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10.29007/ch88 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mai Thuc Vy Huynh ◽  
Thi Tien Pham ◽  
My Nga Truong ◽  
Tran Hong Duyen Trinh

Applying laser technology to the growth of plants to limit the use of chemical fertilizers is an interesting topic in agriculture. The main idea is to preserve the environment, ensuring product quality while still achieving high productivity, we decided to carry out this research project, to investigate the effect of the low-level laser (the wavelengths 532nm, 850nm, and 940nm) on stems and leaf development. It is expected that with these research results, the implementation method will be widely disseminated in the high agricultural sector, coming closer to farmers. Moreover, the results of the analysis of the composition of bitter melon stems and leaves will be applied in medical treatment (such as diabetes, wound treatment, anti-oxidation, anti-bacteria ...)


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 144
Author(s):  
Mohammed Rasheed Igbal

Climate change is one of the most crucial challenges identified in this century for the Pacific Region, such as Fiji, Samoa, Solomon Islands and many more. Citizens of Fiji have gone through peculiarly climatic and weather conditions over the past years like globalization, which had led to many consequences, especially in the agricultural sector which is the main income of many livelihoods not only in Fiji but in other Pacific countries as well. Climatic conditions have been changing adversely from past decades, such as temperature, rise in the sea level, precipitation changes, atmospheric composition changes, flooding, and tropical cyclones. These changes have led to alterations in the environment, thus, affecting crop and livestock production in the agricultural system. For instance, crops that require specific soil and temperature situations are vastly influenced when the temperature level changes suddenly, making the crops vulnerable to adapt to the alterations and therefore, the crops eventually die. Likewise, animal species also get affected by temperature changes, such as heat stress which specifically affects the fertility of male and female livestock. Due to these events, Fiji’s economies have also been affected since agriculture plays a vital role in boosting our economy through local market sales and exporting. Thereby, this review illustrates the impacts of climate change and ways to move forward/ solutions, for example, FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) and Pacific Islands Climate Change Assistance Program (PICCAP) have supported Fiji in bringing adaptation programs for preparing farmers and all other individuals on the upcoming climatic conditions such as adapting tolerant crops that can handle droughts and other adverse weather conditions.


Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 221
Author(s):  
Muhammad Asyraf Mohd Amnan ◽  
Wan Mohd Aizat ◽  
Fiqri Dizar Khaidizar ◽  
Boon Chin Tan

Drought is one of the significant threats to the agricultural sector. However, there is limited knowledge on plant response to drought stress and post-drought recovery. Pandanus amaryllifolius, a moderate drought-tolerant plant, is well-known for its ability to survive in low-level soil moisture conditions. Understanding the molecular regulation of drought stress signaling in this plant could help guide the rational design of crop plants to counter this environmental challenge. This study aimed to determine the morpho-physiological, biochemical, and protein changes of P. amaryllifolius in response to drought stress and during recovery. Drought significantly reduced the leaf relative water content and chlorophyll content of P. amaryllifolius. In contrast, relative electrolyte leakage, proline and malondialdehyde contents, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the drought-treated and recovered samples were relatively higher than the well-watered sample. The protein changes between drought-stressed, well-watered, and recovered plants were evaluated using tandem mass tags (TMT)-based quantitative proteomics. Of the 1415 differentially abundant proteins, 74 were significantly altered. The majority of proteins differing between them were related to carbon metabolism, photosynthesis, stress response, and antioxidant activity. This is the first study that reports the protein changes in response to drought stress in Pandanus. The data generated provide an insight into the drought-responsive mechanisms in P. amaryllifolius.


Author(s):  
Ali BAKO OUSMANE ◽  
Mehmet ŞIŞMAN

This paper aims to investigate structural convergence in selected African countries over the period 1994-2019. Using panel data for 48 African countries and several estimation methods [Panel-Corrected Standard Errors (PCSE), Feasible Generalized Least Squares (FGLS), tobit model, instrumental variable, and Granger non-causality], the results show the existence of the phenomenon of sectoral structural convergence in Africa, i.e. a greater similarity in sectoral structures while income gaps are narrowing. The paper also highlights the service sector's low relative productivity level and industrial sector's low labor force attractiveness despite a significant shift in labor from the agricultural sector and a higher level of relative productivity respectively. To address this issue, the development and acquisition of human and physical capital would be necessary to develop the industrial sector and increase the service sector's productivity.


2022 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ingrid Fromm

Coffee is an important agricultural sector in Central American, directly employing over 1.2 million people in Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. Although export revenues from coffee trade have an overall positive effect on the gross domestic product (GDP) of these countries, poverty still prevails. The COVID-19 pandemic has placed additional pressure on the sector which is vulnerable to fluctuations in the international coffee prices, low productivity levels, and climate change effects and damages caused by pest and diseases. This paper examines the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and analyzes if the sector is resilient to withstand unexpected external shocks such as the pandemic and the hurricanes which impacted the region in the last months of 2020. The capacity to absorb, adapt, and/or transform to these shocks was assessed from the perspective of small-scale coffee farmers, traders, exporters and the entire sector in two time periods—immediately after the start of the pandemic and after the coffee harvest. Although the actors in the coffee value chain absorbed these shocks and could withstand them, adaptation to the disruptions has been challenging for small-scale farmers. Despite the vulnerability to unexpected external shocks, results indicate that a long-term transformation of the sector to build resilience is likely to be slow.


Horticulturae ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 75
Author(s):  
Amira K. Nasrallah ◽  
Ahmed A. Kheder ◽  
Maimona A. Kord ◽  
Ahmed S. Fouad ◽  
Mohamed M. El-Mogy ◽  
...  

Water salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses, and the use of saline water for the agricultural sector will incur greater demand in the coming decades. Recently, nanoparticles (NPs) have been used for developing numerous plant fertilizers as a smart and powerful form of material with dual action that can alleviate the adverse effects of salinity and provide the plant with more efficient nutrient forms. This study evaluated the influence of calcium phosphate NPs (CaP-NPs) as a soil fertilizer application on the production and bioactive compounds of broad bean plants under salinity stress. Results showed that salinity had deleterious effects on plant yield with 55.9% reduction compared to control. On the other hand, CaP-NPs dramatically improved plant yield by 30% compared to conventional fertilizer under salinity stress. This improvement could be attributed to significantly higher enhancement in total soluble sugars, antioxidant enzymes, proline content, and total phenolics recorded use of nano-fertilizer compared to conventional use under salt stress. Additionally, nano-fertilizer reflected better mitigatory effects on plant growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, and oxidative stress indicators (MDA and H2O2). Therefore, our results support the replacement of traditional fertilizers comprising Ca2+ or P with CaP-nano-fertilizers for higher plant productivity and sustainability under salt stress.


Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 606
Author(s):  
Abhishek Sadananda Madival ◽  
Deepak Doreswamy ◽  
Shripathi Adiga Handady ◽  
Krishna Raghava Hebbar ◽  
Shobha Karabylu Lakshminarayana

Managing rice crop stubble is one of the major challenges witnessed in the agricultural sector. This work attempts to investigate the physical, mechanical, and liquid absorption properties of rice straw (RS)-reinforced polymer composite for assessing its suitability to use as an ayurvedic treatment table. This material is expected to be an alternative for wooden-based ayurvedic treatment tables. The results showed that the addition of rice straw particles (RSp) up to 60% volume in epoxy reduced the density of the composite material by 46.20% and the hardness by 15.69%. The maximum tensile and flexural strength of the RSp composite was 17.53 MPa and 43.23 MPa, respectively. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed deposits of silica in the form of phytoliths in various size and shapes on the outer surface of RS. The study also revealed that the water absorption rate (WA) was less than 7.8% for the test samples with 45% volume of RSp. Interestingly the test samples showed greater resistance to the absorption of Kottakal Dhanvantaram Thailam (<2%). In addition, the developed samples showed resistance towards bacterial and fungal growth under the exposure of treatment oils and water.


Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 135
Author(s):  
Demetrios E. Tsesmelis ◽  
Christos A. Karavitis ◽  
Kleomenis Kalogeropoulos ◽  
Efthimios Zervas ◽  
Constantina G. Vasilakou ◽  
...  

Natural resources degradation poses multiple challenges particularly to environmental and economic processes. It is usually difficult to identify the degree of degradation and the critical vulnerability values in the affected systems. Thus, among other tools, indices (composite indicators) may also describe these complex systems or phenomena. In this approach, the Water and Land Resources Degradation Index was applied to the fifth largest Mediterranean island, Crete, for the 1999–2014 period. The Water and Land Resources Degradation Index uses 11 water and soil resources related indicators: Aridity Index, Water Demand, Drought Impacts, Drought Resistance Water Resources Infrastructure, Land Use Intensity, Soil Parent Material, Plant Cover, Rainfall, Slope, and Soil Texture. The aim is to identify the sensitive areas to degradation due to anthropogenic interventions and natural processes, as well as their vulnerability status. The results for Crete Island indicate that prolonged water resources shortages due to low average precipitation values or high water demand (especially in the agricultural sector), may significantly affect Water and Land degradation processes. Hence, Water and Land Resources Degradation Index could serve as an extra tool to assist policymakers to improve their decisions to combat Natural Resources degradation.


2022 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
Author(s):  
Graciella Corcioli ◽  
Gabriel da Silva Medina ◽  
Cristiano Alencar Arrais

Currently there is controversy about the effect of direct foreign investment in the Brazilian agricultural sector, mainly due to the impact it has on small farmers, land use, the environment, and food security. In this context, Brazil finds itself in an even more delicate situation, since in order to remain a bulwark of the economy, Brazilian agribusiness depends heavily on public policies that directly impact its treasury. This suggests there is an indirect transfer of public resources to transnational companies involved in agribusiness production chains. This paper assesses the allocation of agricultural credits in Brazil and the market share held by Brazilian groups, vis-à-vis multinational corporations in the agribusiness supply chains. The study was carried out analyzing the three largest supply chains established in the country: soybean, corn, and cattle. Results reveal that 75% of the operating credit (crédito de custeio), which represents 60% of the total government credit in Brazil, goes directly to soybean, corn, and cattle farmers. Most of this subsidized credit budget goes to the soybean farmers, which are mostly encompassed by large farmers. Results also reveal that 76.1% of the soybean supply chain in Brazil is controlled by foreign multinational corporations. These findings suggest that resources invested in large farmers that take part in supply chains controlled by multinational foreign groups end up indirectly financing foreign companies to the detriment of local smallholder farmers and domestic agribusiness. This highlights the need for restructuring Brazilian agricultural policy in favor of family farmers and domestic agribusiness.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 762
Author(s):  
Somayeh Ahmadi ◽  
Rezvan Ghanbari Movahed ◽  
Saeed Gholamrezaie ◽  
Mehdi Rahimian

The agricultural sector in rural areas is seriously affected by climate change, affecting agricultural production and farming communities. This paper investigates rural households’ vulnerability to floods in the seven agricultural-based regions of Pol-e Dokhtar, south of Lorestan Province, Iran. The primary data for the vulnerability indicators were collected from 322 households. Three main components of vulnerability, including exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity, were measured using the obtained data. The weighting of indicators was done by the MSF method and using MATLAB software. The results showed that the social and economic characteristics of households affect their vulnerability to floods. The Jayder, Mamolan, and Afrineh regions, which were more exposed to floods, had less capacity for adaptation. The results showed that the most vulnerable communities could be described by characteristics such as low levels of agricultural insurance, limited access to credit, low levels of income diversification, high levels of unemployment, low levels of social capital, higher dependency ratios, and poor infrastructure. This research showed that diversified livelihoods have a significant effect on reducing farmers’ sensitivity to floods. The study proposes policy implications to increase resilience and reduce farmers’ vulnerability to floods. The government and other development partners should prioritize the most vulnerable areas by improving their access to finance and providing the technical assistance required for increasing their coping capacity.


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