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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 739-748
José María ◽  
Rocío Piñero-Virué ◽  
César Antonio ◽  
Miguel María

<p style="text-align: justify;">In this study we focus our research on the case analysis of an eleven-year-old boy and his close relationship with technology, specifically robotics. The methodology of the study is experimental in nature, with the aim of improving the subject's attention span through robotics, thereby favouring his educational process and, consequently, his overall development. To this end, the attitudes, and aptitudes that this technological tool has provided the subject with are evaluated over a period of four years. Three data collection instruments were selected: questionnaire, interview, and observation. Among the conclusions we highlight, on the one hand, that the older the age and the greater the interest in robotics, the greater the individual's attention span and greater psychomotor coordination, increasing the improvement in the educational process and in their daily life. On the other hand, robotics is an effective way of orienting knowledge towards the personal and educational sphere and can provide advantages in integral development.  </p>

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Chenhao Chiu ◽  
Yining Weng ◽  
Bo-wei Chen

Recent research on body and head positions has shown that postural changes may induce varying degrees of changes on acoustic speech signals and articulatory gestures. While the preservation of formant profiles across different postures is suitably accounted for by the two-tube model and perturbation theory, it remains unclear whether it is resulted from the accommodation of tongue postures. Specifically, whether the tongue accommodates the changes in head angle to maintain the target acoustics is yet to be determined. The present study examines vowel acoustics and their correspondence with the articulatory maneuvers of the tongue, including both tongue postures and movements of the tongue center, across different head angles. The results show that vowel acoustics, including pitch and formants, are largely unaffected by upward or downward tilting of the head. These preserved acoustics may be attributed to the lingual gestures that compensate for the effects of gravity. Our results also reveal that the tongue postures in response to head movements appear to be vowel-dependent, and the tongue center may serve as an underlying drive that covariates with the head angle changes. These results imply a close relationship between vowel acoustics and tongue postures as well as a target-oriented strategy for different head angles.

BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Yunying Cao ◽  
Tingyu Shan ◽  
Hui Fang ◽  
Kangtai Sun ◽  
Wen Shi ◽  

Abstract Background Salt damage is an important abiotic stress that affects the growth and yield of maize worldwide. As an important member of the salt overly sensitive (SOS) signal transduction pathway, the SOS3 gene family participates in the transmission of stress signals and plays a vital role in improving the salt tolerance of plants. Results In this study, we identified 59 SOS3 genes in the maize B73 genome using bioinformatics methods and genome-wide analyses. SOS3 proteins were divided into 5 different subfamilies according to the phylogenetic relationships. A close relationship between the phylogenetic classification and intron mode was observed, with most SOS3 genes in the same group sharing common motifs and similar exon-intron structures in the corresponding genes. These genes were unequally distributed on five chromosomes of B73. A total of six SOS3 genes were identified as repeated genes, and 12 pairs of genes were proven to be segmentally duplicated genes, indicating that gene duplication may play an important role in the expansion of the SOS3 gene family. The expression analysis of 10 genes that were randomly selected from different subgroups suggested that all 10 genes were significantly differentially expressed within 48 h after salt treatment, of which eight SOS3 genes showed a significant decline while Zm00001d025938 and Zm00001d049665 did not. By observing the subcellular localization results, we found that most genes were expressed in chloroplasts while some genes were expressed in the cell membrane and nucleus. Conclusions Our study provides valuable information for elucidating the evolutionary relationship and functional characteristics of the SOS3 gene family and lays the foundation for further study of the SOS3 gene family in the maize B73 genome.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 736-740
Megha R Kotecha ◽  
Radhika R Paranjpe ◽  
Varsha V Manade ◽  
Sarang S Gotecha

To study the clinical correlation between pterygium and dry eye and to evaluate the status of tear film in patients with pterygium.100 eyes with pterygium were compared with 100 control eyes without pterygium. Patients between 20–70 years were included in the study. Detailed history was taken and Schirmer’s test and TBUT were performed on all to evaluate the status of dry eye. Schirmer’s test ˂10 mm and TBUT ˂10 seconds was considered abnormal. Maximum number (52) of patients affected with dry eye in both the groups were in the age group 31-40 years which statistically showed age as a significant factor of association for both pterygium and dry eye (P&#60;0.01). Schirmer’s test was slightly reduced in patients with pterygium(18.73±5.69 mm). TBUT was significantly reduced in the case group (12.26±2.24sec). TBUT decreased maximally in 51-60 yrs age group (13.00±2.77sec) with pterygium showing a tear film unstability. On comparison of pterygia and controls with normal and abnormal tear film, Odd’s Ratio was 1.14 showing risk of dry eye in pterygia patients to be 1.14 times higher than controls. A close relationship exists between ocular irritation symptoms and functional evidence of tear instability. Schirmer’s test and TBUT should routinely be used in the outpatient department to diagnose dry eye in patients with pterygium and these patients should be promptly treated to prevent any sight threatening complications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Joachim R. de Miranda ◽  
Laura E. Brettell ◽  
Nor Chejanovsky ◽  
Anna K. Childers ◽  
Anne Dalmon ◽  

AbstractIn 1977, a sample of diseased adult honeybees (Apis mellifera) from Egypt was found to contain large amounts of a previously unknown virus, Egypt bee virus, which was subsequently shown to be serologically related to deformed wing virus (DWV). By sequencing the original isolate, we demonstrate that Egypt bee virus is in fact a fourth unique, major variant of DWV (DWV-D): more closely related to DWV-C than to either DWV-A or DWV-B. DWV-A and DWV-B are the most common DWV variants worldwide due to their close relationship and transmission by Varroa destructor. However, we could not find any trace of DWV-D in several hundred RNA sequencing libraries from a worldwide selection of honeybee, varroa and bumblebee samples. This means that DWV-D has either become extinct, been replaced by other DWV variants better adapted to varroa-mediated transmission, or persists only in a narrow geographic or host range, isolated from common bee and beekeeping trade routes.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 224
Malyaj Prajapati ◽  
Aakansha Manav ◽  
Jitender Singh ◽  
Pankaj Kumar ◽  
Amit Kumar ◽  

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants exhibiting mosaics, deformation, and yellow stripes symptoms were identified in Meerut City, Uttar Pradesh, India. To investigate the viruses in the garlic samples, the method of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) was used. Complete genome of the garlic virus E (GarV-E) isolate (NCBI accession No. MW925710) was retrieved. The virus complete genome comprises 8450 nucleotides (nts), excluding the poly (A) tail at the 3′ terminus, with 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of 99 and 384 nts, respectively, and ORFs encoding replicase with a conserved motif for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), TGB1, TGB2, TGB3, serine-rich protein, coat protein, and nucleic acid binding protein (NABP). The sequence homology shared 83.49–90.40% and 87.48–92.87% with those of GarV-E isolates available in NCBI at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship of this isolate from India (MW925710) with GarV-E isolate YH (AJ292230) from Zhejiang, China. The presence of GarV-E was also confirmed by RT-PCR. The present study is the first report of GarV-E in garlic cultivar Yamuna Safed-3 grown in northern India. However, further studies are needed to confirm its role in symptom development, nationwide distribution, genetic diversity, and potential yield loss to the garlic in India.

Yanchun Wang ◽  
Shuli Sang ◽  
Xin Zhang ◽  
Haoxia Tao ◽  
Qing Guan ◽  

A miniature CRISPR-Cas12f has been demonstrated to serve as an effective genome editing tool in gram negative bacteria as well as human cells. Here, we developed an alternative method to edit the genome of Bacillus anthracis based on the AsCas12f1 nuclease from Acidibacillus sulfuroxidans. When the htrA gene on the chromosome and the lef gene on the plasmid pXO1 were selected as targets, the CRISPR-AsCas12f1 system showed very high efficiency (100%). At the same time, a high efficiency was observed for large-fragment deletion. Our results also indicated that the length of the homologous arms of the donor DNA had a close relationship with the editing efficiency. Furthermore, a two-plasmid CRISPR-AsCas12f1 system was also constructed and combined with the endonuclease I-SceI for potential multi-gene modification. This represents a novel tool for mutant strain construction and gene function analyses in B. anthracis and other Bacillus cereus group bacteria.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 ◽  
Andrea Miuli ◽  
Giacomo d'Andrea ◽  
Mauro Pettorruso ◽  
Gianluca Mancusi ◽  
Alessio Mosca ◽  

Abstract: Cocaine Use Disorder (CUD) is one of the diseases with the greatest social and health impact, due to the high cost of rehabilitation management and the high risk of dangerous behavior and relapse. This pathology frequently leads to unsuccessful attempts to interrupt the consumption, resulting in relapses and a vicious circle binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation (craving). The alternation of these phases in addictions was well illustrated by Koob and colleagues in the so-called “addictive cycle”, which nowadays represents a landmark in the addiction field. Recently, there has been an increased interest in the international literature for biomarkers able to explain the several phases of addiction, and one of the most studied biomarkers is undoubtedly Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF). In this perspective article, we discuss the potential role of BDNF as biomarker of the CUD phases described in the “Addictive Cycle”, speculating about the close relationship between BDNF fluctuations and the clinical course of CUD. Furthermore, we discuss BDNF potential role as “staging” biomarker, able to predict disease worsening. Finding valuable biomarkers of CUD severity and disease stage could shift clinicians' attention from the perspective of behavioral symptomatic treatment to a novel brain-based approach, allowing more effective and targeted therapeutic strategies to be developed, thus determining major benefits for CUD patients.

Е.И. Чумасов ◽  
Е.С. Петрова ◽  
Д.Э. Коржевский

С помощью гистологических методов окраски толуидиновым синим, гематоксилином и эозином и иммуногистохимических реакций на белок PGP 9.5, тирозингидроксилазу (ТГ), белок Iba-1, изучены клеточные изменения в разных отделах сердца крыс линии Wistar в возрасте 18- 23 мес. В соединительной ткани основания сердца обнаружены очаговые воспалительные инфильтраты, внутри которых выявлены PGP 9.5 и ТГ сплетения, состоящие из парасимпатических и симпатических нервных волокон. В области клапанного аппарата, на границе фиброзного кольца и миокарда правого предсердия, обнаружены патологические изменения нервных структур - дегенерация нервных пучков и зернистый распад варикозных аксонов терминального сплетения. Установлены тесные взаимоотношения аксонов терминальной нервной сети с клетками воспалительных инфильтратов и кровеносными сосудами. Определены закономерности встречаемости в различных отделах миокарда у старых животных нейроклеточных воспалительных комплексов, состоящих из нервных волокон, кровеносных капилляров и клеток-участников местного воспалительного процесса (тучных клеток, макрофагов, фибробластов, плазмоцитов). Установлен хронический характер нейрогенного воспаления в сердце при старении. Using histological methods of staining with toluidine blue, hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical reactions for the PGP 9,5 protein, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), Iba-1 protein, cellular changes in different parts of the heart of Wistar rats at the age of 18-23 months were studied. In the connective tissue of the heart base, focal inflammatory infiltrates were found, near which PGP 9.5 and TH plexuses, consisting of parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve fibers, were detected. In the area of the valvular heart apparatus, at the border of the anneau fibreux and the myocardium of the right atrium, pathological changes in nerve structures were found: degeneration of nerve fibers and granular destruction varicose axons of the terminal plexus. A close relationship has been established between axons of the terminal nervous network and cells of inflammatory infiltrates and blood capillaries. The features of the localization of neurocellular inflammatory complexes consisting of nerve fibers, blood capillaries and cells participating in the local inflammatory process (mast cells, histiocytes, monocytes, fibroblasts, plasma cells) in various parts of the myocardium in old animals are described. The chronic nature of neurogenic inflammation in the heart during aging has been established.

David Sabando-Vera ◽  
Marcela Yonfa-Medranda ◽  
Néstor Montalván-Burbano ◽  
Jose Albors-Garrigos ◽  
Katherine Parrales-Guerrero

Research on open innovation (OI) has increased in recent years, showing its potential in various areas of knowledge. Its relation to small and medium-sized enterprises has attracted the attention of academics. This article aims to evaluate the intellectual structure of the scientific study of OI, and its close relationship with various scientific fields, through a bibliometric analysis of this academic field using the Scopus database and the application of the VOSviewer software. The methodology comprises a rigorous systematic and transparent process divided into four phases: (i) the establishment of search criteria for the research field, through a literature review for its selection; (ii) the selection of the database, the establishment of the search equation and extraction of information; (iii) the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria for the selected documents and an explanation of the usefulness of the software; and (iv) the analysis of the results through the approaches of scientific output performance and bibliometric mapping. The results show an increasing trend of IO publications in SMEs, consolidated in 396 articles with contributions from 65 countries and 947 authors. The intellectual structure shows seven themes related to firm performance, R&D networks, business management, business models, capabilities and knowledge transfer. This study contributes to the field by providing an overview of IO in SME contexts. It also provides insightful information to policymakers for developing policies for firm economic growth.

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