wilcoxon test
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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 45-51
Made Susiyanti ◽  
Florence M. Manurung ◽  

AIM: To evaluate the graft rejection and visual outcomes after penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in the presence of various congenital corneal opacities in children. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, children who underwent PK were then followed for 5y. The patient's medical records were collected from June 2014 until June 2019 and analyzed in December 2019. All patients were children under three years old with congenital corneal opacities with or without microcornea who came to a pediatric ophthalmologist and underwent PK in Jakarta Eye Center (JEC). Beforehand, all children have participated in a thorough evaluation for PK. In the case of severe microcornea was not advised to undergo surgery. The visual outcomes and graft survival rate were described in percentages. The graft survival plot was presented with Kaplan-Meier, while the visual acuity was analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed ranks test. RESULTS: Sixteen eyes from eleven patients (seven girls and four boys) underwent PK. The graft survival rate of the first 6, 12, and 18 mo later of keratoplasty was 100%, 83.3%, and 66.7%, respectively. The overall mean survival time is 22mo (standard error 2.419), and no significant difference between the patients underwent PK before and after 36mo of their age (P=0.52). The graft failure was 50%, and post-surgery complications included cataract 43.7%, band keratopathy 12.5%, and scleromalasia 6.25%. Wilcoxon test analysis of visual acuity post keratoplasty was not statistically significant (P=0.34), while overall showed 44% improvements of visual outcome for 5y of follow-up. With a good survival at one year up to 22mo (83.3%), the visual acuity could be achieved (63%), and showed improvements (44%) during follow-up. CONCLUSION: The complications are frequent for pediatric PK. Thus, corneal surgery on infants requires careful case selection, adequate pre-operative evaluation, skilled surgery (optical correction), very close cooperation family–physician, intensive post-operation care, and amblyopia management in the future.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 113-118
Kai-Yun Zhang ◽  
Jia-Rui Yang ◽  
Wei-Qiang Qiu ◽  

AIM: To explore the efficacy of the orthokeratology lens for anisometropic myopia progression. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed. Cycloplegic refraction and axial length (AL) were collected from 50 children (10.52±1.72y) who visited Peking University Third Hospital from July 2015 to August 2020. These children's one eyes (Group A) received monocular orthokeratology lenses at first, after different durations (12.20±6.94mo), their contralateral eyes (Group B) developed myopia and receive orthokeratology as well. The data in 1-year of binocular period were recorded. AL growth rate (difference of follow-up and baseline per month) were compared between two groups by paired t test. Interocular differences of AL were compared by Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: During monocular period, the AL growth rate of the Group A (0.008±0.022 mm/mo) was significantly slower than that of the Group B (0.038±0.018 mm/mo; P<0.0001). However, during binocular period, the AL growth rate of the Group A (0.026±0.014 mm/mo) was significantly faster than that of the Group B (0.016±0.015 mm/mo; P<0.0001). The AL difference between both eyes was 0.6 (0.46) mm, then significantly decreased to 0.22 (0.39) mm when started binocular treatment (P<0.0001). However, it was significantly increased to 0.30 (0.32) mm after a year (P<0.0001), but still significantly lower than baseline (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: The orthokeratology lens is efficient for control the AL elongation of monocular myopia eyes and reduce anisometropia. For the condition that the contralateral eyes develop myopia and receive orthokeratology lens later, there is no efficiency observed on control interocular difference of AL during binocular treatment.

2022 ◽  
Jinyang Ma ◽  
Lei Wang ◽  
Youdong Zhou ◽  
Changtao Fu ◽  
Song Huang ◽  

Abstract Backgroud: Discovering effective immune-related biomarkers is vital to ensure efficient immunotherapy for glioma patients. Integrin Alpha L(ITGAL), essential to inflammatory and immune responses, have not been studied in gliomas, systematically. Methods RNA‑seq data and corresponding clinical information of glioma patients were collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA), and mRNA data of normal brain tissues were obtained in Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. Wilcoxon test was performed to analyze the correlation of ITGAL expression and glioma subtypes. Univariate and multivariate cox proportional hazards regression, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and Kaplan-Meier plots were used to evaluate the prognostic value of ITGAL in glioma. Functional enrichment analyses and immune infiltration analysis were performed to investigate the potential function in mediating the immune response in the tumor microenvironment. Finally, we evaluated the ability of ITGAL for predicting the efficacy of ICB treatment for patients. Results We found the up-regulation of ITGAL may predict a poor prognosis for glioma patients, the expression level increased with the increasing of WHO grade and 1p19q co-deletion status and IDH mutation status. The total methylation level and copy number variation of ITGAL were moderately correlated with its mRNA expression in LGG samples (P < 0.05). Furthermore, ITGAL was correlated with the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment for the strong correlation with M2 macrophages and Tregs. Finally, GSEA showed the upregulation of ITGAL was mainly involved in the signal recognition and regulation between immune cells, and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. Conclusion ITGAL is a novel tumor-related and immune-associated biomarker, which could predict the prognosis and effect of ICB therapy for glioma patients.

Vicente Faus-Matoses ◽  
Eva Burgos Ibáñez ◽  
Vicente Faus-Llácer ◽  
Celia Ruiz-Sánchez ◽  
Álvaro Zubizarreta-Macho ◽  

This study aimed at analyzing and comparing the ease of removal of fractured nickel–titanium (NiTi) endodontic rotary files from the root canal system between the ultrasonic tips and the Endo Rescue appliance removal systems, as well as comparing the volume of dentin removed between ultrasonic tips and the Endo Rescue appliance using a micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scan. Material and Methods: Forty NiTi endodontic rotary files were intentionally fractured in 40 root canal systems of 20 lower first molar teeth and distributed into the following study groups: A: Ultrasonic tips (n = 20) (US) and B: Endo Rescue device (n = 20) (ER). Preoperative and postoperative micro-CT scans were uploaded into image processing software to analyze the volumetric variations of dentin using an algorithm that enables progressive differentiation between neighboring pixels after defining and segmenting the fractured NiTi endodontic rotary files and the root canal systems in both micro-CT scans. A non-parametric Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon test or t-test for independent samples was used to analyze the results. Results: The US and ES study groups saw 8 (1 mesiobuccal and 7 distal root canal system) and 3 (distal root canal system) fractured NiTi endodontic rotary files removed, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found in the amount of dentin removed between the US and ER study groups at the mesiobuccal (p = 0.9109) and distal root canal system (p = 0.8669). Conclusions: Ultrasonic tips enable greater ease of removal of NiTi endodontic rotary files from the root canal system, with similar amounts of dentin removal between the two methods.

Yichi Zhang ◽  
Abdel Hadi El Hajjar ◽  
Chao Huang ◽  
Aneesh Dhore-Patil ◽  
Mario Mekhael ◽  

Introduction: Larger left atrial appendage (LAA) ostium area and greater left atrial (LA) volume have been associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. Catheter ablation (CA) of atrial fibrillation (AF) leads to morphological and functional changes within the LA and LAA, some of which are not well studied. Here, we present findings regarding post-ablation changes of the LAA ostia and correlate them with various LA, LAA and left ventricular (LV) functional and morphological metrics. Methods: This retrospective analysis included patients scheduled to undergo first-time radiofrequency CA for AF. Catheter ablation techniques included PVI with or without additional ablations. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) was used to assess LA, LAA and LV morphology and function, including LAA ostium area, LA/LAA volume and volume index, LA ejection fraction, LA strain, and LV ejection fraction. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used for correlating LAA ostial dimensions with other LA morphological and functional metrics. The t-test or two-sample Wilcoxon test were used to compare LA and LAA morphological parameters. Results: A total of 101 patients with AF were included in this study. The mean age was 60.1 ± 11.1 years, 69% were male, the average BMI was 29.22 ± 5.08. The LAA ostial area reduced significantly from 3.84 ± 1.15 cm before ablation to 3.42 ± 0.96 cm after ablation (p=0.0004). This reduction was asymmetrical, as the minor axis length decreased from 1.92 cm to 1.77 cm without significant changes in the major axis. LVEF increased from a pre-ablation average of 48.26% to a post-ablation average of 53.62% (p=0.015). Correlation of pre-ablation LVEF and LAA ostium area showed a near-significant negative trend (r=-0.21, p=0.083). LAEF correlated negatively with LAA ostial area (r=-0.289, p=0.0057), total LA strain (r=-0.248, p=0.0185), and passive LA strain (r=-0.208, p=0.049). Conclusion: There is a significant asymmetrical reduction of the LAA ostial area after AF ablation that is independent of LVEF changes. Larger LAA ostial area was associated with lower LAEF and LA strain. Remodeling of the LAA after AF ablation may help account for reduced risk of stroke and increased cardiac function.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Efat Mohamadi ◽  
Mohammad Mehdi Kiani ◽  
Alireza Olyaeemanesh ◽  
Amirhossein Takian ◽  
Reza Majdzadeh ◽  

Background: Measuring the efficiency and productivity of hospitals is a key tool to cost contamination and management that is very important for any healthcare system for having an efficient system.Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of contextual factors on hospital efficiency in Iranian public hospitals.Methods: This was a quantitative and descriptive-analytical study conducted in two steps. First, we measured the efficiency score of teaching and non-teaching hospitals by using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method. Second, the relationship between efficiency score and contextual factors was analyzed. We used median statistics (first and third quarters) to describe the concentration and distribution of each variable in teaching and non-teaching hospitals, then the Wilcoxon test was used to compare them. The Spearman test was used to evaluate the correlation between the efficiency of hospitals and contextual variables (province area, province population, population density, and the number of beds per hospital).Results: On average, the efficiency score in non-teaching hospitals in 31 provinces was 0.67 and for teaching hospitals was 0.54. Results showed that there is no significant relationship between the efficiency score and the number of hospitals in the provinces (p = 0.1 and 0.15, respectively). The relationship between the number of hospitals and the population of the province was significant and positive. Also, there was a positive relationship between the number of beds and the area of the province in both types of teaching and non-teaching hospitals.Conclusion: Multilateral factors influence the efficiency of hospitals and to address hospital inefficiency multi-intervention packages focusing on the hospital and its context should be developed. It is necessary to pay attention to contextual factors and organizational architecture to improve efficiency.

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 104
Ali Abusharha ◽  
Gamal A. El-Hiti ◽  
Mushawwat H. Alsubaie ◽  
Abdulaziz F. Munshi ◽  
Ahmed R. Alnasif ◽  

Diabetes is a very common disease and is considered a risk factor for many diseases such as dry eye. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the tear evaporation rate (TER) in patients with diabetes using a hand-held evaporimeter. This observational, case–control and non-randomized study included 30 male patients with diabetes (17 controlled and 13 uncontrolled) with a mean ± standard deviation (SD) of 33.1 ± 7.9 years. An age-matched (18–43 years; 32.2 ± 6.5 years) control group consisting of 30 male subjects was also enrolled for comparison. Subjects with thyroid gland disorder, a high body mass index, high blood cholesterol, or thalassemia, contact lens wearers, and smokers were excluded. The TER was measured after the completion of the ocular surface disease index (OSDI) by each participant. The OSDI and TER median scores were significantly (Wilcoxon test, p < 0.05) higher in patients with diabetes (median (interquartile range; IQR) = 12.0 (8.3) and 46.4 (36.7) g/m2h, respectively) compared to the subjects within the control group (5.6 (7.0) and 15.1 (11.9) g/m2h, respectively). The median scores for the OSDI and TER measurements were significantly (Wilcoxon test, p < 0.05) higher among uncontrolled diabetes patients (13.0 (11.5) and 53.4 (14.2) g/m2h, respectively) compared to those obtained for patients with controlled diabetes (11.0 (8.0) and 27.3 (32.6) g/m2h, respectively). The tear evaporation rate in patients with diabetes was significantly higher compared to those obtained in subjects without diabetes. Uncontrolled diabetes patients have a higher tear evaporation rate compared to controlled diabetes patients. Therefore, diabetes can lead to eye dryness, since these patients possibly suffer excessive tear evaporation.

2022 ◽  
Esmaeel Saemi ◽  
Hadi Nobari ◽  
Georgian Badicu ◽  
Habibollah Ghazizadeh ◽  
Ali Pashabadi ◽  

Abstract BackgroundThe aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions on physical activity behaviours, as well as on mental health indicators among Iranian residents. MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, 335 participants were included (155 males, mean age = 30.06 ± 14.58 years). The eligibility criteria for this study were as follows; 1- Having at least 10 years of age. 2- Having a minimum literacy rate 3- Ability to work with networks of smart communication devices such as smartphones and computers 4- Living in Iran for the past 5 years. Participants were selected through the convenience sampling and filled out an online questionnaire measuring physical activity behaviours (The International Physical Activity Questionnaire; IPAQ; Short Form) and two mental health indicators – self-esteem (Rosenberg self-esteem scale) and social physical anxiety (7-items social physique anxiety scale). ResultsThe results of Wilcoxon test showed that participants reported significant differences from before to during the pandemic in all three variables of physical activity (significant decreases), self-esteem (significant decreases), and social physical anxiety (significant increases). This difference was found, regardless of participants’ gender. The results of Spearman correlation test between changes in physical activity and changes in mental health indicators showed that COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted self-esteem and social physical anxiety. However, we have not found any significant association of physical activity’s change with social physical anxiety or self-esteem’s changes before and during the pandemic. ConclusionsIn sum, the findings of the present study indicate a detrimental effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the physical activity and mental health among Iranian’s residents. Public policies aiming to buffer the negative impact on COVID-19 Iranians’ health are urgently needed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 1134-1139
Nurhidayati Harun ◽  
Firdawati Firdawati ◽  
Nia Kurniasih

The use of drugs for pregnancy and breastfeeding needs to be self-medication and the importance of counselling to increase the mother's knowledge about the correct use of drugs so that pregnant and lactating women's level of health and knowledge increases. The counselling purpose was to determine the mother's level of knowledge and whether there was a difference in the knowledge level of the use of drugs during pregnancy and lactation. The method used is pre and post-media analysis (flipchart). Data analysis obtain by scoring questionnaires, univariate analysis, and statistical analysis. Mann-Whitney test results showed that in the post-test or after giving counselling using flipchart media, there was a change in respondents' knowledge from before being given a flipchart and after being given a flipchart. The hypothesis from this counselling is accepted, which means that giving flipcharts affects the level of knowledge. The calculations using the spearman test obtained p-value pretest 0.732 and p-value post-test 0.253 for pregnant women and obtained p-value pretest and post-test of 0.033 (p <0.05) for breastfeeding mothers, then there is a relationship between the education level pregnant and lactating mothers with knowledge. The Wilcoxon test data pretest and post-test knowledge of pregnant and lactating mothers had a p-value of 0.003 (p 0.05), the effect of counselling concluded with flipchart media on the knowledge of pregnant and lactating mothers about the use of drugs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 ◽  
pp. 107327482110515
Runzhi Huang ◽  
Mingxiao Li ◽  
Zhiwei Zeng ◽  
Jie Zhang ◽  
Dianwen Song ◽  

Skin cutaneous melanoma (SKCM) is a type of highly invasive cancer originated from melanocytes. It is reported that aberrant alternative splicing (AS) plays an important role in the neoplasia and metastasis of many types of cancer. Therefore, we investigated whether ASEs of pre-RNA have such an influence on the prognosis of SKCM and the related mechanism of ASEs in SKCM. The RNA-seq data and ASEs data for SKCM patients were obtained from the TCGA and TCGASpliceSeq database. The univariate Cox regression revealed 1265 overall survival-related splicing events (OS-SEs). Screened by Lasso regression, 4 OS-SEs were identified and used to construct an effective prediction model (AUC: .904), whose risk score was proved to be an independent prognostic factor. Furthermore, Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon test showed that an aberrant splicing type of aminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex-interacting multifunctional protein 2 (AIMP2) regulated by CDC-like kinase 1 (CLK1) was associated with the metastasis and stage of SKCM. Besides, the overlapped signal pathway for AIMP2 was galactose metabolism identified by the co-expression analysis. External database validation also confirmed that AIMP2, CLK1, and the galactose metabolism were associated with the metastasis and stage of SKCM patients. ChIP-seq and ATAC-seq methods further confirmed the transcription regulation of CLK1, AIMP2, and other key genes, whose cellular expression was detected by Single Cell Sequencing. In conclusion, we proposed that CLK1-regulated AIMP2-78704-ES might play a critical role in the tumorigenesis and metastasis of SKCM via galactose metabolism. Besides, we established an effective model with MTMR14-63114-ES, URI1-48867-ES, BATF2-16724-AP, and MED22-88025-AP to predict the metastasis and prognosis of SKCM patients.

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