AIM: To investigate the effect of nano-selenium loaded with different concentrations of lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP-SeNPs) on the proliferation of human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) from UV irradiation.
METHODS: LBP-SeNPs were prepared and their particle size was detected. HLECs (SRA01/04) were irradiated with UVB for different time (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60min) to construct a damaged model, the survival rate of cells was determined by methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The 4',6-Diamidine-2'-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining was used to observe the status of cell nucleus and drug entering cytoplasm through cell membrane in SRA01/04 cells after adding LBP-SENPS loaded with coumarin fluorescence agent 24h under fluorescence microscope. SRA01/04 normal and UVB-damaged cells were treated with different amounts of LBP-SeNPs at different concentrations, cells proliferation were observed.
RESULTS: The particle size of LBP-SeNPs was stable in the range of 150-200 nm. The survival rate changes with time after UVB irradiation were statistically significant. The 10min of UVB exposure as the time was chosen to construct the cell damage model. With DAPI staining, LBP-SeNPs were observed to enter the cytoplasm through the cell membrane under fluorescence inverted microscope. Cytotoxicity of SRA01/04 at different concentrations of LBP-SeNPs were measured. Cell survival rate was statistically different compared with the control group. The higher the loading concentration of LBP in nano-Se drugs was, the higher the cell proliferation rate was (P<0.05). The lower the concentration of LBP-SeNPs, the higher the cell proliferation rate, showing a negative growth trend (P<0.05). The group with the highest average cell proliferation rate was 0.5 µmol/L 2.0 mg/mL LBP-SeNPs (128.80%). When the 2.0 mg/mL LBP-SeNPs group was selected for cell photography, the cell density was higher at 0.5 μmol/L. With the increase of concentration, SRA01/04 cells appeared more cytoplasm dehydration, cell shrinkage and apoptotic bodies, and cell density decreased.
CONCLUSION: LBP-SeNPs has moderate particle size and good stability. LBP-SeNPs can protect HLECs (SRA01/04) from UVB-induced damage, and the cell proliferation rate is further increased with increasing the amount of loaded LBP and decreasing nano-selenium concentration.
AIM: To evaluate the graft rejection and visual outcomes after penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in the presence of various congenital corneal opacities in children.
METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, children who underwent PK were then followed for 5y. The patient's medical records were collected from June 2014 until June 2019 and analyzed in December 2019. All patients were children under three years old with congenital corneal opacities with or without microcornea who came to a pediatric ophthalmologist and underwent PK in Jakarta Eye Center (JEC). Beforehand, all children have participated in a thorough evaluation for PK. In the case of severe microcornea was not advised to undergo surgery. The visual outcomes and graft survival rate were described in percentages. The graft survival plot was presented with Kaplan-Meier, while the visual acuity was analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed ranks test.
RESULTS: Sixteen eyes from eleven patients (seven girls and four boys) underwent PK. The graft survival rate of the first 6, 12, and 18 mo later of keratoplasty was 100%, 83.3%, and 66.7%, respectively. The overall mean survival time is 22mo (standard error 2.419), and no significant difference between the patients underwent PK before and after 36mo of their age (P=0.52). The graft failure was 50%, and post-surgery complications included cataract 43.7%, band keratopathy 12.5%, and scleromalasia 6.25%. Wilcoxon test analysis of visual acuity post keratoplasty was not statistically significant (P=0.34), while overall showed 44% improvements of visual outcome for 5y of follow-up. With a good survival at one year up to 22mo (83.3%), the visual acuity could be achieved (63%), and showed improvements (44%) during follow-up.
CONCLUSION: The complications are frequent for pediatric PK. Thus, corneal surgery on infants requires careful case selection, adequate pre-operative evaluation, skilled surgery (optical correction), very close cooperation family–physician, intensive post-operation care, and amblyopia management in the future.
Background:This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and surgical characteristics of patients who required reoperation after mechanical mitral valve replacement (MVR).Methods:We retrospectively identified 204 consecutive patients who underwent reoperation after mechanical MVR between 2009 and 2018. Patients were categorized according the reason for reoperation (perivalvular leakage, thrombus formation, or pannus formation). The patients' medical and surgical records were studied carefully and the rates of in-hospital complications were calculated.Results:The mean age was 51±12 years and 44% of the patients were male. The reasons for reoperation were perivalvular leakage (117 patients), thrombus formation (35 patients), and pannus formation (52 patients). The most common positions for perivalvular leakage were at the 6–10 o'clock positions (proportions of ≥25% for each hour position). Most patients had an interval of >10 years between the original MVR and reoperation. The most common reoperation procedure was re-do MVR (157 patients), and 155 of these patients underwent concomitant cardiac procedures. There were 10 in-hospital deaths and 32 patients experienced complications. The 10-year survival rate was 82.2 ± 3.9% in general, and the group of lowest rate was patients with PVL (77.5 ± 5.2%). The independent risk factors were “male” (4.62, 95% CI 1.57–13.58, P = 0.005) and “Hb <9g/dL before redo MV operation” (3.45, 95% CI 1.13–10.49, P = 0.029).Conclusion:Perivalvular leakage was the most common reason for reoperation after mechanical MVR, with a low survival rate in long term follow-up relatively.
The demand for synthetic graft materials in implant dentistry is rising. This systematic review aims to evaluate the survival rate of dental implants placed simultaneously with bone regeneration procedures using the material β-tricalcium phosphate, one of the most promising synthetic graft materials. The electronic search was conducted in PubMed, Scielo, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. There were five randomized clinical trials, one of which was a non-randomized controlled clinical trial and four of which were observational studies without a control group included. Implant survival rate and other clinical, radiographic, and histological parameters did not differ from those of implants placed simultaneously with another type of graft material, or placed in blood clots or natural alveolar ridges. Based on the available literature, β-tricalcium phosphate seems to be a promising graft material in implant dentistry. Nevertheless, more randomized clinical trials, with long follow-up periods, preoperative and postoperative CBCT, and histological analysis, are necessary to assess its long-term behavior.
We aimed to validate the safety and efficacy of the minimally invasive “open healing” flapless technique for post-extraction socket and alveolar ridge preservation, while assessing the alveolar bone changes. The study enrolled (n = 104) patients (0.55 sex ratio), with atraumatic extraction of (N = 135) hopeless teeth, followed by either immediate placement of tissue level implants (N1 = 26), or later stage implant insertion (N2 = 109). No flap was raised in either situation. Post-extraction sockets were filled with deproteinized bovine bone granules and covered by collagen resorbable membrane—left purposely exposed during healing. This yielded an uneventful healing, with sufficient bone formation, while avoiding soft-tissue problems. The need for additional augmentation was assessed clinically and by calibrated CBCT scans at six months, before either loading (N1) or implant insertion (N2). Implant success and survival rate were evaluated at 12-, 24-, and 60-month follow-up control sessions. The inserted implants had a survival rate of 98.5% and a success rate of 94.8% at five-year follow-up. Open healing technique with flapless approach can be favorable for preserving the 3D architecture of the post-extraction socket, as well as the alveolar ridge width and height.
Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of PD-1/PD-L1 and/or CTLA-4 inhibitors in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) by meta-analysis. Methods: Electronic databases were searched. Eligible studies included investigations of efficacy and safety of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 or anti-CTLA-4 agents in patients with CRC. Corresponding indicators were calculated. Results: A total of 15 articles were included. The pooled objective response rate, overall survival rate, progression-free survival rate and adverse event rate were 33, 56, 46 and 59%, respectively. The objective response rates for CRC with deficient mismatch repair and CRC with proficient mismatch repair were 43 and 3%, respectively, in patients treated with PD-1 inhibitors. Conclusion: The authors' study indicates that PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors manifest promising clinical responses in the treatment of CRC with deficient mismatch repair with acceptable treatment-related adverse events.
Fucoxanthin is a natural carotenoid obtained from seaweed which exhibits antioxidant properties. This research aimed to assess whether fucoxanthin, immobilized on aluminum-silicon carrier particles, has a toxic effect on immune cells. The viability, proliferation, nitric oxide production and myeloperoxidase activity of thymocytes and splenocytes of mice in vitro were studied. It was shown that fucoxanthin, immobilized on aluminum-silicon carrier particles, increased the survival rate and proliferation of mature immunocytes (splenocytes) after 24 hours exposure and increased the survival rate of naïve immunocytes (thymocytes) when exposed for 120 hours. In terms of myeloperoxidase, the activity of the immune cells was not affected by fucoxanthin immobilized on the carrier particles. The obtained results indicated that fucoxanthin, immobilized on particles of an aluminum-silicon carrier, did not have a toxic effect on mouse immunocytes.
Keywords: Cylindrotheca closterium, fucoxanthin, γ-aluminum oxide, polydimethylsiloxane, thymocytes, splenocytes, viability, proliferation, nitric oxide, myeloperoxidase activity
Objective. To explore the clinical implications of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) for diagnosing frailty in patients with maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) and their correlations with patient prognosis. Methods. A total of 185 patients with MHD admitted to the hemodialysis center of our hospital were selected, 72 of whom were diagnosed with frailty according to the Chinese version of Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI). The relevant data were collected, and the influencing factors of frailty in MHD patients were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multivariate logistic regression. The value of NLR and PLR in diagnosing frailty in MHD patients was observed, and patients’ all-cause mortality was compared during the 3-year follow-up. The influences of different levels of NLR and PLR on the survival of MHD patients were investigated. Results. Multivariate regression analysis identified that serum albumin, dialysis adequacy, NLR, and PLR are independent risk factors for frailty in MHD patients (
). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of NLR and PLR in diagnosing frailty in MHD patients was 0.859 and 0.799, respectively. Compared with the nonfrailty group, the 3-year mortality was higher, and the 3-year survival rate assessed by survival analysis was lower in the frailty group (
). Patients with high NLR and PLR levels showed a lower 3-year survival rate. Conclusions. Dialysis adequacy, serum albumin, NLR, and PLR are independently associated with frailty in MHD patients. NLR and PLR are of a certain diagnostic value for frailty in MHD patients. MHD patients with frailty have an unfavorable prognosis, as of those with high NLR and PLR levels.
AbstractProbiotic microencapsulation is a promising way to produce functional food, while their stability and sensory acceptability still a challenge. This study aims to enhance the functional properties of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, cultivar Camarosa) nectar and sensory acceptance using novel anthocyanin-colored microencapsulation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Four formulations (F1–F4) of coated materials (alginate, whey protein, and pullulan) integrated with anthocyanin pigment were used for encapsulation. The physical properties of microencapsulated probiotics (size, color, efficiency, stability, and survival rate) and quality parameters of nectar (pH, anthocyanin, and sensory acceptability) during 4 weeks of storage at 4 and 25 °C were evaluated. All formulations exhibited high encapsulation efficiency (> 89%), medium bead size (406–504 μm), and proper color (red color). The microencapsulated cells were stable in simulated gastrointestinal and processing conditions (up 7 log10 CFU mL−1) compared to free cells. F4 (alginate 2% + anthocyanin 0.1% + whey protein 2% + pullulan 2% + cocoa butter 1% + L. rhamnosus GG) showed the greatest viability in nectar during storage (6.72 log10 CFU mL−1/4 °C/4 weeks), while a significant decrease in pH (< 2) and anthocyanin (< 60 mg 100 g−1) was observed in nectar-containing free cells. The sensory scores with a difference-preference test as exploratory and preliminary responses revealed that colored probiotic microcapsules enhanced the sensory characters (up to 4 weeks) and commercially accepted (> 80% agreed) of strawberry nectar. Results demonstrated that anthocyanin-colored alginate-whey protein-pullulan matrix had the potential to enhance probiotic viability in functional nectar without negative impact.
We aimed to evaluate the association between the phase angle and muscle mass, muscle strength, physical performance tests, quality-of-life scales, mood scales, or patient and hospitalization-free survival rates in hemodialysis (HD) patients.
We included 83 HD patients. The patients were divided into tertiles based on phase angle value. The phase angle was measured using a bioimpedance analysis machine. Thigh muscle area per height squared (TMA/Ht2), handgrip strength (HGS), nutritional indicators, physical performance, quality-of-life, depression or anxiety status, and the presence of hospitalization or death regardless of cause were evaluated.
In our study, no significant differences were observed in the serum albumin level and body mass index according to tertiles of phase angle. The phase angle tertiles were associated with TMA/Ht2 and HGS. The phase angle was also associated with physical performance measurements and depression or anxiety status. Subgroup analyses according to sex, age, and diabetes mellitus showed similar trends to those of the total cohort. Furthermore, the hospitalization-free survival rate and patient survival rate were favorable in patients with high values for the phase angle.
The present study demonstrated that the phase angle is associated with muscle mass, strength, physical performance, quality-of-life scale, and hospitalization-free survival in maintenance HD patients.