Glomerular Filtration
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PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260744
Chun-Wan Fang ◽  
Hsiao-Chen Ning ◽  
Ya-Ching Huang ◽  
Yu-Shao Chiang ◽  
Chun-Wei Chuang ◽  

This study examined the trend of blood lead levels (BLLs) in Taiwanese adults and analyzed the variations in the BLL between Linkou (northern) and Kaohsiung (southern) hospital branches. Between 2005 and 2017, 3,804 adult participants received blood lead tests at the Linkou (n = 2,674) and Kaohsiung (n = 1,130) branches of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. The geometric mean of BLL was 2.77 μg/dL. The adult participants from the Kaohsiung branch were not only age older (49.8±14.1 versus 39.4±14.2 years; P<0.001) and male predominant (65.8 versus 41.7%; P<0.001) but also showed a higher BLL (4.45±3.93 versus 2.82±2.42 μg/dL; P<0.001) and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (87.62±25.94 versus 93.67±23.88; P<0.001) than those from the Linkou branch. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that the Kaohsiung branch [odds ratio (OR): 7.143; 95% confident interval (CI): 5.682–8.929; P<0.001], older age (OR: 1.008; 95% CI: 1.000–1.015; P = 0.043) and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (OR: 1.009; 95% CI: 1.004–1.014; P = 0.001) were significant predictors for BLL > 5 μg/dL. Therefore, this study confirmed a continuous decreasing trend in the BLL in Taiwan after banning leaded petrol in 2000.

Medicina ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 57 (12) ◽  
pp. 1319
Teruhiko Imamura ◽  
Masakazu Hori ◽  
Shuhei Tanaka ◽  
Koichiro Kinugawa

Hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase (HIF-PH) inhibitor is a recently introduced oral medication to treat renal anemia, but its clinical implication in patients with heart failure, particularly heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), remains unknown. We had a 91-year-old woman with HFpEF who was admitted to our institute to treat her worsening heart failure. She initiated HIF-PH inhibitor daprodustat to treat her renal anemia (hemoglobin 8.8 g/dL and estimated glomerular filtration ratio 15.6 mL/min/1.73 m2). Following a 6-month treatment with daprodustat, hemoglobin increased up to 10.4 g/dL, left ventricular mass index decreased from 107 g/m2 to 88 g/m2, and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide decreased from 276 pg/mL to 122 pg/mL, despite doses of other medications remaining unchanged. HIF-PH inhibitors might be a promising tool to ameliorate renal anemia and facilitate cardiac reverse remodeling in patients with HFpEF.

2021 ◽  
Makoto Fukuda ◽  
Naoki Sawa ◽  
Hiroki Mizuno ◽  
Daisuke Ikuma ◽  
Rikako Hiramatsu ◽  

Abstract BackgroundMethotrexate is widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) but can cause very serious side effects, including pancytopenia, in patients with renal impairment who have an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of <60 ml/min/1.73m2. In patients with low muscle volume such as elderly patients, GFR can be measured as higher value when calculated using serum creatinine [eGFR(cre)], so more accurate estimation using cystatin C [eGFR(cys)] is preferred.MethodWe evaluated 173 patients with RA who visited Toranomon Hospital in 2019 for factors that may contribute to the difference between eGFR(cre) and eGFR(cys) [eGFR(cre−cys)]. Activities of daily living (ADL) (walking, 1 point; using a cane, 2 points; using a wheelchair, 3 points) was added as a parameter.ResultsIn univariate analysis using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, eGFR(cre−cys) was negatively correlated with body weight, height, body surface area (BSA), subcutaneous fat area (SFA)/BSA, albumin, and creatinine kinase, and positively correlated with age, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and urinary protein. eGFR(cre−cys) was higher in patients who used a cane or wheelchair than those who could walk unaided. Multiple regression analysis showed that ADL and age contribute significantly to eGFR(cre−cys). ConclusionPatients using a cane or wheelchair are susceptible to the higher eGFR(cre−cys) values and overestimation of eGFR(cre), resulting in failed detect subclinical renal dysfunction. For such patients, eGFR(cys) should be evaluated to prevent serious side effects of methotrexate that are easily developed on patients with renal dysfunction.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Shuo-Chun Weng ◽  
Chyong-Mei Chen ◽  
Yu-Chi Chen ◽  
Ming-Ju Wu ◽  
Der-Cherng Tarng

Objective: The trajectory patterns of estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) older adults with malnourishment and their association with subsequent patient outcomes have not been elucidated. We aimed to assess the eGFR trajectory patterns for predicting patient survival and kidney failure in the elderly without or with malnourishment.Materials and Methods: Based on a prospective longitudinal cohort, CKD patients aged 65 years or older were enrolled from 2001 to 2013. Among the 3,948 patients whose eGFR trajectory patterns were analyzed, 1,872 patients were stratified by the absence or presence of malnourishment, and 765 patients were identified and categorized as having malnourishment. Four eGFR trajectory patterns [gradual decline (T0), early non-decline and then persistent decline (T1), persistent increase (T2), and low baseline and then progressive increase (T3)] were classified by utilizing a linear mixed-effect model with a quadratic term in time. The malnourishment was defined as body mass index &lt; 22 kg/m2, serum albumin &lt; 3.0 mg/dL, or Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) &lt; 98. This study assessed the effectiveness of eGFR trajectory patterns in a median follow-up of 2.27 years for predicting all-cause mortality and kidney failure.Results: The mean age was 76.9 ± 6.7 years, and a total of 82 (10.7%) patients with malnourishment and 57 (5.1%) patients without malnourishment died at the end of the study. Compared with the reference trajectory T0, the overall mortality of T1 was markedly reduced [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32–0.83]. In patients with trajectory, T3 was associated with a high risk for kidney failure (aHR = 5.68, 95% CI 3.12–10.4) compared with the reference, especially higher risk in the presence of malnourishment. Patients with high GNRI values were significantly associated with a lower risk of death and kidney failure, but patients with malnourishment and concomitant alcohol consumption had a higher risk of kidney failure.Conclusions: Low baseline eGFR and progressively increasing eGFR trajectory were high risks for kidney failure in CKD patients. These findings may be attributed to multimorbidity, malnourishment, and decompensation of renal function.

2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (6) ◽  
pp. 4986-4997
Yudai Ishiyama ◽  
Tsunenori Kondo ◽  
Hiroki Ishihara ◽  
Kazuhiko Yoshida ◽  
Junpei Iizuka ◽  

Robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) is replacing open radical cystectomy (ORC) and requires clamping of the ureters, resulting in a predisposition to postrenal acute kidney injury (AKI). We investigated the association between ureteral clamping or its duration and acute/chronic postoperative kidney function. Patients who underwent radical cystectomy (robotic or open) at two tertiary institutions during 2002–2021 were retrospectively enrolled. In those who underwent RARC, the maximum postoperative percentage serum creatinine level (%sCre) change was plotted against ureteral clamping duration. They were divided into two groups using the median clamping time (210 min), and the maximum %sCre change and percentage estimated glomerular filtration rate (%eGFR) change at 3–6 months (chronic) were compared between the ORC (no clamp), RARC < 210, and RARC ≥ 210 groups. In 44 RARC patients, a weak correlation was observed between the duration of ureteral clamping and %Cre change (R2 = 0.22, p = 0.001). Baseline serum creatinine levels were comparable between the groups. However, %sCre change was significantly larger in the RARC ≥ 210 group (N = 17, +32.1%) than those in the RARC < 210 (N = 27, +6.1%) and ORC (N = 76, +9.5%) groups (both, p < 0.001). Chronic %eGFR change was comparable between the groups. Longer clamping of the ureter during RARC may precipitate AKI; therefore, the clamping duration should be minimized.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 5963
Mirjam E. van de Velde ◽  
Emil den Bakker ◽  
Hester N. Blufpand ◽  
Gertjan L. Kaspers ◽  
Floor C. H. Abbink ◽  

Renal function-based carboplatin dosing using measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) results in more consistent drug exposure than anthropometric dosing. We aimed to validate the Newell dosing equation using estimated GFR (eGFR) and study which equation most accurately predicts carboplatin clearance in children with retinoblastoma. In 13 children with retinoblastoma 38 carboplatin clearance values were obtained from individual fits using MWPharm++. Carboplatin exposure (AUC) was calculated from administered dose and observed carboplatin clearance and compared to predicted AUC calculated with a carboplatin dosing equation (Newell) using different GFR estimates. Different dosing regimens were compared in terms of accuracy, bias and precision. All patients had normal eGFR. Carboplatin exposure using cystatin C-based eGFR equations tended to be more accurate compared to creatinine-based eGFR (30% accuracy 76.3–89.5% versus 76.3–78.9%, respectively), which led to significant overexposure, especially in younger (aged ≤ 2 years) children. Of all equations, the Schwartz cystatin C-based equation had the highest accuracy and lowest bias. Although anthropometric dosing performed comparably to many of the eGFR equations overall, we observed a weight-dependent change in bias leading to underdosing in the smallest patients. Using cystatin C-based eGFR equations for carboplatin dosing in children leads to more accurate carboplatin-exposure in patients with normal renal function compared to anthropometric dosing. In children with impaired kidney function, this trend might be more pronounced. Anthropometric dosing is hampered by a weight-dependent bias.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (23) ◽  
pp. 5522
Katarzyna Kilis-Pstrusinska ◽  
Katarzyna Akutko ◽  
Joanna Braksator ◽  
Anna Dancewicz ◽  
Patrycja Grosman-Dziewiszek ◽  

The disease caused by coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) can affect almost all organs of the human body, including kidneys. We conducted a one-center study to comprehensively analyze the effects of kidney involvement on the course and outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, depending on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at admission. Out of the 1958 patients, 1342 (68.54%) had eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (group A) and 616 (31.46%) had eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (group B). Group B was additionally divided into subgroups B1, B2, and B3 based on eGFR. We found that mortality rates during hospitalization, as well as after 90 and 180 days, were much higher in group B than group A. The highest mortality was observed in the B2 subgroup with eGFR of 15–29. The mortality of B patients was associated with comorbidities, respiratory dysfunction, immunological impairment, and more frequent development of AKI. AKI had a negative impact on patients’ survival, regardless of the initial renal function. At discharge, 7.4% of patients had serum creatinine levels 30% higher, or more, as compared to admission. The disease course and outcomes in COVID-19 patients are associated with baseline eGFR; however, AKI during hospitalization is a more significant predictor of poor prognosis regardless of the initial renal function.

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