stromal cells
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 100592
Na Li ◽  
Keyun Yi ◽  
Xia Li ◽  
Yue Wang ◽  
Jiayu Jing ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 711-716
Xuechuan Yan ◽  
Xin Wang ◽  
Haifeng Yang ◽  
Jian Yang ◽  
Haikun Li

This study assessed the mechanism of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (BMSCs) in prostate cancer (PC) and its effect on MTA-1 gene and PC cell senescence. PC-3 cells were assigned into QL group (prostate cancer group: normal culture) and GS group (BMSCs group: treated with BMSCs) followed by analysis of MTA-1 level, cell senescence, apoptosis and invasion. MTA-1 level in QL group (0.83±0.07) was significantly higher than GS group (0.14±0.02) (P < 0.05), indicating that BMSCs had an inhibitory effect on MTA-1 expression. Similar change of MTA-l mRNA was also found with higher level in QL group than GS group (P < 0.05). Cell senescence was found in QS group but not QL group, indicating that BMSCs promote cell senescence. Compared with GS group, QL group has a higher cell number in G0/G1 (67.13±6.45%) and S (19.59±3.35%) than GS group (G0/G1:50.51±2.19% and S: 11.42±1.61%) but lower G2/M (QL: 15.97±3.59% versus GS: 32.25±3.24%). QL group had significantly lower cell apoptosis rate at 35 h (5.21±1.2%) and 45 h (3.97±0.95%) than GS group at 35 h (17.85±1.23%), 45 h (10.21±1.26%) with elevated number of invasions. In conclusion, BMSCs promote PC-3 cell senescence and apoptosis by inhibiting the expression of MTA-1 and reduce cell invasion ability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Liwei Jiang ◽  
Mine Yilmaz ◽  
Mayuko Uehara ◽  
Cecilia B. Cavazzoni ◽  
Vivek Kasinath ◽  

Lymph node (LN)-resident stromal cells play an essential role in the proper functioning of LNs. The stromal compartment of the LN undergoes significant compensatory changes to produce a milieu amenable for regulation of the immune response. We have identified a distinct population of leptin receptor-expressing (LepR+) stromal cells, located in the vicinity of the high endothelial venules (HEVs) and lymphatics. These LepR+ stromal cells expressed markers for fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), but they lacked markers for follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and marginal reticular cells (MRCs). Leptin signaling deficiency led to heightened inflammatory responses within the LNs of db/db mice, leakiness of HEVs, and lymphatic fragmentation. Leptin signaling through the JAK/STAT pathway supported LN stromal cell survival and promoted the anti-inflammatory properties of these cells. Conditional knockout of the LepR+ stromal cells in LNs resulted in HEV and extracellular matrix (ECM) abnormalities. Treatment of ob/ob mice with an agonist leptin fusion protein restored the microarchitecture of LNs, reduced intra-LN inflammatory responses, and corrected metabolic abnormalities. Future studies are needed to study the importance of LN stomal cell dysfunction to the pathogenesis of inflammatory responses in type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Ramana Vaka ◽  
Saad Khan ◽  
Bin Ye ◽  
Yousef Risha ◽  
Sandrine Parent ◽  

Abstract Background Although 90% of infections with the novel coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) are mild, many patients progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) which carries a high risk of mortality. Given that this dysregulated immune response plays a key role in the pathology of COVID-19, several clinical trials are underway to evaluate the effect of immunomodulatory cell therapy on disease progression. However, little is known about the effect of ARDS associated pro-inflammatory mediators on transplanted stem cell function and survival, and any deleterious effects could undermine therapeutic efficacy. As such, we assessed the impact of inflammatory cytokines on the viability, and paracrine profile (extracellular vesicles) of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells, heart-derived cells, and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. Methods All cell products were manufactured and characterized to established clinical release standards by an accredited clinical cell manufacturing facility. Cytokines and Extracellular vesicles in the cell conditioned media were profiled using proteomic array and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Using a survey of the clinical literature, 6 cytotoxic cytokines implicated in the progression of COVID-19 ARDS. Flow cytometry was employed to determine receptor expression of these 6 cytokines in three cell products. Based on clinical survey and flow cytometry data, a cytokine cocktail that mimics cytokine storm seen in COVID-19 ARDS patients was designed and the impact on cytokine cocktail on viability and paracrine secretory ability of cell products were assessed using cell viability and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Results Flow cytometry revealed the presence of receptors for all cytokines but IL-6, which was subsequently excluded from further experimentation. Despite this widespread expression, exposure of each cell type to individual cytokines at doses tenfold greater than observed clinically or in combination at doses associated with severe ARDS did not alter cell viability or extracellular vesicle character/production in any of the 3 cell products. Conclusions The paracrine production and viability of the three leading cell products under clinical evaluation for the treatment of severe COVID-19 ARDS are not altered by inflammatory mediators implicated in disease progression.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Oleh Andrukhov ◽  
Alice Blufstein ◽  
Christian Behm

Antimicrobial defense is an essential component of host-microbial homeostasis and contributes substantially to oral health maintenance. Dental mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) possess multilineage differentiation potential, immunomodulatory properties and play an important role in various processes like regeneration and disease progression. Recent studies show that dental MSCs might also be involved in antibacterial defense. This occurs by producing antimicrobial peptides or attracting professional phagocytic immune cells and modulating their activity. The production of antimicrobial peptides and immunomodulatory abilities of dental MSCs are enhanced by an inflammatory environment and influenced by vitamin D3. Antimicrobial peptides also have anti-inflammatory effects in dental MSCs and improve their differentiation potential. Augmentation of antibacterial efficiency of dental MSCs could broaden their clinical application in dentistry.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Aoife M. O'Byrne ◽  
Tineke A. de Jong ◽  
Lisa G. M. van Baarsen

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease of unknown etiology characterized by inflammation of the peripheral synovial joints leading to pannus formation and bone destruction. Rheumatoid Factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) are present years before clinical manifestations and are indicative of a break in tolerance that precedes chronic inflammation. The majority of studies investigating disease pathogenesis focus on the synovial joint as target site of inflammation while few studies explore the initial break in peripheral tolerance which occurs within secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes. If explored during the earliest phases of RA, lymph node research may provide innovative drug targets for disease modulation or prevention. RA research largely centers on the role and origin of lymphocytes, such as pro-inflammatory T cells and macrophages that infiltrate the joint, as well as growing efforts to determine the role of stromal cells within the synovium. It is therefore important to explore these cell types also within the lymph node as a number of mouse studies suggest a prominent immunomodulatory role for lymph node stromal cells. Synovium and proximal peripheral lymph nodes should be investigated in conjunction with one another to gain understanding of the immunological processes driving RA progression from systemic autoimmunity toward synovial inflammation. This perspective seeks to provide an overview of current literature concerning the immunological changes present within lymph nodes and synovium during early RA. It will also propose areas that warrant further exploration with the aim to uncover novel targets to prevent disease progression.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2108540119
Abdouramane Camara ◽  
Alice C. Lavanant ◽  
Jun Abe ◽  
Henri Lee Desforges ◽  
Yannick O. Alexandre ◽  

CD169+ macrophages reside in lymph node (LN) and spleen and play an important role in the immune defense against pathogens. As resident macrophages, they are responsive to environmental cues to shape their tissue-specific identity. We have previously shown that LN CD169+ macrophages require RANKL for formation of their niche and their differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that they are also dependent on direct lymphotoxin beta (LTβ) receptor (R) signaling. In the absence or the reduced expression of either RANK or LTβR, their differentiation is perturbed, generating myeloid cells expressing SIGN-R1 in LNs. Conditions of combined haploinsufficiencies of RANK and LTβR revealed that both receptors contribute equally to LN CD169+ macrophage differentiation. In the spleen, the Cd169-directed ablation of either receptor results in a selective loss of marginal metallophilic macrophages (MMMs). Using a RANKL reporter mouse, we identify splenic marginal zone stromal cells as a source of RANKL and demonstrate that it participates in MMM differentiation. The loss of MMMs had no effect on the splenic B cell compartments but compromised viral capture and the expansion of virus-specific CD8+ T cells. Taken together, the data provide evidence that CD169+ macrophage differentiation in LN and spleen requires dual signals from LTβR and RANK with implications for the immune response.

Mehdi Najar ◽  
Rahma Melki ◽  
Ferial Khalife ◽  
Laurence Lagneaux ◽  
Fatima Bouhtit ◽  

Cellular therapy aims to replace damaged resident cells by restoring cellular and molecular environments suitable for tissue repair and regeneration. Among several candidates, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) represent a critical component of stromal niches known to be involved in tissue homeostasis. In vitro, MSCs appear as fibroblast-like plastic adherent cells regardless of the tissue source. The therapeutic value of MSCs is being explored in several conditions, including immunological, inflammatory and degenerative diseases, as well as cancer. An improved understanding of their origin and function would facilitate their clinical use. The stemness of MSCs is still debated and requires further study. Several terms have been used to designate MSCs, although consensual nomenclature has yet to be determined. The presence of distinct markers may facilitate the identification and isolation of specific subpopulations of MSCs. Regarding their therapeutic properties, the mechanisms underlying their immune and trophic effects imply the secretion of various mediators rather than direct cellular contact. These mediators can be packaged in extracellular vesicles, thus paving the way to exploit therapeutic cell-free products derived from MSCs. Of importance, the function of MSCs and their secretome are significantly sensitive to their environment. Several features, such as culture conditions, delivery method, therapeutic dose and the immunobiology of MSCs, may influence their clinical outcomes. In this review, we will summarize recent findings related to MSC properties. We will also discuss the main preclinical and clinical challenges that may influence the therapeutic value of MSCs and discuss some optimization strategies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 916
Paulina Escandon ◽  
Sarah E. Nicholas ◽  
Rebecca L. Cunningham ◽  
David A. Murphy ◽  
Kamran M. Riaz ◽  

Keratoconus (KC) is a progressive corneal thinning disease that manifests in puberty and worsens during pregnancy. KC onset and progression are attributed to diverse factors that include: environmental, genetics, and hormonal imbalances; however, the pathobiology remains elusive. This study aims to determine the role of corneal stroma sex hormone receptors in KC and their interplay with estrone (E1) and estriol (E3) using our established 3D in vitro model. Healthy cornea stromal cells (HCFs) and KC cornea stromal cells (HKCs), both male and female, were stimulated with various concentrations of E1 and E3. Significant changes were observed between cell types, as well as between males and females in the sex hormone receptors tested; androgen receptor (AR), progesterone receptor (PR), estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) using Western blot analysis. E1 and E3 stimulations in HCF females showed AR, PR, and ERβ were significantly upregulated compared to HCF males. In contrast, ERα and ERβ had significantly higher expression in HKC’s females than HKC’s males. Our data suggest that the human cornea is a sex-dependent, hormone-responsive tissue that is significantly influenced by E1 and E3. Therefore, it is plausible that E1, E3, and sex hormone receptors are involved in the KC pathobiology, warranting further investigation.

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