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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 71-76
Author(s):  
Marta P. Wiacek ◽  
◽  
Marek Brzosko ◽  
Wojciech Lubiński ◽  
Monika Modrzejewska ◽  
...  

AIM: To evaluate the incidence of increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucomatous changes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in comparison with systemic steroids and immunosuppressive treatment. METHODS: Sixty-two women with SLE were divided into two groups: treated (n=47, 94 eyes) and not treated (n=15, 30 eyes) with systemic glucocorticosteroids (GC; GC-free). Twenty-one individuals in GC group were treated with immunosuppressive agents (immunomodulating and biologic). The visual acuity and IOP with ocular pulsatile amplitude (OPA) measurements, as well as scanning laser polarimetry (GDx) with nerve fiber index (NFI) measurement, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) of the optic disk with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) analysis and the macular region with ganglion cell analysis (GCA) were performed.  RESULTS: Mean IOP values in group with combined GC and immunosuppressive therapy was 15.8±2.56 mm Hg and was significantly lower than in individuals with exclusive GC treatment (17.63±4.38 mm Hg, P=0.043). Contrary, no differences in mean IOP values between GC-free group and individuals treated with combined GC and immunosuppressive therapy were detected (P=0.563). Similarly, mean IOP in GC was 17.14±3.94 mm Hg and in GC-free patients was equal to 16.67±3.45 mm Hg (P=0.671). According to treatment regimen no statistical differences in optic disk SD-OCT for RNFL thickness, RNFL symmetry, cupping volume and the C/D ratio were observed. Similarly, no statistical differences for the mean and minimal ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness measured in macular SD-OCT or NFI in GDx were detected. CONCLUSION: Combined immunosuppressive and systemic GC therapy in SLE patients may lower the risk of iatrogenic ocular hypertension. No relationship between treatment regimen and glaucomatous damage of optic nerve fibers in analyzed groups with SLE is detected.


2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 135-140
Author(s):  
Jing-Yan Yang ◽  
◽  
Qian Wang ◽  
Yang Li ◽  
Yan-Ni Yan ◽  
...  

AIM: To evaluate retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and retinal vascular caliber alterations in coal mine workers. METHODS: The community-based observational cross-sectional study included 4004 participants of a sub-population of the Kailuan Study. All the study participants underwent structured interviews with a standardized questionnaire, fundus photography and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) examinations performed by trained doctors. RESULTS: The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was significantly higher (P=0.006) and the central macular thickness was lower in coal miners (n=659, 51.0±7.8y) as compared to the control (working above the ground; n=477, 51.8±7.5y; P=0.032). Additionally, the downhole workers showed a significantly thicker retinal artery (P=0.012) and vein diameters (P<0.001). In multivariable regression, a thicker retinal nerve fiber layer was associated with a higher cumulative silica dust exposure (P=0.005) after adjusting for younger age and larger spherical equivalent. In a reverse pattern, a higher cumulative silica dust exposure (P=0.004) was significantly associated with a thicker retinal nerve fiber layer after adjusting for age, high-density lipoproteins and uric acid. Wider retinal vein diameters were associated with higher cumulative silica dust exposure (P=0.036) after adjusting for younger age and larger spherical equivalent. CONCLUSION: The retinal vessels diameters and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness are significantly thicker in long term of coal mining. The results of our study indicate that underground working environment may lead to retinal vessel dilation and inflammation. Thus, ocular examination might be needed within coal miners in order to monitor the occupational eye health as well as the incidence and progression of eye diseases.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xiuxiang Tan ◽  
Mika Rosin ◽  
Simone Appinger ◽  
Jan Bednarsch ◽  
Dong Liu ◽  
...  

Background & Aims: Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (pCCA) is a hepatobiliary malignancy. Nerve fiber invasion (NFI) shows cancer invading the nerve and is considered an aggressive feature. Nerve fiber density (NFD) consists of small nerve fibers without cancer invasion and is divided into high NFD (high numbers of small nerve fibers) or low NFD (low numbers of small nerve fibers). We aim to explore differences in immune cell populations and survival. Approach & Results: We applied multiplex immunofluorescence (mIF) on 47 pCCA surgically resected patients and investigated immune cell composition in the tumor microenvironment (TME) of nerve fiber phenotypes (NFI, high and low NFD). Group comparison was performed and overall survival (OS) was assessed. The NFI Region of Interest (ROI) was measured with highest CD68+ macrophage levels among 3 ROIs (NFI compared to tumor free p= 0.016 and to tumor p=0.034) and PD1 expression on CD8 and were more abundant in the tumor rather than NFI ROI (p= 0.004 and p= 0.0029 respectively). NFD compared to NFI, demonstrated co-expression of CD8+PD1+ as well as CD68+PD1+ to be significantly higher in high NFD patients (p= 0.027 and p= 0.044, respectively). The high NFD OS was 92 months median OS (95% CI:41-142), for low NFD 20 months ((95% CI: 4-36) and for NFI 19 months (95% CI 7-33). High NFD OS was significantly better compared to low NFD (p= 0.046) and NFI (p= 0.032). Conclusions: PD1+ T-cells correlate with high NFD as a prognostic biomarker, the biological pathway behind this needs to be investigated.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Weiwei Wang ◽  
Xin Yang ◽  
Qian Yao ◽  
Qianqian Xu ◽  
Wenting Liu ◽  
...  

Abstract Background To investigate characteristics of the acute angle-closure crisis (AACC) and fellow eyes using confocal microscopy. Methods Unilateral AACC patients hospitalized at the Xi’an People’s Hospital from October 2017 to October 2020 were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Age-matched participants scheduled for cataract surgery were enrolled as a healthy control group. Corneal epithelial cells, subepithelial nerve fiber plexus, stromal cells, and endothelial cells were examined by confocal and specular microscopy. Results This study enrolled 41 unilateral AACC patients (82 eyes) and 20 healthy controls (40 eyes). Confocal microscopy revealed that the corneal nerve fiber density, corneal nerve branch density and corneal nerve fiber length were reduced significantly in AACC eyes. The stromal cells were swollen and the size of the endothelial cells was uneven with the deposition of punctate high-reflective keratic precipitate on the surface. In severe cases, the cell volume was enlarged, deformed, and fused. The corneal subepithelial nerve fiber, stromal layer, and endothelial layer were unremarkable in the fellow eyes, and the density of the endothelial cells was 2601 ± 529 cells/mm2, which was higher than 1654 ± 999 cells/mm2 in AACC eyes (P < 0.001). Corneal edema prevented the examination of 17 eyes using specular microscopy and in only four eyes using confocal microscopy. There were no significant differences in endothelial cell density between confocal and specular microscopy in the AACC eyes (P = 0.674) and fellow eyes (P = 0.247). The hexagonal cell ratio reduced significantly (P < 0.001), and average cell size and coefficient of variation of the endothelial cells increased significantly compared with fellow eyes (P < 0.001, P = 0.008). Conclusions AACC eye showed decreased density and length of corneal subepithelial nerve fiber plexus, activation of stromal cells, increased endothelial cell polymorphism, and decreased density.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 80
Author(s):  
Vlad-Ioan Suciu ◽  
Corina-Iuliana Suciu ◽  
Simona-Delia Nicoară ◽  
Lăcrămioara Perju-Dumbravă

(1) Background: The purpose of this paper is to report the data of the first study in a Clinical Research Hospital, in the Transylvania region, focusing on the Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) measurements in the early stages of Parkinson’s disease (PD), and to compare the results with age-matched healthy controls. (2) Methods: This study assessed the circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) SD-OCT measurements (Heidelberg Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering, Germany) of two study groups: patients suffering from PD (Hoehn−Yahr stages 1–3) and healthy controls. Secondary objectives were to investigate the reported visual symptoms by evaluating the color vision, contrast sensitivity, and the central visual defects for macular disease using standardized charts. Subjects with prior history of ophthalmologic diseases, advanced stages of PD (Hoehn−Yahr stages 4–5), or with psychiatric conditions were not included in this study. The same team of neurologists and ophthalmologists evaluated all individuals in order to have comparable data and to eliminate inter-examiner differences. All subjects were recruited from the same Clinical Research Hospital in the Transylvania region, Romania. (3) Results: 72% of the PD patients (n = 17) in this study reported visual symptoms. In respect to the ophthalmologic chart evaluation for PD patients, the most frequent disturbances were identified in the Ishihara color perception testing (33%). The regression analysis showed significant results for the Ishihara testing in relation to the cpRNFL thinning in the temporal retinal sectors for both eyes. cpRNFL thinning was predominantly contralateral to the parkinsonism (p = 0.001). The temporal and global values of the cpRNFL were significantly lower in all PD patients < 70 years old, compared to the age-matched healthy controls. (4) Conclusions: Specific patterns of cpRNFL thinning were found in the PD subjects younger than 70 years. A multidisciplinary approach is essential for a complete evaluation of PD patients.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Umut Karaca ◽  
Murat Kucukevcilioglu ◽  
Ali Hakan Durukan ◽  
Dorukcan Akincioglu

Abstract Background The study aims to evaluate peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL-T), central macular thickness (MT), choroidal thickness (CT), and thickness of each retinal layer after automatic segmentation in patients who underwent retinal detachment (RD) repair with longstanding silicone oil tamponade. Methods We enrolled 33 patients who underwent complicated primary rhegmatogenous RD surgery and followed up with a long-term silicone tamponade were included in this retrospective comparative (case–control) study. RNFL-T, CT, and thickness of each retinal layer after automatic segmentation analysis were measured after the longstanding silicone removal surgery. Results The mean silicone oil removal time was 15.1 ± 15.2 (7–70) months. The overall average thickness of the RNFL was 90.7 ± 13.6 μm in the operated eyes and 118.3 ± 35.6 μm in the sound eyes, with a statistically significant difference. The overall average central MT was 186.3 ± 57.7 μm and was significantly lower in the operated eyes than in the sound eyes. Inner retinal layers of the study group showed a significant thinning in the nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer, inner plexiform layer, and inner nuclear layer as compared to that of the sound eyes. The subfoveal CT was 213.7 ± 86.6 μm in the study eyes and 217.7 ± 115.5 μm in the control eyes. There was no significant difference between the study eyes and controls. Conclusion The effects of silicone oil on the retina remain uncertain; however, morphological results in our study have shown direct or indirect silicone oil–induced toxicity, especially in the inner retinal layers.


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