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George Pashev

It is a healthy diet that creates conditions for human life, ensuring the optimal functioning of all processes in the body. Of course, a healthy diet cannot be a protection against the penetration of infection into the body, but it is the balanced and full-fledged nature of the diet that creates the conditions for the formation of a timely and adequate immune response. In order to help consumers in getting more balanced and healthy diet, we created a personalized Healthy Menu Generator Chatbot, based on Prolog Knowledge base. The user request is constructed by user in a subset of English Language by using Request Fragments from a list. Cross-translation of the user request and its execution in the Prolog Execution Environment is extensively covered in the paper.

Mariia Shuvalova

The paper is focused on the perception of the short story genre in the western literary theory of the 20th —21st centuries. At the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, the term 'short story' was a neologism, and its appearance indicated the rethinking of established literary forms. This process led to the development of new literary theories. The works of Brander Matthews (“The Philosophy of the Short Story”, 1901) and Frank O’Connor (“The Lonely Voice”, 1962), prominent writers and literary scholars of the 20th century, established academic short story studies in the English-speaking countries. Charles E. May, Susan Lohafer, Mary Rohrberger, Austin Wright, Ian Reid, Clare Hanson, Florence Goyet, Hanna Meretoja, whose major publications are also within the scope of the paper, provided further investigation of numerous issues of the short story genre and other types of short fiction. The works of the mentioned scholars are widely known and serve as a basis for academic courses and as an introduction to the short story theory. Nevertheless, they are rarely considered as one of the possible theoretical perspectives in the relevant Ukrainian research works on a short story, and it gives a reason for a closer look at them. Due to rising attention to the short literary forms, involving different theoretical frames might be beneficial to the development of the discourse. The paper describes the key issues of modern discussions concerning the distinctive features of the short story, its scope, definitions, establishment as an independent genre, and meaning in axiological and ontological contexts. The issue is explored by comparing different theoretical experiences with the use of comparative and discursive analysis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 247-273
Peter R. R. White

Abstract This paper explores a new line of analysis for comparing opinion writing by reference to differences in the relationships being indicated between author and addressee. It draws on recent work within the appraisal framework literature to offer proposals for linguistics-based analyses of what has variously been termed the ‘intended’, ‘imagined’, ‘ideal’, ‘virtual’, ‘model’, ‘implied’ and ‘putative’ reader (the ‘reader written into the text’). A discussion is provided of those means by which beliefs, attitudes and expectations are projected onto this ‘reader in the text’, formulations which signal anticipations that the reader either shares the attitude or belief currently being advanced by the author, potentially finds it novel or otherwise problematic, or may reject it outright. The discussion is conducted with respect to written, persuasive texts, and specifically with respect to news journalism’s commentary pieces. It is proposed that such texts can usefully be characterised and compared by reference to tendencies in such ‘construals’ or ‘positionings’ of the putative reader – tendencies in terms of whether the signalled anticipation is of the reader being aligned or, conversely, potentially unaligned or dis-aligned with the author. The terms ‘flag waving’ and ‘advocacy’ are proposed as characterisations which can be applied to texts, with ‘flag waving’ applicable to texts which construe the reader as largely sharing the author’s beliefs and attitudes, while ‘advocacy’ is applicable to texts where the reader is construed as actually or potentially not sharing the author’s beliefs and attitudes and thereby needing to be won over. This line of analysis is demonstrated through a comparison of two journalistic opinion pieces written in response to visits by Japanese politicians to the Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo, one published in the English-language version of the mainland China newspaper, China Daily and one in the English-language version of the Japanese Asahi Shimbun. It is shown that one piece can usefully be characterised as oriented towards ‘flag waving’ and the other towards ‘advocacy’.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (11) ◽  
pp. 49
Abdullah Al Mamun

The prime objectives of this study were to unveil the level of anxiety and the sources of English language anxiety of the tertiary level students of Bangladesh. Through a questionnaire survey using Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale developed by Horwitz et al. (1986), the study found that most of the tertiary level learners have high anxiety of English as a foreign language. Based on an exploratory factor analysis with principal component analysis and varimax rotation (Kaiser Normalization), a four-factor (communication anxiety, comprehension and test anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, and lack of anxiety) solution emerged. Following a close analysis of the EFA and other established valid models, the study found that six components, namely, speaking anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, peer pressure/social-image anxiety, comprehension-related anxiety, negative attitude towards class, and test anxiety were the main sources of anxiety, which need to be addressed for alleviating the anxiety of the students.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 79-95
Bernard Meshach Aguma ◽  
Caroline Kinuu Kimathi ◽  
Martin Situma ◽  

The adoption of virtual teaching and learning of a second language in the Nigerian educational system has received little attention. COVID-19 lock-down, imposed by the governments of the nations, forced educational institutions globally and locally to adapt virtual teaching and learning of English language. This research paper investigated the challenges of virtual teaching and learning of a second language (English) in selected secondary schools, Isu Ikwuato L.A. Abia State, Nigeria. It used a mixed method convergent parallel research design. The purposive sampling technique was used to select secondary schools that adopted virtual teaching and learning. The targeted population was 2000 English students and teachers with a sample size of 333. The results revealed that the schools made use of synchronous, asynchronous and blended types of online teaching and learning, and the students had a positive attitude. Both students and teachers experienced challenges of poor network, lack of ICT training, unstable electricity, and financial constraint. This study recommends the following: Language Policy Makers in Nigerian Educational System to map out the strategies that will incorporate online second language teaching and learning skills in the curriculum. That Marist Educational Board in partnership with the Ministry of Education in Nigeria, provide virtual supplementary materials for English language education. Adequate virtual training to be provided for English teachers and students. That the challenges of internet fluctuation, power shortage, insufficient virtual materials, inadequate funds, technical issues, virtual skills be addressed by all the stakeholders in education.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (5) ◽  
pp. 3320-3351
Júlia Elen Dias ◽  
Natália de Souza Gomes ◽  
Samara Paula Dos Santos ◽  
Stefanni Cristina Magdalena ◽  
Priscila Batista Martins

Através do levantamento, análise e comparação dos sistemas disponíveis para aprendizado da língua inglesa, de maneira criteriosa e prática esta pequena pesquisa descreve. Busca-se melhorar o ensino do inglês para alunos do Ensino Fundamental, tendo como objetivo ensinar de maneira agradável e simples esta língua, atendendo aos objetivos educacionais previamente estabelecidos e, visando aspectos pedagógicos na utilização do software LET’S GO, fazendo com que através desse pequeno exemplo, possamos refletir sobre a importância de se aprender um novo idioma.   Through the survey, analysis and comparison of available for English language learning systems, careful and practical way this brief survey describes. We seek to improve the teaching of English to elementary school students, aiming to teach refreshingly simple language this way, given the previously established educational goals and pedagogical aspects in order to use the software, making it through this small example, can reflect on the importance of learning a new language.  

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (11) ◽  
pp. 24
Abdullah Alqahtani

Despite teaching English language in Saudi Arabia for 6 decades, yet the outcomes are unsatisfactory. In this article, the lack of qualified English teachers in Saudi Arabia is the main reason for causing that issue. To address the issue, this study attempts to understand how untrained teachers have a negative influence on students' performance and competence. Unstructured interviews were conducted with students from two Saudi schools to reflect on the problems and obstacles that Saudi pupils encounter as a result of their incompetent instructors. Instead of interviewing instructors, we interviewed students to know the strategies, methods, and techniques employed by their teachers, which resulted in their incapacity to improve. According to the participants, the majority of English teachers in Saudi schools speak Arabic in English lessons rather than English. They also employ traditional approaches such as the teacher-centered method. They educate and explain in English, but when they reach a major obstacle, they immediately switch to Arabic as an efficient option. The study's findings highlight the necessity of having trained teachers to teach English in EFL programs in Saudi Arabia. The study's objective is to demonstrate that instructors are at the heart of the issues that affecting students' growth and how to assist them to overcome those problems.  

A. M. Arias ◽  
I. A. Shcherbakova

Статья посвящена исследованию лингвистических средств реализации персуазивного эффекта в англоязычной видеорекламе. Реклама является важнейшим компонентом общественной коммуникации в силу стремительного развития промышленности и торговли в современной социальной среде. Именно рекламный дискурс диктует законы актуального и неактуального, тем самым побуждая потенциального потребителя приобрести определенный товар. Возникает закономерный вопрос, связанный с правилами, согласно которым действует рекламный дискурс, и приемами, посредством коих создатели рекламных текстов реализуют коммуникативное намерение воздействия. Авторы приведут некоторые особенности рекламного текста как явления, далее сконцентрируются на специфике видеорекламы.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 5112
Steven H. Weinberger ◽  
Hussain Almalki ◽  
Larisa A. Olesova

It is axiomatic that one of the chief goals of an applied linguistics program is to instruct teachers in the intricacies of English language structure. Explicit knowledge of the target language can help domestic and international teachers when dealing with adult 2nd language learners. But while most programs offer courses in English grammar, we found a paucity of (online) phonetics classes. We discuss three characteristics to be included in an online phonetics course: the description and learning of the sounds of the world’s languages, the technology-based collaborative procedures to narrowly transcribe a wide range of accented English speech, and the specific design to engage a variety of online students. Particular attention is devoted to our unique collaborative online project that at once trains students in the phonetic analysis of non-native speech. The results of these analyses are contributed to the online database, the speech accent archive (accent.gmu.edu), thereby giving students ownership of a publicly available online archive. The outcomes are described, with justifications and specific methods for measuring them. This paper emphasizes that learning to narrowly transcribe leads to enhanced listening and analysis, and that peer-to-peer collaboration is vital for any asynchronous online class.

RELC Journal ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 003368822110436
Nam Giang Tran ◽  
Xuan Van Ha ◽  
Ngoc Hai Tran

Second/foreign language (L2) education reforms have triggered increasing research investigating the effectiveness of and teachers’ cognitions and practices concerning the reformed curricula. This study extends this line of enquiry by employing a sociological perspective, an undertaking that little prior research has demonstrated in L2 teacher cognition literature, to explore teachers’ understanding, knowledge and beliefs about and their actual implementation of a reformed English language curriculum (i.e. task-supported language teaching) in Vietnam. The participants were six experienced English-as-a-foreign-language teachers at a secondary school. The data comprised in-depth semi-structured interviews, informal conversations, lesson plans and classroom observations. The findings showed that the teachers made use of their existing deep-rooted knowledge and beliefs about language teaching and learning to enact the reformed curriculum in their own ways, illustrating a focus-on-forms approach. The study drew on Bernstein's notion of pedagogic discourse to shed light on the teachers’ rationales for their own ways of practice. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

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