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2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-30
Fahimeh Ebrahimi ◽  
Miroslav Tushev ◽  
Anas Mahmoud

Modern application stores enable developers to classify their apps by choosing from a set of generic categories, or genres, such as health, games, and music. These categories are typically static—new categories do not necessarily emerge over time to reflect innovations in the mobile software landscape. With thousands of apps classified under each category, locating apps that match a specific consumer interest can be a challenging task. To overcome this challenge, in this article, we propose an automated approach for classifying mobile apps into more focused categories of functionally related application domains. Our aim is to enhance apps visibility and discoverability. Specifically, we employ word embeddings to generate numeric semantic representations of app descriptions. These representations are then classified to generate more cohesive categories of apps. Our empirical investigation is conducted using a dataset of 600 apps, sampled from the Education, Health&Fitness, and Medical categories of the Apple App Store. The results show that our classification algorithms achieve their best performance when app descriptions are vectorized using GloVe, a count-based model of word embeddings. Our findings are further validated using a dataset of Sharing Economy apps and the results are evaluated by 12 human subjects. The results show that GloVe combined with Support Vector Machines can produce app classifications that are aligned to a large extent with human-generated classifications.

Youssef Elfahm ◽  
Nesrine Abajaddi ◽  
Badia Mounir ◽  
Laila Elmaazouzi ◽  
Ilham Mounir ◽  

<span>Many technology systems have used voice recognition applications to transcribe a speaker’s speech into text that can be used by these systems. One of the most complex tasks in speech identification is to know, which acoustic cues will be used to classify sounds. This study presents an approach for characterizing Arabic fricative consonants in two groups (sibilant and non-sibilant). From an acoustic point of view, our approach is based on the analysis of the energy distribution, in frequency bands, in a syllable of the consonant-vowel type. From a practical point of view, our technique has been implemented, in the MATLAB software, and tested on a corpus built in our laboratory. The results obtained show that the percentage energy distribution in a speech signal is a very powerful parameter in the classification of Arabic fricatives. We obtained an accuracy of 92% for non-sibilant consonants /f, χ, ɣ, ʕ, ћ, and h/, 84% for sibilants /s, sҁ, z, Ӡ and ∫/, and 89% for the whole classification rate. In comparison to other algorithms based on neural networks and support vector machines (SVM), our classification system was able to provide a higher classification rate.</span>

2022 ◽  
Vol 308 ◽  
pp. 118338
Navid Bayati ◽  
Ebrahim Balouji ◽  
Hamid Reza Baghaee ◽  
Amin Hajizadeh ◽  
Mohsen Soltani ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 819
Lena A. Hofmann ◽  
Steffen Lau ◽  
Johannes Kirchebner

Linear statistical methods may not be suited to the understanding of psychiatric phenomena such as aggression due to their complexity and multifactorial origins. Here, the application of machine learning (ML) algorithms offers the possibility of analyzing a large number of influencing factors and their interactions. This study aimed to explore inpatient aggression in offender patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) using a suitable ML model on a dataset of 370 patients. With a balanced accuracy of 77.6% and an AUC of 0.87, support vector machines (SVM) outperformed all the other ML algorithms. Negative behavior toward other patients, the breaking of ward rules, the PANSS score at admission as well as poor impulse control and impulsivity emerged as the most predictive variables in distinguishing aggressive from non-aggressive patients. The present study serves as an example of the practical use of ML in forensic psychiatric research regarding the complex interplay between the factors contributing to aggressive behavior in SSD. Through its application, it could be shown that mental illness and the antisocial behavior associated with it outweighed other predictors. The fact that SSD is also highly associated with antisocial behavior emphasizes the importance of early detection and sufficient treatment.

2022 ◽  
Raj Bridgelall

Abstract The aim of this tutorial is to help students grasp the theory and applicability of support vector machines (SVMs). The contribution is an intuitive style tutorial that helped students gain insights into SVM from a unique perspective. An internet search will reveal many videos and articles on SVM, but free peer-reviewed tutorials are generally not available or are incomplete. Instructional materials that provide simplified explanations of SVM leave gaps in the derivations that beginning students cannot fill. Most of the free tutorials also lack guidance on practical applications and considerations. The software wrappers in many modern programming libraries of Python and R currently hide the operational complexities. Such software tools often use default parameters that ignore domain knowledge or leave knowledge gaps about the important effects of SVM hyperparameters, resulting in misuse and subpar outcomes. The author uses this tutorial as a course reference for students studying artificial intelligence and machine learning. The tutorial derives the classic SVM classifier from first principles and then derives the practical form that a computer uses to train a classification model. An intuitive explanation about confusion matrices, F1 score, and the AUC metric extend insights into the inherent tradeoff between sensitivity and specificity. A discussion about cross-validation provides a basic understanding of how to select and tune the hyperparameters to maximize generalization by balancing underfitting and overfitting. Even seasoned self-learners with advanced statistical backgrounds have gained insights from this tutorial style of intuitive explanations, with all related considerations for tuning and performance evaluations in one place.

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 191
Daniel R. Prado ◽  
Jesús A. López-Fernández ◽  
Manuel Arrebola

In this work, a simple, efficient and accurate database in the form of a lookup table to use in reflectarray design and direct layout optimization is presented. The database uses N-linear interpolation internally to estimate the reflection coefficients at coordinates that are not stored within it. The speed and accuracy of this approach were measured against the use of the full-wave technique based on local periodicity to populate the database. In addition, it was also compared with a machine learning technique, namely, support vector machines applied to regression in the same conditions, to elucidate the advantages and disadvantages of each one of these techniques. The results obtained from the application to the layout design, analysis and crosspolar optimization of a very large reflectarray for space applications show that, despite using a simple N-linear interpolation, the database offers sufficient accuracy, while considerably accelerating the overall design process as long as it is conveniently populated.

2022 ◽  
Muhammad Shaheer Mirza ◽  
Sheikh Muhammad Munaf ◽  
Shahid Ali ◽  
Fahad Azim ◽  
Saad Jawaid Khan

Abstract In order to perform their daily activities, a person is required to communicating with others. This can be a major obstacle for the deaf population of the world, who communicate using sign languages (SL). Pakistani Sign Language (PSL) is used by more than 250,000 deaf Pakistanis. Developing a SL recognition system would greatly facilitate these people. This study aimed to collect data of static and dynamic PSL alphabets and to develop a vision-based system for their recognition using Bag-of-Words (BoW) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) techniques. A total of 5,120 images for 36 static PSL alphabet signs and 353 videos with 45,224 frames for 3 dynamic PSL alphabet signs were collected from 10 native signers of PSL. The developed system used the collected data as input, resized the data to various scales and converted the RGB images into grayscale. The resized grayscale images were segmented using Thresholding technique and features were extracted using Speeded Up Robust Feature (SURF). The obtained SURF descriptors were clustered using K-means clustering. A BoW was obtained by computing the Euclidean distance between the SURF descriptors and the clustered data. The codebooks were divided into training and testing using 5-fold cross validation. The highest overall classification accuracy for static PSL signs was 97.80% at 750×750 image dimensions and 500 Bags. For dynamic PSL signs a 96.53% accuracy was obtained at 480×270 video resolution and 200 Bags.

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