Abstract Birds are among the best bio-indicators, which can guide us to recognize some of the main conservation concerns in ecosystems. Anthropogenic impacts such as deforestation, habitat degradation, modification of landscapes, and decreased quality of habitats are major threats to bird diversity. The present study was designed to detect anthropogenic causative agents that act on waterbird diversity in Tarbella Dam, Indus River, Pakistan. Waterbird censuses were carried out from March 2019 to February 2020 in multiple areas around the dam. A total of 2990 waterbirds representing 63 species were recorded. We detected the highest waterbird richness and diversity at Pehure whereas the highest density was recorded at Kabbal. Human activity impacts seemed to be the main factor determining the waterbird communities as waterbirds were negatively correlated with the greatest anthropogenic impacts. Waterbirds seem to respond rapidly to human disturbance.
The negative impact of economic development led to the emergence of a new concept, which has been termed sustainable development. It has significantly influenced the way of thinking about relations occurring in the social, economic, and environmental areas. There are many definitions of this concept in literature. Effective implementation of the principles of this concept requires understanding and building environmental awareness. Implementation of the concept at the enterprise level requires managers to have a certain amount of knowledge and skills and at the same time the ability to perceive and look at the issue of sustainable development from the perspective of benefits. The paper presents the results of a study conducted in 2021 among 216 managers of small and medium-sized enterprises in Poland. The research aimed to assess the awareness of the idea of sustainability among the management staff of small and medium-sized enterprises in Poland and its impact on their functioning. The results of the research were compared to the results of research conducted by the author in 2008. The research has shown a significant increase in the awareness of the idea of sustainable development. This applies both to the everyday behaviors of respondents and declared actions carried out in enterprises they manage. The main factor motivating the surveyed companies to undertake pro-environmental actions is the conviction that it is necessary to care for the environment and not to avoid paying fines and fees. The respondents see specific benefits from such activities.
Now, Statistical quality control be a particular concern to large companies.PT XY is one of the largest nut company in Indonesia that has implemented the quality standards of a product. Max-MCUSUM control chart becomes a tool that is graphically used to monitor and evaluate whether the process is under control or nut. Based on Cheng and Thaga (2005), Max-MCUSUM control chart takes precedence over detecting small shift based on average and variability in industry data. The quality characteristic of Kacang Garing will be variables, namely broken nut skin, bean seed 1, and foam nut skin. Max-MCUSUM control chart is controlled with the control limit (h) from ARL (Average Run Length) simulation of 370 is 429,69. ARL is an average of samples that need to be decribed before it goes out of control. The research continued with multivariate capability process with MCp worth 0,905 and MCpk worth 1,355. Those value indicates that Kacang Garing has met the quality specification stipulated by PT XY. Broken nut skin becomes the most dominant cause based on pareto chart and carried out analysis by using fishbone chart so that is known the main factor causing broken nut skin are machine, material, and method.
Старение организма человека - закономерный физиологический процесс. В прошлом веке основными причинами обращения людей к пластическим хирургам служили врожденные и приобретенные деформации, а также возрастные изменения кожи лица. В наши дни внешний вид человека стал основным фактором его успешности в обществе. В работе определена мотивация людей пожилого и старческого возраста к выполнению пластических операций, а также проанализирована работа клиник по выполнению пластических операций людям старших возрастных групп. Установлено, что 96,4 % мужчин и 86,9 % женщин старших возрастных групп имеют достаточно полные представления о пластической хирургии. 27,7 % мужчин и 17,2 % женщин пожилого и старческого возраста хотели бы сделать себе пластическую операцию, однако женщины в 10,9 раза чаще обращаются к пластическим хирургам. Анализ работы клиник пластической хирургии показал устойчивую тенденцию увеличения обращаемости людей пожилого и старческого возраста, независимо от пола, к пластическим хирургам для выполнения операций, направленных, главным образом, на улучшение эстетики лица, шеи и коррекцию фигуры путем устранения гравитационного птоза и удаления избыточных подкожных жировых отложений на туловище. Основной причиной отказа от выполнения желаемой пациентом и рекомендуемой пластическим хирургом операции является недостаток денежных средств.
Aging of the human body is a natural physiological process. In the last century, the main reasons for people turning to plastic surgeons were congenital and acquired deformities, as well as age-related changes in the skin of the face. Nowadays, a person’s appearance has become the main factor in his success in society. The work determines the motivation of elderly and senile people to perform plastic surgeries, and also analyzes the work of clinics in performing plastic surgeries for people of older age groups. It was found that 96,4 % of men and 86,9 % of women in older age groups have a fairly complete understanding of plastic surgery. Among the elderly and old people, 27,7 % of men and 17,2 % of women have a desire to perform plastic surgery for themselves, however, women are 10,9 times more likely to go to plastic surgeons. Analysis of the plastic surgery clinics showed a steady trend of increasing the number of elderly and senile people, regardless of gender, to plastic surgeons to perform operations aimed mainly at improving the aesthetics of the face, neck and body shaping by eliminating gravitational ptosis and removing excess subcutaneous fat. deposits on the trunk. The main reason for refusal to perform the operation desired by the patient and recommended by the plastic surgeon is the lack of funds.
The relevance of this research is about the need to search for factors that increase the stability of youth associations, including student ones. Only stable youth associations can effectively socialize young people and form them as active actors in civil society. The project is a desk study and has a quality design.Object: non-university mass student public associations. They were created in Russia in the 60s of the twentieth century: student building brigades (SSO) and student nature protective brigades (DOP). Subject: institutional isomorphism of non-university student public associations. Purpose: to assess the impact of character and the degree of isomorphism of student public associations on their stability.Research results. It is shown that the main factor in the stability of student public associations is the level of their compliance with institutional requirements. It leads to forced isomorphism. The cause of this isomorphism is the monopoly of sources of support for the activities of these associations. In Russia, the state has such a monopoly. Student associations must take into account the institutional factors, in particular the requirements of higher-level systems and institutions. It gives them the necessary resources to continue their activities. Intra-organizational factors (level of social significance, charisma of leaders, mass character, and others) are less important for ensuring their sustainability.
A camera-based method using Technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA) is commonly used to calculate glomerular filtration rate (GFR), especially, as it can easily calculate split renal function. Renal depth is the main factor affecting the measurement of GFR accuracy. This study aimed to compare the difference of renal depths between three formulae and a CT scan, and, additionally, to calculate the GFRs by four methods. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients receiving a renal dynamic scan. All patients underwent a laboratory test within one month, and a computed tomography (CT) scan within two months, before or after the renal dynamic scan. The GFRs were calculated by employing a renal dynamic scan using renal depth measured in three formulae (Tonnesen’s, Itoh K’s, and Taylor’s), and a CT scan. The renal depths measured by the above four methods were compared, and the GFRs were compared to the modified estimated GFR (eGFR). Fifty-one patients were enrolled in the study. The mean modified eGFR was 60.5 ± 42.7 mL/min. The mean GFRs calculated by three formulae and CT were 45.3 ± 23.3, 54.7 ± 27.5, 56.5 ± 26.3, and 63.7 ± 30.0, respectively. All of them correlated well with the modified eGFR (r = 0.87, 0.87, 0.87, and 0.84, respectively). The Bland–Altman plot revealed good consistency between the calculated GFR by Tonnesen’s and the modified eGFR. The renal depths measured using the three formulae were smaller than those measured using the CT scan, and the right renal depth was always larger than the left. In patients with modified eGFR > 60 mL/min, the GFR calculated by CT was the closest to the modified eGFR. The Renal depth measured by CT scan is deeper than that using formula, and it influences the GFR calculated by Gate’s method. The GFR calculated by CT is more closely related to modified eGFR when modified eGFR > 60 mL/min.
Phytogenic additives have been studied intensively in broiler chickens’ production to substitute growth-promoting antibiotics. However, the comprehensive literature on this topic makes it difficult to understand overall results because there are a noticeable number of studies with conflicting conclusions. While several research studies have shown that phytogenic additives may increment broiler chicken’s performance, others make the opposite evident. This study aimed to organize and understand information through meta-analysis considering a great number of publications and the factors that may interfere in the results of phytogenic additives, evaluating whether phytogenic additives can be used as a performance-enhancing additive for broilers, comparing with the effectiveness of growth-promoting antibiotics. The main factor that interferes in the evaluation of phytogenic additives is the microbiological challenge. Phytogenic additives improved average daily gain (ADG) (P < 0.001) and feed conversion (P < 0.001) regardless of microbiological challenge; however, they were worse compared to antibiotics under higher challenge (P < 0.020). A meta-regression of ADG in function of average daily feed intake confirmed that phytogenic additives increased the feed efficiency of broilers, but with less effectiveness than antibiotics. The blends of phytogenic additives increased the ADG in relation to the isolated use of only one phytogenic additive.
Oedaleus decorus asiaticus (Bey-Bienko) is a destructive pest in grasslands and adjacent farmland in northern China, Mongolia, and other countries in Asia. It has been supposed that this insect pest can migrate a long distance and then induce huge damages, however, the migration mechanism is still unrevealed. The current study uses insect light trap data from Yanqing (Beijing), together with regional meteorological data to determine how air flow contributes to the long-distance migration of O. decorus asiaticus. Our results indicate that sinking airflow is the main factor leading to the insects’ forced landing, and the prevailing northwest wind was associated with O. decorus asiaticus taking off in the northwest and moving southward with the airflow from July to September. Meanwhile, the insects have a strong migratory ability, flying along the airflow for several nights. Thus, when the airflow from the northwest met the northward-moving warm current from the southwest, a large number of insects were dropped due to sinking airflow, resulting in a large outbreak. Our simulations suggest that the source of the grasshoppers involved in these outbreaks during early 2000s in northern China probably is in Mongolia, and all evidence indicates that there are two important immigrant routes for O. decorus asiaticus migration from Mongolia to Beijing. These findings improves our understanding of the factors guiding O. decorus asiaticus migration, providing valuable information to reduce outbreaks in China that have origins from outside the country.
Clinical gait analysis supports treatment decisions for patients with motor disorders. Measurement reproducibility is affected by extrinsic errors such as marker misplacement—considered the main factor in gait analysis variability. However, how marker placement affects output kinematics is not completely understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the Conventional Gait Model’s sensitivity to marker placement. Using a dataset of kinematics for 20 children, eight lower-limb markers were virtually displaced by 10 mm in all four planes, and all the displacement combinations were recalculated. Root-mean-square deviation angles were calculated for each simulation with respect to the original kinematics. The marker movements with the greatest impact were for the femoral and tibial wands together with the lateral femoral epicondyle marker when displaced in the anterior–posterior axis. When displaced alone, the femoral wand was responsible for a deviation of 7.3° (± 1.8°) in hip rotation. Transversal plane measurements were affected most, with around 40% of simulations resulting in an effect greater than the acceptable limit of 5°. This study also provided insight into which markers need to be placed very carefully to obtain more reliable gait data.
The present paper deals with the issue concerning neuter gender toponyms’ declension ending on -ovo/-evo, -ino/-yno in Russian language. Until the 20th century, these place names had been changed in cases steadily; in the middle of the century, a tendency outlined not to decline these toponyms despite the valid rule. The researchers highlight three reasons for distribution of this phenomenon: the professional speech of military men and topographers, the influence of non-Slavic indeclinable neuter gender toponyms, the attempt to eliminate the possible confusion of neuter and masculine nouns that have the same basis. The author estimates the reliability of the reasons that toponyms on -ovo/-evo, -ino/-yno appeared in indeclinable form, determines the possibility of these reasons to influence on deviation from the normative practice and makes an independent research based on available material. The main factor that strongly fastened in practice the non-declension of toponyms on -ovo/-evo, -ino/-yno is the society in which Russian language functioned for the most of 20th century. That was the totalitarian period with its cult of a simple man and orientation on the least educated; this circumstance could not but play in favour for distribution of multiple deviations from the literary norm. In addition, the appearance of numerous toponyms on -ovo/-evo, -ino/-yno formed from the surnames of the communist chiefs (Stalino, Lenino, Kalinino, Ulyanovo, Kuybyshevo, etc.), in indirect cases, created a dangerous analogy with the Soviet leaders, which could contribute in expansion of non-declension.