Tuberous Sclerosis Complex
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2021 ◽  
Jessica Dare-Shih ◽  
Adam Pillon ◽  
Jackie Fong ◽  
Elizabeth Fidalgo da Silva ◽  
Lisa Porter

Tuberin is a major component of the protein regulatory complex known as the Tuberous Sclerosis Complex and plays a crucial role in cell cycle progression and protein synthesis. Mutations in the Tuberin gene, TSC2, lead to the formation of benign tumors in many organ systems and causes the Tuberous Sclerosis Complex disorder. Genotypes ranging from point mutations to large deletions in the TSC2 gene have been clinically characterized with a wide range of phenotypes from skin tumors to large brain tumors. Our current work investigates the molecular mechanisms behind Tuberin and its ability to regulate the cell cycle through its binding to the G2/M cyclin, Cyclin B1. After creating an early stop codon in a critical region of the Tuberin, our results show the in vitro phenotype that occurs from a truncated Tuberin protein. Herein we demonstrate that this clinically relevant truncated form of Tuberin promotes an increased nuclear accumulation of Cyclin B1 and a subsequent increase in cell proliferation supporting the phenotypic data seen in the clinic with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex patients showing deletions within the TSC2 gene. This data provides an insight into some of the functional and molecular consequences of truncated proteins that are seen in clinical patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Petrus J. de Vries ◽  
Loren Leclezio ◽  
Sugnet Gardner-Lubbe ◽  
Darcy Krueger ◽  
Mustafa Sahin ◽  

Abstract Background Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC), a multi-system genetic disorder, is associated with a wide range of TSC-Associated Neuropsychiatric Disorders (TAND). Individuals have apparently unique TAND profiles, challenging diagnosis, psycho-education, and intervention planning. We proposed that identification of natural TAND clusters could lead to personalized identification and treatment of TAND. Two small-scale studies showed cluster and factor analysis could identify clinically meaningful natural TAND clusters. Here we set out to identify definitive natural TAND clusters in a large, international dataset. Method Cross-sectional, anonymized TAND Checklist data of 453 individuals with TSC were collected from six international sites. Data-driven methods were used to identify natural TAND clusters. Mean squared contingency coefficients were calculated to produce a correlation matrix, and various cluster analyses and exploratory factor analysis were examined. Statistical robustness of clusters was evaluated with 1000-fold bootstrapping, and internal consistency calculated with Cronbach’s alpha. Results Ward’s method rendered seven natural TAND clusters with good robustness on bootstrapping. Cluster analysis showed significant convergence with an exploratory factor analysis solution, and, with the exception of one cluster, internal consistency of the emerging clusters was good to excellent. Clusters showed good clinical face validity. Conclusions Our findings identified a data-driven set of natural TAND clusters from within highly variable TAND Checklist data. The seven natural TAND clusters could be used to train families and professionals and to develop tailored approaches to identification and treatment of TAND. Natural TAND clusters may also have differential aetiological underpinnings and responses to molecular and other treatments.

eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Soyeon Lim ◽  
You-Joung Kim ◽  
Sooyeon Park ◽  
Ji-heon Choi ◽  
Younghoon Sung ◽  

Retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) divide in limited numbers to generate the cells comprising vertebrate retina. The molecular mechanism that leads RPC to the division limit, however, remains elusive. Here, we find that the hyperactivation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in an RPC subset by deletion of tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (Tsc1) makes the RPCs arrive at the division limit precociously and produce Müller glia (MG) that degenerate from senescence-associated cell death. We further show the hyperproliferation of Tsc1-deficient RPCs and the degeneration of MG in the mouse retina disappear by concomitant deletion of hypoxia-induced factor 1-a (Hif1a), which induces glycolytic gene expression to support mTORC1-induced RPC proliferation. Collectively, our results suggest that, by having mTORC1 constitutively active, an RPC divides and exhausts mitotic capacity faster than neighboring RPCs, and thus produces retinal cells that degenerate with aging-related changes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Rony Cohen ◽  
Jacob Genizi ◽  
Liora Korenrich

Objective: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem neurocutaneous genetic disorder. The clinical manifestations are extensive and include neurological, dermatological, cardiac, ophthalmic, nephrological, and neuropsychiatric manifestations. The prediction and pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders such as emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, and poor social behavior are poorly understood. The aim of the study was to diagnose neuropsychiatric symptoms in individuals with TSC, and to examine their possible correlations with quantity, magnitude, and spatial location of tubers and radial migration (RM) lines.Methods: The cohort comprised 16 individuals with TSC, aged 5–29 years, with normal or low normal intelligence. The participants or their parents were requested to fill Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the TAND (TSC-associated neuropsychiatric disorders) Checklist for assessment of their neuropsychiatric symptoms. Correlations were examined between these symptoms and the magnitude, quantities, and locations of tubers and white matter RM lines, as identified in T2/FLAIR brain MRI scans.Results: The SDQ score for peer relationship problems showed correlation with the tuber load (r = 0.52, p < 0.05). Tuber load and learning difficulties correlated significantly in the temporal and parietal area. Mood swings correlated with tubers in the parietal area (r = 0.529, p < 0.05). RM lines in the temporal area correlated with abnormal total SDQ (r = 0.51, p < 0.05). Anxiety and extreme shyness were correlated with RM lines in the parietal area, r = 0.513, p < 0.05 and r = 0.593, p < 0.05, respectively. Hyperactive/inattention correlated negatively with RM lines in the parietal area (r = −707, p < 0.01).Conclusions: These observations may lead to future studies for precise localization of neuropsychiatric symptoms, thereby facilitating directed therapy.

2021 ◽  
pp. jmedgenet-2021-108160
Katarzyna Klonowska ◽  
Elizabeth A. Thiele ◽  
Joannes M. Grevelink ◽  
Aaron R. Thorner ◽  
David J. Kwiatkowski

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic syndrome due to mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2, leading to the development of hamartomatous tumours at multiple body sites, including facial skin (facial angiofibroma (FAF)), brain (cortical tubers) and kidney (angiomyolipoma (AML)). In this report, we describe an individual with minimal TSC clinical features, who had ‘no mutation identified’ (NMI) by prior genetic testing in a clinical laboratory. Our massively parallel sequencing (MPS) analysis of multiple samples from different body sites and tumours (including blood, saliva, normal skin, AML and FAF) revealed an extraordinary situation in which FAF and AML had completely independent inactivating biallelic variants in TSC2, not present in other matched samples. This suggests that the two different lesions (AML and FAF) are not due to the same underlying germline or mosaic mutation, rather both are likely sporadic events. This case demonstrates the relevance of thorough clinical examination, high-coverage MPS of multiple tumours and matched normal tissues, and appropriate genetic counselling for individuals with marginal TSC features and possible TSC1 or TSC2 mosaicism.

Joaquim Calado ◽  
Rui Barata ◽  
Rita Lucas ◽  
Telma Francisco ◽  

Molecular genetic testing in human traits has traditionally relied on affiliated academic facilities, been focused on specific phenotypes and supported by research funding. We report the experience of the Kidney Genetics Clinic (“consulta de Doenças Renais Hereditárias”) for the past 5 years, a period during which we have outsourced genetic testing. We evaluated the impact of molecular testing in patients’ care, but we also assessed disease‑specific imaging procedures and medicines provided. During the study period, 293 individuals were evaluated. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease was the most frequent diagnosis (61.8%). In 125 patients, a genetic test was available, and for 76 of these (60.8%) a pathogenic/likely pathogenic variant was identified. Depend‑ ing on the phenotype, the mutation detection rate ranged from 100% (Tuberous Sclerosis Complex) to 15.4% (Autosomal Dominant Tubuloint‑ erstitial Kidney Disease). The impact of genetic testing on patients’ diagnosis and treatments is discussed. Total kidney volume was calculated in 6 patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease and the combined volume for selected angiomyolipoma monitored in 3 individuals with the Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. Currently, 4 patients are being treated with Everolimus/Votubia™, 3 with Eculizumab/Soliris™ and 2 with Tolvaptan/Jinarc™. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of genetic molecular testing in a clinical setting while relying on outsourced sites for gene testing. We emphasize that it was only because the Kidney Genetics Clinic was given the opportunity to look after several patients affected by the same specific orphan or rare diseases (cohort enrichment) that we were able to improve diagnostic skills and deliver personalized medicines.

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (10) ◽  
pp. 1585
Elizabeth P. Henske ◽  
Kristine M. Cornejo ◽  
Chin-Lee Wu

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder in which renal manifestations are prominent. There are three major renal lesions in TSC: angiomyolipomas, cysts, and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Major recent advances have revolutionized our understanding of TSC-associated RCC, including two series that together include more than 100 TSC-RCC cases, demonstrating a mean age at onset of about 36 years, tumors in children as young as 7, and a striking 2:1 female predominance. These series also provide the first detailed understanding of the pathologic features of these distinctive tumors, which include chromophobe-like features and eosinophilia, with some of the tumors unclassified. This pathologic heterogeneity is distinctive and reminiscent of the pathologic heterogeneity in Birt–Hogg–Dube-associated RCC, which also includes chromophobe-like tumors. Additional advances include the identification of sporadic counterpart tumors that carry somatic TSC1/TSC2/mTOR mutations. These include unclassified eosinophilic tumors, eosinophilic solid cystic RCC (ESC-RCC), and RCC with leiomyomatous stroma (RCCLMS). A variety of epithelial renal neoplasms have been identified both in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and in the nonsyndromic setting associated with somatic mutations in the TSC1 and TSC2 genes. Interestingly, whether tumors are related to a germline or somatic TSC1/2 mutation, these tumors often display similar morphologic and immunophenotypic features. Finally, recent work has identified molecular links between TSC and BHD-associated tumors, involving the TFEB/TFE3 transcription factors.

Der Urologe ◽  
2021 ◽  
H. Rothe ◽  
A. Gaber ◽  
B. Dittrich ◽  
M. Nagel ◽  
M. Tuffaha ◽  

Zusammenfassung Hintergrund Die Therapie der epitheloiden Angiomyolipome (eAML) kann eine Herausforderung darstellen, da bei dieser sehr seltenen Unterform der gutartigen mesenchymalen Angiomyolipome anders als bei den klassischen Angiomyolipomen bei bis zu 30 % der Fälle Lymphknotenmetastasen, lokale Rezidive und Fernmetastasen auftreten. Ziel der Arbeit Wir berichten hier nach unserer Recherche erstmals in Deutschland von einem Fall von eAML nach stattgehabtem malignem Melanom. Material und Methoden Neben der Klinik und Histologie wird die genetische Untersuchung des Tumorgewebes dargestellt. Ergebnisse Es fand sich eine somatische, trunkierende Mutation des TSC2-Gens („tuberous sclerosis complex“) im Angiomyolipom. Schlussfolgerung Die Beziehung zu verwandten Tumorentitäten in der histologischen Diagnostik wird dargestellt und eine mögliche Rolle der genetischen Diagnostik für die Therapieplanung diskutiert.

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