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2021 ◽  
Vol 39 (28_suppl) ◽  
pp. 132-132
Author(s):  
Gehan Botrus ◽  
Natalie Ertz -Archambault ◽  
Heidi E. Kosiorek ◽  
Nellie Nafissi ◽  
Miguel Gonzales ◽  
...  

132 Background: Enhancing equitable oncologic care is an increasingly emphasized priority. Our study aims to identify aspects of breast cancer (BC) care in which differences exist based on insurance coverage. Methods: We performed a retrospective, case control study, (from 2014-2020); 39 Hispanic ethnicity uninsured patients (UP) from underserved communities with newly diagnosed BC and 119 insured patients (IP) diagnosed at Mayo Clinic Arizona (MCA). Patients were matched 3:1 for age, stage, year of diagnosis, estrogen receptors and HER-2 status. Demographic information, clinical variables, and zip code level specific socioeconomic information were compared. Continuous variables were compared by Wilcoxon rank-sum test and categorical variables by chi-square test. All patients were treated at MCA. Results: Similar treatment patterns with radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery were observed between groups. Primary language was Spanish for 94% of UP and English for 97.5% of IP. The majority of UP were of Hispanic ethnicity (97.4%); IP were 83.2% non-Hispanic White, 9.2% Hispanic, 3.4% African American. Zip code level information reflected more unemployment with a median of 10.6% versus 6.9% p < 0.001, percent of high school or lower (53.0 % v 23.2 %, p < 0.001), and lower income for UP (33733.5 v 64728.0 p values < 0.001).BMI was significantly higher for UP (30.6 V 24.7, p = 0.005), with presence of more co-morbidities; diabetes (28.2% v 5.0%, p < 0.001), hypertension (35.9 % v 20.2%, p = 0.046), dyslipidemia (28.2% v 12.6%, p = 0.023), metabolic syndrome (p 23.7% v 8.5, p = 0.013), and tobacco use (17.9% v 2.5%, p < 0.001). Genetics consultation was performed for 62.2% IP versus 35.9% UP (p = 0.004), lower acceptance of nutrition consultation for UP (29.4% vs 7.4%, p = 0.024). Median time from mammogram to biopsy (25.5 days vs. 14 days, p = 0.056), and interval from diagnosis to treatment (62 days vs. 39 days) (p = 0.001) were less favorable for UP compared to IP. Conclusions: In comparing the status of UP and IP with newly diagnosed BC, we identified greater prevalence of co-morbidities and adverse social determinants of health in the former group. We identified access to genetic counseling, nutrition consultation, and timeliness of diagnostic biopsy and initiation of treatment as disparate features in the care pathway. These observations allowed development of tailored interventions to achieve greater equity in delivery of BC care at Mayo Clinic.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Rohit Kumar ◽  
Vandana Saini ◽  
Charanjeet Kaur ◽  
H. S. Isser ◽  
Nitin Tyagi ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, with a shifting trend towards the younger population. Paraoxonase1 (PON1) is a glycoprotein enzyme associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles in the blood. It has the ability to protect against lipid oxidation, thereby reducing the risk of atherogenesis. PON1 rs662 gene polymorphism may affect serum PON1 levels as well as its activity and may have a significant role in the pathogenesis of CAD. The present study was conducted to identify the association of PON1 rs662 gene polymorphism with serum PON1 levels in CAD patients in the North Indian population. This case–control study included 71 angiography-proven CAD patients (with > 50% luminal stenosis in one or more coronary arteries) and 71 controls (with < 50% luminal obstruction in angiography). PON1 rs662 gene polymorphism was studied using PCR and RFLP under the standardized protocol. Serum PON1 levels were estimated by ELISA. Results The serum PON1 level was significantly lower in the CAD group than in the controls (7.79 ± 3.16 vs. 10.79 ± 3.19 ng/mL; p < 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis showed that homozygous GG genotype of PON1 rs662 SNP has ninefold increased risk of developing CAD in an Indian population (OR = 9.0, 95%CI 2.79–29.06, p = 0.0002). A significantly higher frequency of G allele was also observed in CAD patients than in controls (OR 2.64, 95%CI 1.61–4.33, p = 0.001). Conclusions The reduced serum PON1 level is associated with CAD. PON1 rs662 gene polymorphism is significantly associated with CAD susceptibility in the North Indian population.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rui Dong ◽  
Chun Luo ◽  
Bingyang Li ◽  
Chongyu Hu ◽  
Junyu Liu ◽  
...  

Abstract Introduction: aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a devastating disease caused by intracranial aneurysm (IA) rupture. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) family genes (LOX-like [LOXL] 1–4) have roles in collagen cross-linking in the extracellular matrix and may be associated with IA rupture. We aimed to explore the association between LOX polymorphisms and the risk of aSAH. Methods This case-control study included two cohorts: 133 and 115 single ruptured and unruptured IA patients, and 65 and 71 multiple ruptured and unruptured IAs patients, respectively. Genotyping of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in LOX was performed. Logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the SNPs of LOX and risk of aSAH. Results LOX rs180044 and LOXL4 rs3793692 were positively associated with the risk of single IA rupture in the recessive model (OR = 5.66, 2.06; 95% CI = 1.22–26.24, 1.11–3.82, respectively) and LOX rs10519694 demonstrated a protective effect on single IA rupture (dominant model: OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.21–0.83; recessive model: OR = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.04–0.65; additive model: OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.28–0.78). LOXL1 rs2165241, LOXL2 rs1063582, and LOXL3 rs17010021 demonstrated risk effects on multiple IAs rupture. LOXL3 rs17010022 showed a protective effect on multiple IAs rupture (dominant model: OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.21–0.82; additive model: OR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.30–0.85). Discussion LOX and LOXL4 may be susceptible to single IA rupture, whereas LOXL1-3 may have a role in susceptibility to multiple IAs rupture in the Chinese population, suggesting LOX family genes may associated with aSAH.


Author(s):  
A. Seval Ozgu-Erdinc ◽  
Pınar Gulsen Coban ◽  
Nafiye Yilmaz ◽  
Zuhal Candemir ◽  
Saynur Yilmaz ◽  
...  

Objective: The association between recurrent implantation failure and thrombophilia is still controversial depending on the published reports with conflicting results. In this study, we aimed to assess the clinical relevance of screening women with recurrent implantation failure for some thrombophilic variants including factor V H1299R (FV HR2) haplotype. Study Design: A total of 279 women were recruited in this case-control study. 229 women with a history of recurrent implantation failure and 50 fertile control with no history of pregnancy losses were screened for eight specific gene mutations, regarding factor V G1691A gene (FV Leiden), FV HR2, factor II prothrombin G20210A, factor XIII V34L, PAI-1 4G/5G, MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C and A3 haplotype of the endothelial cell protein C receptor gene. Results: Recurrent implantation failure group displayed a significantly higher prevalence of FV HR2 heterozygosity than fertile controls while the frequency of FV Leiden mutation was comparable between groups (p=0.011; p=0.619). Additionally, the difference in the prevalence of other specific or total gene mutations among women with recurrent implantation failure was also insignificant. Discussion: The primer outcome of this study was the co-existence of the higher prevalence of FV HR2 haplotype and the insignificant percentage of FV Leiden mutation in women with recurrent implantation failure. Thus, we emphasize that the HR2 haplotype may be associated with recurrent implantation failure particularly in non-carriers for FV Leiden mutation. In the necessity of screening for thrombophilia in recurrent implantation failure, HR2 haplotype should be involved in the searched gene panel particularly in the absence of FV Leiden mutation. Further large-scale prospective studies are needed to investigate whether screening or treatment for HR2 haplotype has any detrimental impact on implantation success in cases of recurrent implantation failure.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0257492
Author(s):  
Nury N. Olaya-Galán ◽  
Sandra P. Salas-Cárdenas ◽  
Jorge L. Rodriguez-Sarmiento ◽  
Milcíades Ibáñez-Pinilla ◽  
Ricardo Monroy ◽  
...  

Viruses have been implicated in cancer development in both humans and animals. The role of viruses in cancer is typically to initiate cellular transformation through cellular DNA damage, although specific mechanisms remain unknown. Silent and long-term viral infections need to be present, in order to initiate cancer disease. In efforts to establish a causative role of viruses, first is needed to demonstrate the strength and consistency of associations in different populations. The aim of this study was to determine the association of bovine leukemia virus (BLV), a causative agent of leukemia in cattle, with breast cancer and its biomarkers used as prognosis of the severity of the disease (Ki67, HER2, hormonal receptors) in Colombian women. An unmatched, observational case–control study was conducted among women undergoing breast surgery between 2016–2018. Malignant samples (n = 75) were considered as cases and benign samples (n = 83) as controls. Nested-liquid PCR, in-situ PCR and immunohistochemistry were used for viral detection in blood and breast tissues. For the risk assessment, only BLV positive samples from breast tissues were included in the analysis. BLV was higher in cases group (61.3%) compared with controls (48.2%), with a statistically significant association between the virus and breast cancer in the unconditional logistic regression (adjusted-OR = 2.450,95%CI:1.088–5.517, p = 0.031). In this study, BLV was found in both blood and breast tissues of participants and an association between breast cancer and the virus was confirmed in Colombia, as an intermediate risk factor.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Eskinder Kebede ◽  
Melani Kekulawala

Abstract Background Ethiopia is a Sub-Saharan country that has made significant improvements in maternal mortality and under-five mortality over the past 15 years. However, the nation continues to have one of the highest rates of perinatal mortality in the entire world with current estimates at 33 deaths per 1000 live births. Methods This case-control study was conducted between October 2016 and May 2017 at Tikur Anbessa Hospital and Gandhi Memorial Hospital. All women who had a stillbirth or early neonatal death (i.e. death within 7 days) during this period willing to participate were included as cases. A systematic random sample of women delivering at the hospital were approached for recruitment as controls to generate a 2:1 ratio of controls to cases. Data on risk factors were retrieved from medical records including delivery records, and treatment charts. Statistical differences in background and social characteristics of cases and controls were determined by t-test and chi-squared (or fisher’s exact test) for quantitative and categorical variables respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis was completed to determine any associations between risk factors and stillbirth/early neonatal death. Results During the study period, 366 women delivering at the hospitals were enrolled as cases and 711 women delivering at the hospitals were enrolled as controls. Records from both hospitals indicated that the estimated stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates were 30.7 per 1000. Neonatal causes (43.4%) were the most common, followed by antepartum (32.5%) and intrapartum (24.5%). Risk factors for stillbirths and early neonatal death were low maternal education (aOR 1.747, 95%CI 1.098–2.780), previous stillbirth (aOR 9.447, 95%CI 6.245–14.289), previous preterm birth (aOR 3.620, 95%CI 2.363–5.546), and previous child with congenital abnormality (aOR 2.190, 95% 1.228–3.905), and antepartum hemorrhage during pregnancy (aOR 3.273, 95% 1.523–7.031). Conclusion Antepartum hemorrhaging is the only risk factor in our study amenable for direct intervention. Efforts should be maximized to improve patient education and antenatal and obstetric services. Moreover, the most significant cause of mortality was asphyxia-related causes. It is imperative that obstetric capacity in rehabilitation services are strengthened and for further studies to investigate the high burden of asphyxia at these tertiary hospitals to better tailor interventions.


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