global status
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Luca Baiotti

AbstractI review the current global status of research on gravitational waves emitted from mergers of binary neutron star systems, focusing on general-relativistic simulations and their use to interpret data from the gravitational-wave detectors, especially in relation to the equation of state of compact stars.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 305-324
Abdullatif Alshatti

<p style="text-align: justify;">This study is an endeavour to explicate the dissonance of the linguistic quality outcome of study abroad (SA) experiences by exploring the second language (L2) motivation of six academic sojourners in Manchester. A person-in-context approach revealed that developing intimate relationships with ‘native-speakers’, providing L2-mediated interaction opportunities with international students, and social approval were key determinants of the extent to which SA students were invested in social practices. Such social engagements were found to stem from second language motivation that is part of identity construction process. In addition, the thematic analysis of the narrative inquiries suggests that the global status of the English language defies the traditional conceptualisations of L2 motivation as most participants’ motivations were formed despite their negative or neutral attitudes towards the English community. The findings also endorse the role of the other as a robust motivational source by which learners can replenish their motivation stream, leading to social identity investment to construct their ideological selves. The paper concludes with a recommendation to re-interpret the conceptualisation of the Ideal L2 Self system because ‘native-speakers’ are rarely the closest parallels to L2 learners, and it should incorporate explicit intrinsic orientations. Furthermore, language institutions in SA contexts should direct their focus on establishing conversation clubs and hosting social events for SA students to provide a safe space for their identities to be developed, enacted and reconstructed.</p>

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Mohammad Hossein Razizadeh ◽  
Alireza Khatami ◽  
Mohammad Zarei

Background: Bufavirus (BuV), Human Cosavirus (HCoSV), and Saffold (SAFV) virus are three newly discovered viruses and have been suggested as possible causes of gastroenteritis (GE) in some studies. The aim of the present study was to estimate the overall prevalence of viruses and their association with GE.Methods: A comprehensive systematic search was conducted in Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and Google scholar between 2007 and 2021 to find studies on the prevalence of BuV, HCoSV, and SAFV viruses.Result: Meta-analysis of the 46 included studies showed the low prevalence of BuV (1.%, 95% CI 0.6–1.5%), HCoSV (0.8%, 95% CI 0.4–1.5%), and SAFV (1.9%, 95% CI 1.1–3.1%) worldwide. Also, no significant association between these viruses and GE was observed. BuV was isolated from patients with GE in Africa, while SAFV was more common in Europe. BuV1 and BuV2 have the same prevalence between the three identified genotypes of BuV. HCoSV-C was the most prevalent genotype of HCoSV, and SAFV2 was the commonest genotype of SAFV. All of these viruses were more prevalent in children older than 5 years of age.Conclusion: This was the first meta-analysis on the prevalence and association of BuV, HCoSV, and SAFV with GE. While no significant association was found between infection with these viruses and GE, we suggest more studies, especially with case-control design and from different geographical regions in order to enhance our knowledge of these viruses.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Kanchan Samadhiya ◽  
Rimjhim Sangtani ◽  
Regina Nogueira ◽  
Kiran Bala

Impetuous urbanization and population growth are driving increased demand for plastics to formulate impeccable industrial and biomedical commodities. The everlasting nature and excruciating waste management of petroleum-based plastics have catered to numerous challenges for the environment. However, just implementing various end-of-life management techniques for assimilation and recycling plastics is not a comprehensive remedy; instead, the extensive reliance on finite resources needs to be reduced for sustainable production and plastic product utilization. Microorganisms, such as bacteria and algae, are explored substantially for their bioplastic production repertoire, thus replacing fossil-based plastics sooner or later. Nevertheless, the utilization of pure microbial cultures has led to various operational and economical complications, opening the ventures for the usage of mixed microbial cultures (MMCs) consisting of bacteria and algae for sustainable production of bioplastic. The current review is primarily focuses on elaborating the bioplastic production capabilities of different bacterial and algal strains, followed by discussing the quintessence of MMCs. The present state-of-the-art of bioplastic, different types of bacterial bioplastic, microalgal biocomposites, operational factors influencing the quality and quantity of bioplastic precursors, embracing the potential of bacteria-algae consortia, and the current global status quo of bioplastic production has been summarized extensively.

2022 ◽  
pp. 280-303
Pallavi Mitra ◽  
Anwesha Haldar ◽  
Priya Banerjee

Ecosystem services include conditions and processes that make up natural ecosystems and the species present therein. According to recent studies, wetland ecosystems provide the maximum service value per area by playing a significant role in regulating and purifying water supplies, controlling flood, acting as carbon-sinks, and sustaining human lives and livelihoods. Challenges like wetland loss and degradation, declining freshwater resources, and probable consequences of climate change have attracted significant scientific and public attention towards wetland conservation and restoration. Despite diligent conservation efforts, the global status of wetland security is still alarming. Long-term sustainable management and use of wetlands necessitate active public participation from all sectors. This study reviews the current status of different wetlands in India. It also provides a detailed discussion of different aspects of economic evaluation of ecosystem services, wetland restoration, and public participation for improving wetland policies and governance.

2021 ◽  
pp. 186810342110575
Le Dinh Tinh ◽  
Vu Thi Thu Ngan

Limited capability and political will have caused the great powers to fail to demonstrate their global leadership in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, which has created greater room to manoeuvre for other countries to influence international affairs. Preliminary achievements in the fight against the COVID-19 crisis have buttressed the rising global status of small and medium-sized states, including Vietnam. Although Vietnam has recently been recognised as an emerging middle power, scepticism looms regarding whether this higher international status is beyond its capacity. We argue that the pandemic may act as a catalyst for Vietnam to further elevate its strategic role as a middle power on the international stage in the medium and long term.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (Fall 2021) ◽  
pp. 231-258
Kemal İnat ◽  
Melih Yıldız

In this article, the rise of China is discussed in the light of economic and military data, and what the challenge from China means for the global leadership of the U.S. is analyzed. Changes in the indicators of the U.S. and China’s economic and military power over the last 30-40 years are examined and an answer is sought for the following question: What will the consequences of China’s rise be in terms of the international political system? To answer this question, similar ‘rise and challenge’ precedents are discussed to contextualize and analyze and the present challenge China poses. This article concludes that while improving its global status, China has been taking the previous cases’ failed challenges into consideration. China, which does not want to repeat the mistakes made by Germany and the Soviet Union, is hesitant to pursue an aggressive military policy and tries to limit its rivalry with the U.S. in the economic area. While Chinese policy of avoiding direct conflict and focusing on economic development has made it the biggest economic rival of the U.S, the rise of China initiates the discussions about the end of the U.S. and West-led international system.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 4417
Peter Anderson

As summarized in the World Health Organization’s latest Global Status Report on Alcohol, the pleasure of alcohol is indicated by the fact that, worldwide, just over two-fifths of the population aged 15+ years drink alcohol; 2 [...]

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-9

The global status report on road safety declared that the number of annual road traffic deaths has reached 1.35 million. In Rwanda, considering the raising number of vehicles in line with the economy growth and the above 48.90/000 ratio of deaths per registered vehicles; the lives of people are therefore increasingly exposed to road traffic crashes. This study therefore aims to utilize statistical methods for assessing the impact of Gerayo Amahoro policy on Road Traffic Accidents reduction in Rwanda and propose counter measures that could help the decision makers in minimizing the losses caused by Road Traffic Accidents. secondary data related to road traffic accidents have been collected by using questionnaire from Rwanda National Police with the study period from 2016 up to 2020 inclusive. Analysis was done by using graphics and chi-square methods in excel and SPSS software. The results indicated that GERAYO AMAHORO policy plays the greatest role in reduction of RTAs in Rwanda due to the number of RTAs happened before the implementation of GERAYO AMAHORO which was high as compared to the total number of RTAs after implementation of GERAYO AMAHORO policy. This research conclude that negligence, over speed, bad maneuver and over drunk are mostly causes and responsible for the occurrence of RTAs in Rwanda; indicated that Vehicle types mostly related to RTAs were moto-cycles, cars and 4 wheel vehicles and the mostly victims related to RTAs were moto-cyclists, passengers and pedestrians.

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