distribution analysis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 73 (1) ◽  
pp. 139-150

Planning of water resources and its management with the ambiguity and non-uniformity accompanying with precipitation and other meteorological physical characteristics may perhaps effect on agricultural production in Bihar where the farmers mostly depend on precipitation. The precipitation and potential evapotranspiration temporal distribution of the state is irregular due to geomorphology, climatic and other anthropogenic factors of the state. In the present study, attempt is taken to expose the best-fit probability distribution among the various available probability distribution of annual average precipitation and potential evapotranspiration based on 102 year of past records of all 37 districts of the state. On the basis of ranks of goodness of fit tests such as Kolmogorov Smirnov, Anderson Darling and Chi-Squared, the normal distribution was observed the best-fit probability distribution for 11 districts followed by Weibull (3P) for 9 districts, the Beta distribution for 5 districts and other distribution for rest districts for precipitation. Whereas Cauchy distribution was come out with the best-fit probability distribution for potential evapotranspiration for all districts and the second best was Gamma (3P) covering almost 60% of the total districts followed by General Extreme Value distribution (32%). The results can be used in future hydraulic design, hydrological study for estimation of return period and water resource planners for policy development.  

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Aedan G K Roberts ◽  
Daniel R Catchpoole ◽  
Paul J Kennedy

ABSTRACT There is increasing evidence that changes in the variability or overall distribution of gene expression are important both in normal biology and in diseases, particularly cancer. Genes whose expression differs in variability or distribution without a difference in mean are ignored by traditional differential expression-based analyses. Using a Bayesian hierarchical model that provides tests for both differential variability and differential distribution for bulk RNA-seq data, we report here an investigation into differential variability and distribution in cancer. Analysis of eight paired tumour–normal datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas confirms that differential variability and distribution analyses are able to identify cancer-related genes. We further demonstrate that differential variability identifies cancer-related genes that are missed by differential expression analysis, and that differential expression and differential variability identify functionally distinct sets of potentially cancer-related genes. These results suggest that differential variability analysis may provide insights into genetic aspects of cancer that would not be revealed by differential expression, and that differential distribution analysis may allow for more comprehensive identification of cancer-related genes than analyses based on changes in mean or variability alone.

2022 ◽  
Shujie Yang ◽  
Jianbin Shen ◽  
Tiefei He ◽  
Chao Chen ◽  
Junming Wang ◽  

Abstract Waste paper has become a promising raw material for the pulp and paper industry due to its low cost and because it is conducive to sustainable development. Unfortunately, waste paper contains a high volume of printed paper that is difficult to deink, which restricts its applications. Flotation deinking plays an essential role in the product quality and process cost of wastepaper recycling. This study was performed to evaluate the deinkability of environmentally friendly offset inks by flotation deinking. For this purpose, three series of four-color inks, namely, hybrid light emitting diode ultraviolet (LED‒UV), LED‒UV, and vegetable oil‒based inks, were printed on white lightweight coated papers under laboratory conditions. The deinking methodology involves repulping, deinking agent treatment, flotation, hand sheet making, and evaluation of the produced hand sheets. The obtained results indicated that the hybrid LED‒UV prints had the best deinkability. After flotation deinking, the deinking efficiency and the whiteness of the hybrid LED‒UV ink increased by 58.1% and 47.6%, respectively. LED‒UV ink had a 46.9% increase in the deinking efficiency and a 37.0% increase in the whiteness of the hand sheet. The deinking efficiency of the vegetable oil‒based ink was the lowest, at 42.1%, and the whiteness of the hand sheet increased only by 23.8%. The particle size distribution analysis demonstrated that the hybrid LED‒UV four-color ink exhibited a larger value of the average particle size than the two other. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the hybrid LED‒UV ink particles on the surface of the fibers were the least abundant after deinking. The physical strength properties of the hand sheets, including tensile index, folding resistance, and cohesion of the hybrid LED‒UV, LED‒UV inks, and vegetable oil‒based inks, increased.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Carla López-Causapé ◽  
Pablo A. Fraile-Ribot ◽  
Santiago Jiménez-Serrano ◽  
Gabriel Cabot ◽  
Ester del Barrio-Tofiño ◽  

Objective: To analyze the SARS-CoV-2 genomic epidemiology in the Balearic Islands, a unique setting in which the course of the pandemic has been influenced by a complex interplay between insularity, severe social restrictions and tourism travels.Methods: Since the onset of the pandemic, more than 2,700 SARS-CoV-2 positive respiratory samples have been randomly selected and sequenced in the Balearic Islands. Genetic diversity of circulating variants was assessed by lineage assignment of consensus whole genome sequences with PANGOLIN and investigation of additional spike mutations.Results: Consensus sequences were assigned to 46 different PANGO lineages and 75% of genomes were classified within a VOC, VUI, or VUM variant according to the WHO definitions. Highest genetic diversity was documented in the island of Majorca (42 different lineages detected). Globally, lineages B.1.1.7 and B.1.617.2/AY.X were identified as the 2 major lineages circulating in the Balearic Islands during the pandemic, distantly followed by lineages B.1.177/B.1.177.X. However, in Ibiza/Formentera lineage distribution was slightly different and lineage B.1.221 was the third most prevalent. Temporal distribution analysis showed that B.1 and B.1.5 lineages dominated the first epidemic wave, lineage B.1.177 dominated the second and third, and lineage B.1.617.2 the fourth. Of note, lineage B.1.1.7 became the most prevalent circulating lineage during first half of 2021; however, it was not associated with an increased in COVID-19 cases likely due to severe social restrictions and limited travels. Additional spike mutations were rarely documented with the exception of mutation S:Q613H which has been detected in several genomes (n = 25) since July 2021.Conclusion: Virus evolution, mainly driven by the acquisition and selection of spike substitutions conferring biological advantages, social restrictions, and size population are apparently key factors for explaining the epidemic patterns registered in the Balearic Islands.

Diversity ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 35
Yufeng Zhang ◽  
Yiming Zhang ◽  
Hui Wu ◽  
Congsheng Li ◽  
Nonillon M. Aspe ◽  

Eisenia nordenskioldi is the dominant earthworm species in many tundra and boreal habitats. Nothing is known about the genetic diversity of this species along the elevation gradient in China. This study sampled 28 individuals in the E. nordenskioldi complex from Wuling Mountain, northern China, to examine their external morphology and genetic diversity. Mt. Wuling is the southern limit of the distribution of the E. nordenskioldi complex. The specimens from Mt. Wuling were classified into three groups along an elevation gradient. Mismatch distribution analysis suggested that the Pleistocene glaciations possibly did not significantly affect the distribution of earthworm species in this region. We also found that elevation affected the genetic diversity, but not the external morphology of E. nordenskioldi. Given the altitudinal genetic diversity within the E. nordenskioldi complex, the phylogeography of this species provides important information for the zoogeographic reconstruction of the mountains in northern China. With the relatively limited sample size, the result is not conclusive, and further studies need to be conducted in the future to verify the results.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 90
Maria Kouroutzi ◽  
Antonios Stratidakis ◽  
Marianthi Kermenidou ◽  
Spyros Karakitsios ◽  
Dimosthenis Sarigiannis

A novel roofing tile was developed containing various types of nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO2). Experiments were conducted using three types of TiO2 nanoparticles with and without polyethylene glycol (PEG). All types of newly developed nanomaterials were characterized using X-ray diffractometry. Particle size distribution analysis was performed and specific surface area was determined using the Brunauer–Emmet–Teller method. SEM imaging was used for the morphological characterization of nanoparticles. Commercial ceramic roofing tiles underwent a dip-coating procedure to obtain the desired photocatalytic surface. The TiO2 anatase samples exhibited greater surface areas of nanoparticles, thus providing potentially the highest photocatalytic efficiency.

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