nerve fibers
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 ◽  
pp. 20-26
Ilona Croy ◽  
Merle T Fairhurst ◽  
Francis McGlone

Е.И. Чумасов ◽  
Е.С. Петрова ◽  
Д.Э. Коржевский

С помощью гистологических методов окраски толуидиновым синим, гематоксилином и эозином и иммуногистохимических реакций на белок PGP 9.5, тирозингидроксилазу (ТГ), белок Iba-1, изучены клеточные изменения в разных отделах сердца крыс линии Wistar в возрасте 18- 23 мес. В соединительной ткани основания сердца обнаружены очаговые воспалительные инфильтраты, внутри которых выявлены PGP 9.5 и ТГ сплетения, состоящие из парасимпатических и симпатических нервных волокон. В области клапанного аппарата, на границе фиброзного кольца и миокарда правого предсердия, обнаружены патологические изменения нервных структур - дегенерация нервных пучков и зернистый распад варикозных аксонов терминального сплетения. Установлены тесные взаимоотношения аксонов терминальной нервной сети с клетками воспалительных инфильтратов и кровеносными сосудами. Определены закономерности встречаемости в различных отделах миокарда у старых животных нейроклеточных воспалительных комплексов, состоящих из нервных волокон, кровеносных капилляров и клеток-участников местного воспалительного процесса (тучных клеток, макрофагов, фибробластов, плазмоцитов). Установлен хронический характер нейрогенного воспаления в сердце при старении. Using histological methods of staining with toluidine blue, hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical reactions for the PGP 9,5 protein, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), Iba-1 protein, cellular changes in different parts of the heart of Wistar rats at the age of 18-23 months were studied. In the connective tissue of the heart base, focal inflammatory infiltrates were found, near which PGP 9.5 and TH plexuses, consisting of parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve fibers, were detected. In the area of the valvular heart apparatus, at the border of the anneau fibreux and the myocardium of the right atrium, pathological changes in nerve structures were found: degeneration of nerve fibers and granular destruction varicose axons of the terminal plexus. A close relationship has been established between axons of the terminal nervous network and cells of inflammatory infiltrates and blood capillaries. The features of the localization of neurocellular inflammatory complexes consisting of nerve fibers, blood capillaries and cells participating in the local inflammatory process (mast cells, histiocytes, monocytes, fibroblasts, plasma cells) in various parts of the myocardium in old animals are described. The chronic nature of neurogenic inflammation in the heart during aging has been established.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Chiara Traini ◽  
Silvia Nistri ◽  
Laura Calosi ◽  
Maria Giuliana Vannucchi

Cigarette smoking (CS) is the cause of several organ and apparatus diseases. The effects of smoke in the gut are partially known. Accumulating evidence has shown a relationship between smoking and inflammatory bowel disease, prompting us to investigate the mechanisms of action of smoking in animal models. Despite the role played by neuropeptides in gut inflammation, there are no reports on their role in animal models of smoking exposure. The hormone relaxin has shown anti-inflammatory properties in the intestine, and it might represent a putative therapy to prevent gut damage caused by smoking. Presently, we investigate the effects of chronic smoke exposure on inflammation, mucosal secretion, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and substance P (SP) expressions in the ileum and colon of guinea pigs. We also verify the ability of relaxin to counter the smoke-induced effects. Smoke impacted plasma carbon monoxide (CO). In the ileum, it induced inflammatory infiltrates, fibrosis, and acidic mucin production; reduced the blood vessel area; decreased c-kit-positive mast cells and VIP-positive neurons; and increased the SP-positive nerve fibers. In the colon, it reduced the blood vessel area and the goblet cell area and decreased c-kit-positive mast cells, VIP-positive neurons, and SP-positive nerve fibers. Relaxin prevented most of the smoking-induced changes in the ileum, while it was less effective in the colon. This study shows the diverse sensitivity to CS between the ileum and the colon and demonstrates that both VIP and SP are affected by smoking. The efficacy of relaxin proposes this hormone as a potential anti-inflammatory therapeutic to counteract gut damage in humans affected by inflammatory bowel diseases.

Carolyn M. McClaskey ◽  
James W. Dias ◽  
Richard A. Schmiedt ◽  
Judy R. Dubno ◽  
Kelly C. Harris

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Goutham Pattabiraman ◽  
Zhiqiang Liu ◽  
Madhumita Paul ◽  
Anthony J. Schaeffer ◽  
Praveen Thumbikat

Chronic prostatitis/Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a condition that affects a large number of men and has unknown etiology. We have previously demonstrated the presence of elevated levels of mast cell tryptase in expressed prostatic secretions (EPS) of CP/CPPS patients. In a murine model of CP/CPPS, we showed tryptase and its cognate receptor PAR2 as critical to the development of pelvic pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. Here, we extend these observations to demonstrate that an isoform of tryptase called delta (δ)-tryptase, is elevated in the EPS of patients with CP/CPPS and is correlated with pelvic pain symptoms. Using an Escherichia coli (CP1) -induced murine model of CP/CPPS, we demonstrated a differential response in C57BL/6J and NOD/ShiLtJ mice, with C57BL6/J mice being resistant to an increase in pelvic tactile allodynia, despite having equivalent levels of activated mast cells in the prostate. Activated tryptase+ve mast cells were observed to be in closer apposition to PGP9.5+ve nerve fibers in the prostate stroma of NOD/ShiLtJ in comparison to C57BL/6J mice. The mouse ortholog of δ-tryptase, mouse mast cell protease 7 (mMCP7) has been reported to be unexpressed in C57BL/6J mice. We confirmed the absence of mMCP7 in the prostates of C57BL/6J and its presence in NOD/ShiLtJ mice. To evaluate a role for mMCP7 in the differential allodynia responses, we performed direct intra-urethral instillations of mMCP7 and the beta (β)-tryptase isoform ortholog, mMCP6 in the CP1-infection model. mMCP7, but not mMCP6 was able to induce an acute pelvic allodynia response in C57BL/6J mice. In-vitro studies with mMCP7 on cultured mast cells as well as dissociated primary neurons demonstrated the ability to induce differential activation of pain and inflammation associated molecules compared to mMCP6. We conclude that mMCP7, and possibility its human ortholog δ-tryptase, may play an important role in mediating the development of pelvic tactile allodynia in the mouse model of pelvic pain and in patients with CP/CPPS.

2022 ◽  
Xiuxiang Tan ◽  
Mika Rosin ◽  
Simone Appinger ◽  
Jan Bednarsch ◽  
Dong Liu ◽  

Background & Aims: Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (pCCA) is a hepatobiliary malignancy. Nerve fiber invasion (NFI) shows cancer invading the nerve and is considered an aggressive feature. Nerve fiber density (NFD) consists of small nerve fibers without cancer invasion and is divided into high NFD (high numbers of small nerve fibers) or low NFD (low numbers of small nerve fibers). We aim to explore differences in immune cell populations and survival. Approach & Results: We applied multiplex immunofluorescence (mIF) on 47 pCCA surgically resected patients and investigated immune cell composition in the tumor microenvironment (TME) of nerve fiber phenotypes (NFI, high and low NFD). Group comparison was performed and overall survival (OS) was assessed. The NFI Region of Interest (ROI) was measured with highest CD68+ macrophage levels among 3 ROIs (NFI compared to tumor free p= 0.016 and to tumor p=0.034) and PD1 expression on CD8 and were more abundant in the tumor rather than NFI ROI (p= 0.004 and p= 0.0029 respectively). NFD compared to NFI, demonstrated co-expression of CD8+PD1+ as well as CD68+PD1+ to be significantly higher in high NFD patients (p= 0.027 and p= 0.044, respectively). The high NFD OS was 92 months median OS (95% CI:41-142), for low NFD 20 months ((95% CI: 4-36) and for NFI 19 months (95% CI 7-33). High NFD OS was significantly better compared to low NFD (p= 0.046) and NFI (p= 0.032). Conclusions: PD1+ T-cells correlate with high NFD as a prognostic biomarker, the biological pathway behind this needs to be investigated.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Peter Holzer ◽  
Ulrike Holzer-Petsche

The development of small-molecule calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists (gepants) and of monoclonal antibodies targeting the CGRP system has been a major advance in the management of migraine. In the randomized controlled trials before regulatory approval, the safety of these anti-CGRP migraine therapeutics was considered favorable and to stay within the expected profile. Post-approval real-world surveys reveal, however, constipation to be a major adverse event which may affect more than 50% of patients treated with erenumab (an antibody targeting the CGRP receptor), fremanezumab or galcanezumab (antibodies targeting CGRP). In this review article we address the question whether constipation caused by inhibition of CGRP signaling can be mechanistically deduced from the known pharmacological actions and pathophysiological implications of CGRP in the digestive tract. CGRP in the gut is expressed by two distinct neuronal populations: extrinsic primary afferent nerve fibers and distinct neurons of the intrinsic enteric nervous system. In particular, CGRP is a major messenger of enteric sensory neurons which in response to mucosal stimulation activate both ascending excitatory and descending inhibitory neuronal pathways that enable propulsive (peristaltic) motor activity to take place. In addition, CGRP is able to stimulate ion and water secretion into the intestinal lumen. The motor-stimulating and prosecretory actions of CGRP combine in accelerating intestinal transit, an activity profile that has been confirmed by the ability of CGRP to induce diarrhea in mice, dogs and humans. We therefore conclude that the constipation elicited by antibodies targeting CGRP or its receptor results from interference with the physiological function of CGRP in the small and large intestine in which it contributes to the maintenance of peristaltic motor activity, ion and water secretion and intestinal transit.

Neurology ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 10.1212/WNL.0000000000013300
Vincenzo Provitera ◽  
Valeria Iodice ◽  
Fiore Manganelli ◽  
Stefania Mozzillo ◽  
Giuseppe Caporaso ◽  

Background and Objectives:Sudomotor impairment has been recognized as a key feature in differentiating Parkinson disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy-parkinsonian type (MSA-P) with the latter been characterized by diffuse anhidrosis in prospective study including patients in late stage of disease.We aimed to evaluate morphological and functional postganglionic sudomotor involvement in patients with new diagnosis MSA-P and PD to identify possible biomarkers that might be of help in differentiating the two conditions in early stage.Methods:One hundred patients with parkinsonism within 2 years from onset of motor symptoms were included in the study. At time of recruitment, questionnaires to assess non-motor, autonomic and small fiber symptoms were administered and patients underwent post-ganglionic sudomotor function assessment by the dynamic sweat test and punch skin biopsy from distal leg. Skin samples were processed for indirect immunofluorescence with a panel of antibodies including noradrenergic and cholinergic markers. The density of intraepidermal, sudomotor and pilomotor nerve fibers was measured on confocal images using dedicated software. A follow-up visit twelve months after recruitment was performed to confirm the diagnosis.Results:We recruited 57 patients with PD (M/F=36/21; age 63.5±9.4years) and 43 patients with MSA-P (M/F=27/16; age 62.3±9.0 years). Clinical scales and questionnaires showed a more severe clinical picture in MSA-P compared to PD patients. Sweating output and intraepidermal, pilomotor and sudomotor nerve densities, compared to controls, were lower in both groups but with a greater impairment in MSA-P patients. Pilomotor and sudomotor nerve density correlated with sweating function and with non-motor clinical symptoms. A composite sudomotor parameter defined as the arithmetic product of sweat production multiplied by the density of sudomotor fibers, efficiently separated the two populations, the receiver operating characteristics showing an area under the curve of 0.83.Discussion:Dynamic sweat test and the quantification of cutaneous autonomic nerves provided to be a sensitive morpho-functional approach to assess postganglionic component of the sudomotor pathway, revealing a more severe involvement in MSA-P than in PD early in the disease course. This approach can be applied to early differentiate the two conditions.Classification of Evidence:This study provides Class II evidence that post ganglionic sudomotor morpho-functional assessment accurately distinguish PD from MSA-P patients.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 221
Adriana de Cássia Ortiz ◽  
Simone Ortiz Moura Fideles ◽  
Karina Torres Pomini ◽  
Márcia Zilioli Bellini ◽  
Eliana de Souza Bastos Mazuqueli Pereira ◽  

Cell-based therapy is a promising treatment to favor tissue healing through less invasive strategies. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) highlighted as potential candidates due to their angiogenic, anti-apoptotic and immunomodulatory properties, in addition to their ability to differentiate into several specialized cell lines. Cells can be carried through a biological delivery system, such as fibrin glue, which acts as a temporary matrix that favors cell-matrix interactions and allows local and paracrine functions of MSCs. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the potential of fibrin glue combined with MSCs in nerve regeneration. The bibliographic search was performed in the PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science and Embase databases, using the descriptors (“fibrin sealant” OR “fibrin glue”) AND “stem cells” AND “nerve regeneration”, considering articles published until 2021. To compose this review, 13 in vivo studies were selected, according to the eligibility criteria. MSCs favored axonal regeneration, remyelination of nerve fibers, as well as promoted an increase in the number of myelinated fibers, myelin sheath thickness, number of axons and expression of growth factors, with significant improvement in motor function recovery. This systematic review showed clear evidence that fibrin glue combined with MSCs has the potential to regenerate nervous system lesions.

Katarzyna Kaczmarek ◽  
Juliusz Huber ◽  
Katarzyna Leszczyńska ◽  
Przemysław Daroszewski

The available data from electroneurography (ENG) studies on the transmission of neural impulses in the motor fibers of upper and lower extremity nerves following neuromuscular functional electrical stimulation (NMFES) combined with kinesiotherapy in post-stroke patients during sixty-day observation do not provide convincing results. This study aims to compare the effectiveness of an NMFES of antagonistic muscle groups at the wrist and ankle and kinesiotherapy based mainly on proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). An ENG was performed once in a group of 60 healthy volunteers and three times in 120 patients after stroke (T0, up to 7 days after the incident; T1, after 21 days of treatment; and T2, after 60 days of treatment); 60 subjects received personalized NMFES and PNF treatment (NMFES+K), while the other 60 received only PNF (K). An ENG studied peripheral (M-wave recordings), C8 and L5 ventral root (F-wave recordings) neural impulse transmission in the peroneal and the ulnar nerves on the hemiparetic side. Both groups statistically differed in their amplitudes of M-wave recording parameters after peroneal nerve stimulation performed at T0 and T2 compared with the control group. After 60 days of treatment, only the patients from the NMFES+K group showed significant improvement in M-wave recordings. The application of the proposed NMFES electrostimulation algorithm combined with PNF improved the peripheral neural transmission in peroneal but not ulnar motor nerve fibers in patients after ischemic stroke. Combined kinesiotherapy and safe, personalized, controlled electrotherapy after stroke give better results than kinesiotherapy alone.

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