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U. Sivagnanalingam ◽  
P.L. Beatty ◽  
C. Jacqueline ◽  
M. Dracz ◽  
J. Adams-Haduch ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. 86-94
Yuzuru Toki ◽  
Ryo Yamauchi ◽  
Eizo Kayashima ◽  
Kyoichi Adachi ◽  
Kiyohiko Kishi ◽  

2022 ◽  
Laura Perna ◽  
Ute Mons ◽  
Hannah Stocker ◽  
Leon Beyer ◽  
Konrad Beyreuther ◽  

Background The examination of markers of neurodegeneration (glial fibrillary acidic protein; GFAP, neurofilament light chain; NfL, phosphorylated tau181; p-tau181) among individuals with high comorbidity of neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular disease and their interplay with vascular risk factors, particularly high cholesterol levels, might contribute to explaining the link between body and brain. The aim of this study was to assess whether the association of GFAP, NfL, and p-tau181 with dementia risk varies depending on levels of total cholesterol (TC) and APOE ε4 genotype. Methods Nested case-control study embedded within a population-based cohort and including 768 older adults (261 dementia cases and 508 randomly selected controls) followed for up to 17 years with regard to clinical diagnosis of various age-related diseases. GFAP, NfL, and p-tau181 were measured in baseline blood samples using the Single-Molecule Array (Simoa) Technology (Quanterix, USA) and categorized into high (quartile 4) versus low (quartiles 1-3). Logistic regression analyses and spline regression models for dose-response analyses were used. ROC curves by cholesterol levels were also calculated. Results The risk of a dementia diagnosis was significantly increased between participants with high vs. low levels of GFAP and NfL and the risk substantially varied by TC levels. For GFAP and NfL the ORs of a dementia diagnosis were 5.10 (2.45-10.60) and 2.96 (1.43-6.14) in participants with high and 2.44 (1.47-4.07) and 1.15 (0.69-1.92) in those with low TC. APOE ε4 genotype further modified the strength of the associations with different patterns, depending on specific marker and type of dementia. No significant association was seen with p-tau181. Conclusions These results suggest that in the general population blood GFAP and NfL are better predictors of dementia than p-tau181 and that their associations with dementia risk are highly amplified by hypercholesterolemia, also depending on APOE ε4 genotype.

Retos ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 44 ◽  
pp. 789-795
Elisa Fiore ◽  
Camilo Corbellini ◽  
Lara Acucella ◽  
Stefano Gargano ◽  
Eleuterio Sánchez Romero ◽  

  Objective: This review aimed to provide an update on the characterization and impact of musculoskeletal pain in COVID-19 survivors. Methods: It is considered articles on subjects who had been recovered from COVID-19 infection after hospitalization (COVID-19 survivors) with secondary musculoskeletal pain. Results: Six articles (one editorial, one consensus statement, one letter to the editor, one case-control study, one cohort study and one review) showed the polyhedral effects of the SARS-CoV-2 on musculoskeletal pain. This short review was not able to clearly identify what the pathogenesis of musculoskeletal pain was in COVID-19 survivors. Conclusion: Preliminary data showed that widespread pain similar to the pattern compatible with pain of musculoskeletal origin could characterize symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection.  Resumen. Objetivo: Esta revisión tuvo como objetivo proporcionar una actualización sobre la caracterización y el impacto del dolor musculoesquelético en los supervivientes de COVID-19. Métodos: Se consideraron artículos sobre sujetos que se recuperaron de la infección por COVID-19 tras la hospitalización (supervivientes de COVID-19) con dolor musculoesquelético secundario. Resultados: Seis artículos (un editorial, una declaración de consenso, una carta al editor, un estudio de casos y controles, un estudio de cohortes y una revisión) mostraron los efectos poliédricos del SARS-CoV-2 sobre el dolor musculoesquelético.  Esta breve revisión no pudo identificar claramente cuál era la patogénesis del dolor musculoesquelético en los supervivientes del COVID-19. Conclusión: Los datos preliminares mostraron que el dolor generalizado similar al patrón compatible con el dolor de origen musculoesquelético podría caracterizar los síntomas después de la infección por SARS-CoV-2.

Khalaf Kridin ◽  
Orly Avni ◽  
Giovanni Damiani ◽  
Dana Tzur Bitan ◽  
Erez Onn ◽  

AbstractThe timing pattern in which dipeptidyl-peptidase IV inhibitors (DPP4i) confer the risk of bullous pemphigoid (BP) is unknown. To investigate the odds of BP following exposure to DPP4i and to perform a duration-response analysis evaluating the risk of BP in relation to the duration of exposure to the culprit drug. A population-based nested case–control study was performed comparing diabetic patients with BP (n = 1458) with age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched diabetic control subjects (n = 6051) with respect to the prevalence of exposure to DPP4i. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by logistic regression. Overall exposure to DPP4i was associated with an 80% increase in the odds of subsequent BP (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.46–2.08; P < 0.001). In an intraclass analysis, the odds of BP were increased in association with vildagliptin (OR, 3.40; 95% CI, 2.69–4.29; P < 0.001) and sitagliptin (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.33–1.84; P < 0.001). In a duration-response analysis, the highest likelihood of BP was found 1–2 years after commencing the drug (OR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.97–3.59; P < 0.001). The odds of BP were increased across all time periods and retained its statistical significance even ≥ 6 years after the drug initiation (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.09–1.91; P = 0.011). Relative to other diabetic patients with BP, patients with DPP4i-associated BP were more likely to be admitted to inpatient dermatologic wards (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.30–2.13; P < 0.001) and had higher mean(SD) numbers of outpatient dermatologist visits (14.7[14.8] vs. 12.3[13.2], respectively; P = 0.006). DPP4i should be suspected as a predisposing factor for BP even numerous years after the drug initiation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 297-303
Jaideep C Menon ◽  
Rajesh Thachathodiyil ◽  
Anugrah Nair ◽  
Rajiv Chandrasekhar ◽  
Natarajan Kumaraswamy ◽  

Coronary artery disease (CAD) in Asian-Indians is characterised by an earlier onset and more severe disease when compared to Western populations. It is estimated that about 20% of patients presenting with an acute coronary syndrome do not have any of the conventional risk factors for CAD. To assess the risk posed by each of the newer risk factors; alongside conventional risk factors namely diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia for coronary artery disease and to compare the relative risk in a case-control design. Department of Cardiology, XXX Institute of Medical sciences (XXX). Case control study design. Cases are as any individual with coronary artery disease and controls included patients with non-coronary conditions. Dependant variable: coronary artery disease (CAD); Independent variables: Lp PLA2, Lp(a), Apo(a), Apo(b), Ratio (Apo B/Apo A); Other predictors- diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, tobacco use Categorical variables were presented as frequencies and percentages. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression analysis was used to study the comparison and association of the categorical risk factors with the disease status, respectively. Software used was SPSS version 20.0. A total of 253 participants aged between 19 and 90 years; 140 cases and 113 controls were enrolled in this study. Except for the hs-CRP level, alcohol consumption and LDL, all the other risk factors were seen significantly associated with the coronary artery disease; dyslipidaemia (10.8, 95% CI 3.29-35.37), gender- male (4.68, 95% CI 2.12-10.30), diabetes mellitus (3.3, 95% CI 1.6 -6.77), lipoprotein(a) more than 30mg% (2.34, 95% CI 1.06-5.15) and hypertension (2.48, 95% CI 1.14-5.39). Conventional risk factors namely diabetes, hypertension and dyslipdaemia showed a statistically significant association with CAD while from among the biochemical markers the association was statistically significant only for Lp(a) when compared both between cases and controls and also in cases &#60; age 50 years. The other biochemical risk factors namely Lp-PLA2, Apo(A1) and Apo(b) showed a weak degree of association with CAD. In the present study we analyse the role of inflammatory mediators of CAD (hs-CRP, Lp-PLA2), pro-thrombotic markers [Lp(a)] alongside the lipid fractions apoB, apo A and their ratio to assess which of these biochemical markers predisposed one to CAD through assessment of the relative risk.

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