. These juvenile forms are often associated with sheltered nursery environments, with phenotypic shifts between adults and juvenile stages that are readily apparent in locomotor morphology. However, whether this ontogenetic variation in locomotor morphology reflects a decoupling of diversification dynamics between life stages remains unknown. Here we investigate the evolutionary dynamics of locomotor morphology between adult and juvenile triggerfishes. Integrating a time-calibrated phylogenetic framework with geometric morphometric approaches and measurement data of fin aspect ratio and incidence, we reveal a mismatch between morphospace occupancy, the evolution of morphological disparity, and the tempo of trait evolution between life stages. Collectively, our results illuminate how the heterogeneity of morpho-functional adaptations can decouple the mode and tempo of morphological diversification between ontogenetic stages.

Mohamed Dhouibi ◽  
Hamza Ousji ◽  
Oussama Atoui ◽  
Rachid Nasri ◽  
Marc Pirlot

Abstract Effects of erosion phenomenon on the performance of a given gun barrel have been analyzed throughout numerical and experimental studies. Mainly, qualitative observations were performed. Theoretical relations between the evolution of the inner barrel profile and the provided interior ballistics are limited. This paper focuses on the development of a numerical model to predict the engraving resistance evolution in terms of the inner barrel profile in the different weapon's life stages. Four test barrels "12.7x99mm NATO" with different chamber volumes were considered. First, a Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) with a contact scanning probe was used to measure the inner dimension of the guns. Second, piezoelectric sensors with a special doppler radar were considered to measure the (i) pressure and (ii) the bullet velocity in the test weapons. Finally, based on the obtained experimental results, a Finite Element (FE) analysis using the commercial software LS-DYNA was developed and validated. The obtained numerical results were used as insights to quantify the relationship between the engraving resistance and the chamber volume of small caliber guns.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Mainá Bitar ◽  
Christin Weissleder ◽  
Hayley F. North ◽  
Misaki S. Clearwater ◽  
Oressia Zalucki ◽  

AbstractThe generation of new neurons within the mammalian forebrain continues throughout life within two main neurogenic niches, the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus, and the subependymal zone (SEZ) lining the lateral ventricles. Though the SEZ is the largest neurogenic niche in the adult human forebrain, our understanding of the mechanisms regulating neurogenesis from development through aging within this region remains limited. This is especially pertinent given that neurogenesis declines dramatically over the postnatal lifespan. Here, we performed transcriptomic profiling on the SEZ from human post-mortem tissue from eight different life-stages ranging from neonates (average age ~ 2 months old) to aged adults (average age ~ 86 years old). We identified transcripts with concomitant profiles across these decades of life and focused on three of the most distinct profiles, namely (1) genes whose expression declined sharply after birth, (2) genes whose expression increased steadily with age, and (3) genes whose expression increased sharply in old age in the SEZ. Critically, these profiles identified neuroinflammation as becoming more prevalent with advancing age within the SEZ and occurring with time courses, one gradual (starting in mid-life) and one sharper (starting in old age).

Joseph A. Langan ◽  
Jeremy S. Collie ◽  
Cóilín Minto

Year-class size of marine fish is thought to be determined during the first year of life, with density-dependent mortality during the larval or juvenile stages. However, investigations of such dynamics are often limited by data availability. To test this paradigm for winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, the abundances of 29 year classes moving through seven life stages were analyzed with a novel extension of key-factor analysis. Evidence of density dependence was identified between the egg and July young-of-the-year stages and high process-error variance was detected throughout the life cycle, suggesting year-class size is not fully determined until age-2. However, the first summer appeared to be a critical life stage for winter flounder, during which high temperatures, hypoxia, and predator abundance contributed to increased mortality rates behind a long-term population decline. Due to its general data requirements, the key-factor analysis method developed here may be applied to other marine populations to identify the impacts of external stressors at particular life stages and the degree to which they are compensated by density-dependent processes.

Heiko Hinneberg ◽  
Jörg Döring ◽  
Gabriel Hermann ◽  
Gregor Markl ◽  
Jennifer Theobald ◽  

1. For many elusive insect species, which are difficult to cover by standard monitoring schemes, innovative monitoring methods are needed to gain robust data on population trends. We suggest a monitoring of overwintering larvae for the endangered nymphalid butterfly Limenitis reducta. 2. We tested one removal and three detection-mark-redetection (DMR) approaches in a field study in the “Alb-Donau” region, Germany. We replaced movement of the study organisms by random movement of multiple different surveyors, and we examined the model assumption of equal detectability using simulations. 3. Our results indicate that multi-surveyor removal/DMR techniques are suitable for estimating abundance of overwintering L. reducta larvae. Detection probabilities varied with surveyor experience and the uncertainty of population estimates increased with a decrease in personnel expenditure. Estimated larval densities on a spruce clear-cut ranged between one and three individuals per 100 m². 4. We suggest a detection-mark-redetection (DMR) approach with three trained surveyors for the monitoring of L. reducta populations in the pre-imaginal stage. Besides L. reducta, the proposed method is likely to be suitable for other insect taxa with specific immobile life-stages and some sessile organisms, e.g. corals, elusive plants, or fungi.

PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12712
Roland A. Knapp ◽  
Maxwell B. Joseph ◽  
Thomas C. Smith ◽  
Ericka E. Hegeman ◽  
Vance T. Vredenburg ◽  

The recently-emerged amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has had an unprecedented impact on global amphibian populations, and highlights the urgent need to develop effective mitigation strategies. We conducted in-situ antifungal treatment experiments in wild populations of the endangered mountain yellow-legged frog during or immediately after Bd-caused mass die-off events. The objective of treatments was to reduce Bd infection intensity (“load”) and in doing so alter frog-Bd dynamics and increase the probability of frog population persistence despite ongoing Bd infection. Experiments included treatment of early life stages (tadpoles and subadults) with the antifungal drug itraconazole, treatment of adults with itraconazole, and augmentation of the skin microbiome of subadults with Janthinobacterium lividum, a commensal bacterium with antifungal properties. All itraconazole treatments caused immediate reductions in Bd load, and produced longer-term effects that differed between life stages. In experiments focused on early life stages, Bd load was reduced in the 2 months immediately following treatment and was associated with increased survival of subadults. However, Bd load and frog survival returned to pre-treatment levels in less than 1 year, and treatment had no effect on population persistence. In adults, treatment reduced Bd load and increased frog survival over the entire 3-year post-treatment period, consistent with frogs having developed an effective adaptive immune response against Bd. Despite this protracted period of reduced impacts of Bd on adults, recruitment into the adult population was limited and the population eventually declined to near-extirpation. In the microbiome augmentation experiment, exposure of subadults to a solution of J. lividum increased concentrations of this potentially protective bacterium on frogs. However, concentrations declined to baseline levels within 1 month and did not have a protective effect against Bd infection. Collectively, these results indicate that our mitigation efforts were ineffective in causing long-term changes in frog-Bd dynamics and increasing population persistence, due largely to the inability of early life stages to mount an effective immune response against Bd. This results in repeated recruitment failure and a low probability of population persistence in the face of ongoing Bd infection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Anna R. Robuck ◽  
Christine A. Hudak ◽  
Lindsay Agvent ◽  
Gwenyth Emery ◽  
Peter G. Ryan ◽  

Limited work to date has examined plastic ingestion in highly migratory seabirds like Great Shearwaters (Ardenna gravis) across their entire migratory range. We examined 217 Great Shearwaters obtained from 2008–2019 at multiple locations spanning their yearly migration cycle across the Northwest and South Atlantic to assess accumulation of ingested plastic as well as trends over time and between locations. A total of 2328 plastic fragments were documented in the ventriculus portion of the gastrointestinal tract, with an average of 9 plastic fragments per bird. The mass, count, and frequency of plastic occurrence (FO) varied by location, with higher plastic burdens but lower FO in South Atlantic adults and chicks from the breeding colonies. No fragments of the same size or morphology were found in the primary forage fish prey, the Sand Lance (Ammodytes spp., n = 202) that supports Great Shearwaters in Massachusetts Bay, United States, suggesting the birds directly ingest the bulk of their plastic loads rather than accumulating via trophic transfer. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that low- and high-density polyethylene were the most common polymers ingested, within all years and locations. Individuals from the South Atlantic contained a higher proportion of larger plastic items and fragments compared to analogous life stages in the NW Atlantic, possibly due to increased use of remote, pelagic areas subject to reduced inputs of smaller, more diverse, and potentially less buoyant plastics found adjacent to coastal margins. Different signatures of polymer type, size, and category between similar life stages at different locations suggests rapid turnover of ingested plastics commensurate with migratory stage and location, though more empirical evidence is needed to ground-truth this hypothesis. This work is the first to comprehensively measure the accumulation of ingested plastics by Great Shearwaters over the last decade and across multiple locations spanning their yearly trans-equatorial migration cycle and underscores their utility as sentinels of plastic pollution in Atlantic ecosystems.

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