dust exposure
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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 135-140
Jing-Yan Yang ◽  
Qian Wang ◽  
Yang Li ◽  
Yan-Ni Yan ◽  

AIM: To evaluate retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and retinal vascular caliber alterations in coal mine workers. METHODS: The community-based observational cross-sectional study included 4004 participants of a sub-population of the Kailuan Study. All the study participants underwent structured interviews with a standardized questionnaire, fundus photography and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) examinations performed by trained doctors. RESULTS: The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was significantly higher (P=0.006) and the central macular thickness was lower in coal miners (n=659, 51.0±7.8y) as compared to the control (working above the ground; n=477, 51.8±7.5y; P=0.032). Additionally, the downhole workers showed a significantly thicker retinal artery (P=0.012) and vein diameters (P<0.001). In multivariable regression, a thicker retinal nerve fiber layer was associated with a higher cumulative silica dust exposure (P=0.005) after adjusting for younger age and larger spherical equivalent. In a reverse pattern, a higher cumulative silica dust exposure (P=0.004) was significantly associated with a thicker retinal nerve fiber layer after adjusting for age, high-density lipoproteins and uric acid. Wider retinal vein diameters were associated with higher cumulative silica dust exposure (P=0.036) after adjusting for younger age and larger spherical equivalent. CONCLUSION: The retinal vessels diameters and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness are significantly thicker in long term of coal mining. The results of our study indicate that underground working environment may lead to retinal vessel dilation and inflammation. Thus, ocular examination might be needed within coal miners in order to monitor the occupational eye health as well as the incidence and progression of eye diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Arzu Ulu ◽  
Jalene V. Velazquez ◽  
Abigail Burr ◽  
Stefanie N. Sveiven ◽  
Jun Yang ◽  

In agriculture industries, workers are at increased risk for developing pulmonary diseases due to inhalation of agricultural dusts, particularly when working in enclosed confinement facilities. Agricultural dusts inhalation leads to unresolved airway inflammation that precedes the development and progression of lung disease. We have previously shown beneficial effects of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA) DHA in protecting against the negative inflammatory effects of repetitive dust exposure in the lung. Dietary manipulation of pulmonary disease risk is an attractive and timely approach given the contribution of an increased ω-6 to ω-3 PUFA ratio to low grade inflammation and chronic disease in the Western diet. To prevent any confounding factors that comes with dietary supplementation of ω-3 PUFA (different sources, purity, dose, and duration), we employed a Fat-1 transgenic mouse model that convert ω-6 PUFA to ω-3 PUFA, leading to a tissue ω-6 to ω-3 PUFA ratio of approximately 1:1. Building on our initial findings, we hypothesized that attaining elevated tissue levels of ω-3 PUFA would attenuate agricultural dust-induced lung inflammation and its resolution. To test this hypothesis, we compared wild-type (WT) and Fat-1 transgenic mice in their response to aqueous extracts of agricultural dust (DE). We also used a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor (sEH) to potentiate the effects of ω-3 PUFA, since sEH inhibitors have been shown to stabilize the anti-inflammatory P450 metabolites derived from both ω-3 and ω-6 PUFA and promote generation of specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators from ω-3 PUFA. Over a three-week period, mice were exposed to a total of 15 intranasal instillations of DE obtained from swine confinement buildings in the Midwest. We observed genotype and sex-specific differences between the WT vs. Fat-1 transgenic mice in response to repetitive dust exposure, where three-way ANOVA revealed significant main effects of treatment, genotype, and sex. Also, Fat-1 transgenic mice displayed reduced lymphoid aggregates in the lung following DE exposure as compared to WT animals exposed to DE, suggesting improved resilience to the DE-induced inflammatory effects. Overall, our data implicate a protective role of ω-3 FA in the lung following repetitive dust exposure.

Radiation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 62-77
Maria Gomolka ◽  
Martin Bucher ◽  
Lukas Duchrow ◽  
Beate Hochstrat ◽  
Dirk Taeger ◽  

Systematic bio- and databanks are key prerequisites for modern radiation research to investigate radiation response mechanisms in the context of genetic, environmental and lifestyle-associated factors. This report presents the current status of the German Uranium Miners’ Biobank. In 2008, the bio- and databank was established at the Federal Office for Radiation Protection, and the sampling of biological materials from former uranium miners with and without lung cancer was initiated. For this purpose, various biological specimens, such as DNA and RNA, were isolated from blood samples as well as from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung tissue. High-quality biomaterials suitable for OMICs research and the associated data on occupational radiation and dust exposure, and medical and lifestyle data from over 1000 individuals have been stored so far. Various experimental data, e.g., genome-wide SNPs, whole genome transcriptomic and miRNA data, as well as individual chromosomal aberration data from subgroups of biobank samples, are already available upon request for in-depth research on radiation-induced long-term effects, individual radiation susceptibility to lung cancer and radon-induced fingerprints in lung cancer. This biobank is the first systematic uranium miners´ biobank worldwide that is suitable for OMICs research on radiation-exposed workers. It offers the opportunity to link radiation-induced perturbations of biological pathways or processes and putative adverse outcome(s) by OMICs profiling at different biological organization levels.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 23-27
Neha P. Sarokte ◽  
Rutika Patil ◽  
Ajay Kumar

Background: Numerous industries have researched the effects of occupational dust and particles on respiratory function. The continuous exposure to dispersed particles causes respiratory ailments in spice mill workers. Spice dust exposure is linked to a systemic inflammatory response, including respiratory irritation. Spice dust is finely divided solid particles and a form of respirable dust this is the leading cause of occupational disease. Allergies and asthma have been linked to spice mill workers. Objective: To study the effect of spice dust exposure on expiratory function and to compare the peak expiratory flow rate of spice mill workers and normal adults across age groups and gender Method: 186 subjects in Mumbai region, 93 spice mill workers and 93 normal adults were selected as per inclusion and exclusion criteria. PEFR was measured in all the participants using a mini Wright peak flow meter. Result: The statistical analysis showed that there is a significant difference in the peak expiratory flow rates of spice mill workers. However, intergroup analysis between age groups showed that there was not much difference in the PEFR values for the age group 40-50 when compared with normal. The reason could be less number of participants available for the study. Also, the gender-wise comparison showed statistically significant difference in male and female PEFR values. Conclusion: The present study concluded that peak expiratory flow rate was significantly reduced in spice mill workers when compared to normal adults of same age. Key words: PEFR, spice mill workers, spice dust, allergies.

2022 ◽  
Darshana Chetia ◽  
Bijoylaxmi Bhuyan

Abstract Cement manufacturing industries are one of the most common reasons of air pollution, surface and ground water pollution and noise pollution and is also indirectly affecting the people residing near the cement plants. This study was carried out to quantify the cement dust emission from Bokajan Cement Corporation of India’s cement factory falling on the residences and to determine its effect on some selected household activities and general well-being of the people residing near it. An experimental method was carried out to estimate the accumulated cement dust in households. The findings showed that household activities performed by the residence were dependent upon the dust exposure, which means more the dusts are more are the cleaning and maintenance. It was also found that cement dust highly affected general wellbeing of the respondents living in southern direction and lowest affect was observed among the respondents of the east direction.

Ojoye N. Briggs ◽  
Serekara G. Christian ◽  
Kemzi N. Elechi-Amadi ◽  
Helen A. Waribo ◽  
Prudence N. Nkpurukwe ◽  

Aim: To evaluate liver function and haemorheological parameters in some carpenters exposed to wood dust in Port Harcourt. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was carried out in some parts of Port Harcourt, the capital city of Rivers State in the southern part of Nigeria. The locations of the research included Sandfield mile 2 Diobu, Marine base, and Abuja by-pass Nkpolu-oroworukwo, Port Harcourt. Ethical approval and informed consent of the participants were obtained before commencement of the study. A total of one hundred and fifty (150) apparently healthy subjects aged between 20 t0 50 years were used for the study. Ninety (90) carpenters exposed to wood dust served as test subjects, while sixty (60) non- carpenters, non-wood workers not exposed to wood dust served as controls. Interviewer based sample questionnaire was administered to the subjects. Liver function parameters, Packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), and fibrinogen were analysed using standard laboratory techniques. Results: The mean age of the test subjects (36.5 ± 9.9 years) was not significantly different (P > .05) from that of the controls (32.1 ± 5.8 years). There were no significant differences (P > .05) in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), total bilirubin (TB), conjugated bilirubin (CB), PCV and Hb in the test subjects compared to the controls. ESR (19.60 ± 10.67mm/Hr) and fibrinogen (624 ± 60.88ng/mL) were significantly higher (P< .05) in the tests (carpenters) compared to ESR (8.41 ± 5.36mm/Hr) and fibrinogen (448.4 ± 67.91ng/mL) in the controls. Conclusion: Wood dust exposure did not alter the liver function, PCV, and Hb levels of carpenters. However, with increases in ESR and fibrinogen in the carpenters, there may be a risk of inflammation to wood dust exposure in the carpenters, with negative consequences to the vasculature.

Carla J. Olave ◽  
Kathleen M. Ivester ◽  
Laurent L. Couëtil ◽  
Jackeline Franco-Marmolejo ◽  
Abhijit Mukhopadhyay ◽  

Abstract OBJECTIVE To investigate the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (Ω-3)–derived proresolving lipid mediators (PRLM) in the resolution of mild airway inflammation in horses. ANIMALS 20 horses with mild airway inflammation. PROCEDURES Horses previously eating hay were fed hay pellets (low Ω-3 content; n = 10) or haylage (high Ω-3 content; 9) for 6 weeks. Dust exposure was measured in the breathing zone with a real-time particulate monitor. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed at baseline, week 3, and week 6. The effect of PRLM on neutrophil apoptosis and efferocytosis was examined in vitro. BAL fluid inflammatory cell proportions, apoptosis of circulating neutrophils, efferocytosis displayed by alveolar macrophages, and plasma lipid concentrations were compared between groups fed low and high amounts of Ω-3 by use of repeated measures of generalized linear models. RESULTS Dust exposure was significantly higher with hay feeding, compared to haylage and pellets, and equivalent between haylage and pellets. BAL fluid neutrophil proportions decreased significantly in horses fed haylage (baseline, 11.8 ± 2.4%; week 6, 2.5 ± 1.1%) but not pellets (baseline, 12.1 ± 2.3%; week 6, 8.5% ± 1.7%). At week 6, horses eating haylage had significantly lower BAL neutrophil proportions than those eating pellets, and a significantly lower concentration of stearic acid than at baseline. PRLM treatments did not affect neutrophil apoptosis or efferocytosis. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Despite similar reduction in dust exposure, horses fed haylage displayed greater resolution of airway inflammation than those fed pellets. This improvement was not associated with increased plasma Ω-3 concentrations. Feeding haylage improves airway inflammation beyond that due to reduced dust exposure, though the mechanism remains unclear.

2021 ◽  
Vol 44 ◽  
pp. 103186
Qiming Luo ◽  
Lepeng Huang ◽  
Xuanyi Xue ◽  
Zengshun Chen ◽  
Fengbin Zhou ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 158-169
Julia Afrida ◽  
Nurvi Susanti ◽  
Zulmeliza Rasyid

Asma merupakan peradangan yang kronis yang pada umumnya terjadi pada saluran napas yang ditandai dengan gejala yang bervariasi. Berdasarkan data di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Sungai Sembilan penderita asma pada tahun 2018 sebanyak 68 orang, dan tahun 2019 meningkat menjadi 97 orang. Tujuan dari penelitian ini yaitu diketahuinya hubungan antara faktor genetik, paparan asap rokok, hewan peliharaan dan paparan debu terhadap kejadian asma pada masyarakat di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Sungai Sembilan Tahun 2019. Jenis penelitian ini adalah kuantitatif dengan desain penelitian Case Control.Analisis yang digunakan yaitu analisis univariat dan bivariat dengan uji chi square.Populasi penelitian berjumlah 130 orang dengan sampel kasus 65 orang dan kontrol 65 orang.Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan simple random sampling. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ada hubungan yang signifikan antara faktor genetik p value = 0,0001 dengan OR (95% CI) = 14,897 (5,291-41,941) dan  hewan peliharaan p value= 0,028 dengan OR (95% CI) = 2,420 (1,158-5,059) sedangkan yang tidak berhubungan paparan asap rokok p value 0,359 dan paparan debu p value 0,420 dengan kejadian asma pada masyarakat di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Sungai Sembilan Tahun 2019. Disarankan ke Puskesmas Sungai Sembilan untuk melakukan surveilans penyakit asma dan melakukan penyuluhan dengan berbagai media komunikasi seperti; brosur, leaflet, booklet dan lainnya. Asthma is a chronic inflammation that generally occurs in the airways and is characterized by varying symptoms. Based on data in the Sungai Sembilan Community Health Center Work Area there were 68 people with asthma in 2018, and in 2019 it increased to 97 people. The purpose of this study is to know the relationship between genetic factors, exposure to cigarette smoke, pets and dust exposure to the incidence of asthma in the community in the Sungai Sembilan Health Center Work Area in 2019. This type of research is quantitative with a Case Control research design. The analysis used was univariate and bivariate analysis with the chi square test. The study population numbered 130 people with a sample of 65 cases and 65 controls. The sampling technique used simple random sampling. The results showed that there was a significant relationship between genetic factors P value = 0.0001 with OR (95% CI) = 14.897 (5,291-41,941) and pets P value = 0.028 with OR (95% CI) = 2.420 (1,158- 5.059) while those that are not related to cigarette smoke exposure are P value 0.359 and dust exposure P value 0.420 with the incidence of asthma in the community in the Sungai Sembilan Community Health Center Work Area in 2019. It is suggested to Sungai Sembilan Public Health Center to carry out surveillance of asthma and conduct counseling with various communication media such as; brochures, leaflets, booklets and others.

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