Plant Breeding
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Weikai Yan

The goal of a plant breeding program is to develop new cultivars of a crop kind with improved yield and quality for a target region and end-use. Improved yield across locations and years means better adaptation to the climatic, soil, and management conditions in the target region. Improved or maintained quality renders and adds value to the improved yield. Both yield and quality must be considered simultaneously, which constitutes the greatest challenge to successful cultivar development. Cultivar development consists of two stages: the development of a promising breeding population and the selection of the best genotypes out of it. A complete breeder's equation was presented to cover both stages, which consists of three key parameters for a trait of interest: the population mean (μ), the population variability (σG), and the achieved heritability (h2 or H), under the multi-location, multi-year framework. Population development is to maximize μσG and progeny selection is to improve H. Approaches to improve H include identifying and utilizing repeatable genotype by environment interaction (GE) through mega-environment analysis, accommodating unrepeatable GE through adequate testing, and reducing experimental error via replication and spatial analysis. Related concepts and procedures were critically reviewed, including GGE (genotypic main effect plus genotype by environment interaction) biplot analysis, GGE + GGL (genotypic main effect plus genotype by location interaction) biplot analysis, LG (location-grouping) biplot analysis, stability analysis, spatial analysis, adequate testing, and optimum replication. Selection on multiple traits includes independent culling and index selection, for the latter GYT (genotype by yield*trait) biplot analysis was recommended. Genomic selection may provide an alternative and potentially more effective approach in all these aspects. Efforts were made to organize and comment on these concepts and procedures in a systematic manner.


Author(s):  
Kadurla Srikanth ◽  
Prashant Kumar Rai ◽  
Prashant Ankur Jain ◽  
A. Saipriya

The experiment was conducted in the field of Seed Science and Technology at the department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P) during Rabi season 2020-2021, in order to standardize the suitable pre-sowing seed treatment of Mustard (Variety-Kranti). Different pre-sowing seed treatments include Thirteen treatments with T0- control, T1-KCL @ 0.3%, T2-KNO3 @ 0.5%, T3-PEG6000 @ 25ppm, T4-PEG6000 @ 50ppm, T5-Panchagavya @ 2%, T6-Panchagavya @ 4%, T7-Panchagavya @ 6%, T8-Panchagavya @ 8%, T9-MNSO4 @ 0.1%, T10-MNSO4 @ 0.3%, T11-MNSO4 @ 0.5%, T12-Tulasi leaf extract @ 2% Soaking for 6 hrs. Pre-sowing seed treatment with PEG6000 @ 50ppm shows increased germination percentage, growth, yield and yielding attributes followed by Panchagavya @ 6% The Experiment and study indicated interesting and different outcomes for each treatment performed. All various priming treatments used was better than control, but overall the best performance was recorded in T4- PEG6000 @ 50ppm, gave the best result to enhanced germinability, seed vigour, seed yield and yielding attributes of mustard.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Mingyue Fu ◽  
Zhongcheng Zhou ◽  
Xu Yang ◽  
Zhongbing Liu ◽  
Jiarui Zheng ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Leaf color variation is a common trait in plants and widely distributed in many plants. In this study, a leaf color mutation in Camellia japonica (cultivar named as Maguxianzi, M) was used as material, and the mechanism of leaf color variation was revealed by physiological, cytological, transcriptome and microbiome analyses. Results The yellowing C. japonica (M) exhibits lower pigment content than its parent (cultivar named as Huafurong, H), especially chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoid, and leaves of M have weaker photosynthesis. Subsequently, the results of transmission electron microscopy(TEM) exhibited that M chloroplast was accompanied by broken thylakoid membrane, degraded thylakoid grana, and filled with many vesicles. Furthermore, comparative transcriptome sequencing identified 3,298 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). KEGG annotation analysis results showed that 69 significantly enriched DEGs were involved in Chl biosynthesis, carotenoid biosynthesis, photosynthesis, and plant-pathogen interaction. On this basis, we sequenced the microbial diversity of the H and M leaves. The sequencing results suggested that the abundance of Didymella in the M leaves was significantly higher than that in the H leaves, which meant that M leaves might be infected by Didymella. Conclusions Therefore, we speculated that Didymella infected M leaves while reduced Chl and carotenoid content by damaging chloroplast structures, and altered the intensity of photosynthesis, thereby causing the leaf yellowing phenomenon of C. japonica (M). This research will provide new insights into the leaf color variation mechanism and lay a theoretical foundation for plant breeding and molecular markers.


Author(s):  
Neeraj Budhlakoti ◽  
Dwijesh Chandra Mishra ◽  
Anil Rai ◽  
K.K. Chaturvedi ◽  
Anu Sharma ◽  
...  

Now a days, Genomic Selection (GS) became a preferable choice for selection of appropriate candidate for animal and plant breeding research. Various studies related to GS has been done recently where it has shown potential benefits and advantages over traditional and conventional plant breeding methods. GS has been successfully implemented in various animal and plant breeding programs. It reduces the total costs by selecting the animals at early stage hence shorten the generation interval. Genomic selection is the future of livestock and plant breeding as it improves the genetic gain by decreasing genetic interval and improving reliability. Although there is a need of further investigation to improve the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding value and manage long-term genetic gain. This article provides a brief review what we have achieved through GS till yet and what is future scope and perspective in the GS research.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Quanshun Mei ◽  
Chuanke Fu ◽  
Jieling Li ◽  
Shuhong Zhao ◽  
Tao Xiang

AbstractSummaryGenetic analysis is a systematic and complex procedure in animal and plant breeding. With fast development of high-throughput genotyping techniques and algorithms, animal and plant breeding has entered into a genomic era. However, there is a lack of software, which can be used to process comprehensive genetic analyses, in the routine animal and plant breeding program. To make the whole genetic analysis in animal and plant breeding straightforward, we developed a powerful, robust and fast R package that includes genomic data format conversion, genomic data quality control and genotype imputation, breed composition analysis, pedigree tracing, analysis and visualization, pedigree-based and genomic-based relationship matrix construction, and genomic evaluation. In addition, to simplify the application of this package, we also developed a shiny toolkit for users.Availability and implementationblupADC is developed primarily in R with core functions written in C++. The development version is maintained at https://github.com/TXiang-lab/blupADC.Supplementary informationSupplementary data are available online


Author(s):  
Akiko Maruyama-Nakashita ◽  
Yohei Ishibashi ◽  
Kyotaro Yamamoto ◽  
Zhang Liu ◽  
Tomomi Morikawa-Ichinose ◽  
...  

Abstract Rapeseed contains high levels of glucosinolates (GSLs), playing pivotal roles in defense against herbivores and pests. As their presence in rapeseed reduces the value of the meal for animal feeding, intensive efforts to reduce them produced low-seed GSL cultivars. However, there is no such variety suitable for the south part of Japan. Here, we tested the effects of cold oxygen plasma (oxygen CP) on seed germination and GSL and lipid content, in three rapeseed cultivars. According to the cultivars, oxygen CP slightly stimulated seed germination and modified the GSL levels; decreased GSL levels in Westar and Kizakinonatane but increased those in Nanashikibu. In contrast, it negligibly affected the lipid content and composition in the three cultivars. Thus, oxygen CP modulated seed GSL levels without affecting seed viability and lipid content. Future optimization of this technique may help optimize rapeseed GSL content without plant breeding.


2021 ◽  
pp. 8-14
Author(s):  
E. G. Filippov ◽  
А. А. Dontsova ◽  
D. Р. Dontsov ◽  
I. М. Zasypkina

Plant breeding plays an important role in increasing grain production and improving its quality. Currently, the de[1]velopment of new ecologically adaptable varieties that can more effectively use the climatic and soil resources of the regions is of great importance. The purpose of the current study was to analyze the parameters of ecological adapt[1]ability and stability of varieties and lines of the competitive variety testing (2018–2020) in the Rostov region. There have been studied five winter barley varieties ‘Timofey’, ‘Erema’, ‘Vivat’, ‘Marusya’, ‘Foks 1’ and six winter barley lines ‘Pallidum 1899’, ‘Pallidum 1972’, ‘Parallelum 1976’, ‘Parallelum 1979’, ‘Parallelum 1980’, ‘Parallelum 1981’ developed by the FSBSI “ARC “Donskoy”. The sowing was carried out with a Wintersteiger Plotseed seeder, accounting plots area was 10 m². The forecrop was peas. The placement was systematic; the number of repetitions was 6. The factor ‘year’ had the greatest influence on the formation of productivity with 97.07%. The analysis of environmental condi[1]tions showed that there were more favorable growing conditions in 2018 (Ij = +1.27), and unfavorable ones in 2019 (Ij = -1.62). The productivity of the varieties ‘Erema’ (9.4 t / ha; +0.7), ‘Marusya’ (9.7 t / ha; +1.0) and the line ‘Pallidum 1972’ (9.4 t / ha; +0.7) exceeded that of the standard variety. There has been established the varieties and lines ‘Timofey’, ‘Pallidum 1972’, ‘Parallium 1979’, ‘Parallum 1981’ had increased stress resistance. The varieties ‘Erema’, ‘Marusya’ and the line ‘Pallidum 1972’ had a higher compensatory ability. According to the analysis of adaptability, the varieties ‘Erema’, ‘Marusya’, ‘Foks 1’, as well as the line ‘Parallelum 1976’ were identified as responsive with linear regression coefficient values above one. The lines ‘Pallidum 1972’, ‘Parallelum 1979’, ‘Parallelum 1981’ and the variety ‘Marusya’ consistently produced high yields. The lines ‘Pallidum 1972’, ‘Parallum 1979’ and ‘Parallum 1981’ possessed high stability index (L) and PUSS index.


Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 1866
Author(s):  
Philipp Reichel ◽  
Sebastian Munz ◽  
Jens Hartung ◽  
Achim Präger ◽  
Stiina Kotiranta ◽  
...  

Cannabis is one of the oldest cultivated plants, but plant breeding and cultivation are restricted by country specific regulations. Plant growth, morphology and metabolism can be manipulated by changing light quality and intensity. Three morphologically different strains were grown under three different light spectra with three real light repetitions. Light dispersion was included into the statistical evaluation. The light spectra considered had an influence on the morphology of the plant, especially the height. Here, the shade avoidance induced by the lower R:FR ratio under the ceramic metal halide lamp (CHD) was of particular interest. The sugar leaves seemed to be of elementary importance in the last growth phase for yield composition. Furthermore, the last four weeks of flowering were crucial to influence the yield composition of Cannabis sativa L. through light spectra. The dry flower yield was significantly higher under both LED treatments compared to the conventional CHD light source. Our results indicate that the plant morphology can be artificially manipulated by the choice of light treatment to create shorter plants with more lateral branches which seem to be beneficial for yield development. Furthermore, the choice of cultivar has to be taken into account when interpreting results of light studies, as Cannabis sativa L. subspecies and thus bred strains highly differ in their phenotypic characteristics.


Author(s):  
Nathaniel Schleif ◽  
Shawn M. Kaeppler ◽  
Heidi F. Kaeppler

AbstractPlant breeding relies on the presence of genetic variation, which is generated by a random process of mutagenesis that acts on existing gene pools. This variation is then recombined into new forms at frequencies impacted by the local euchromatin and heterochromatin environment. The result is a genetic lottery where plant breeders face increasingly low odds of generating a “winning” plant genotype. Genome editing tools enable targeted manipulation of the genome, providing a means to increase genetic variation and enhancing the chances for plant breeding success. Editing can be applied in a targeted way, where known genetic variation that improves performance can be directly brought into lines of interest through either deletion or insertion. This empowers approaches that are traditionally difficult such as novel domestication and introgression of wild accessions into a germplasm pool. Furthermore, broader editing-mediated approaches such as recombination enhancement and targeted random mutagenesis bring novel ways of variation creation to the plant breeding toolbox. Continued development and application of plant genome editing tools will be needed to aid in meeting critical global crop improvement needs.


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