scholarly journals L2 attitude and motivation of secondary, undergraduate, and postgraduate ESL learners in India

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 152-173
Sarat Kumar Doley

Second language (L2) attitude and motivation-related studies focusing on differences caused by age have mostly highlighted the temporal dimension of L2 attitude and motivation. Age-related L2 motivation studies have also been gainfully employed at comparisons between L2 learners of different age groups recruited from different L2 learning environments. Such studies have not, however, attempted an analysis of the L2 attitudinal and motivational differences that may exist among L2 learners within a closer age range, e.g., 18 to 25 years. This article presents the findings of an L2 attitude and motivation survey, using a modified version of Dӧrnyei et al. (2006) and Ryan (2005), conducted among secondary, undergraduate, and postgraduate English as a second language (ESL) learners (N210) in India. It primarily presents a comparative analysis of the L2 attitudinal and motivational constructs of integrativeness, instrumentality, cultural interest, linguistic self-confidence, and L2 anxiety attested in the sample. Additionally, it offers a description of the correlation between the five L2 attitudinal and motivational constructs concerning the different ESL groups. As the ESL learners across the academic levels demonstrated ESL motivation more on the side of instrumentality, they also reported linguistic self-confidence more in the familiar environment of an L2 classroom than outside of it. Since better motivational strategies enhance learner dedication to the learning of a certain L2, an elaborated understanding of the specific differences in L2 attitude and motivation within this important age range should help design more useful and effective L2 pedagogical methods.

2015 ◽  
Vol 19 (2) ◽  
pp. 331-346 ◽  

Auditory phonological processing skills are critical for successful reading development in English not only in native (L1) speakers but also in second language (L2) learners. However, the neural deficits of auditory phonological processing remain unknown in English-as-the-second-language (ESL) learners with reading difficulties. Here we investigated neural responses during spoken word rhyme judgments in typical and impaired ESL readers in China. The impaired readers showed comparable activation in the left superior temporal gyrus (LSTG), but reduced activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and left fusiform and reduced connectivity between the LSTG and left fusiform when compared to typical readers. These findings suggest that impaired ESL readers have relative intact representations but impaired manipulation of phonology and reduced or absent automatic access to orthographic representations. This is consistent with previous findings in native English speakers and suggests a common neural mechanism underlying English impairment across the L1 and L2 learners.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (6) ◽  
pp. 76
Baraa A. Rajab

Previous studies show that second language (L2) learners of English sometimes produce the verb with proper past tense inflectional morphology as in help[t] and sometimes repair the cluster, as in helpø or hel[pəd]. Complicating matters, these studies focused on L2 learners whose native languages disallowed codas or had very restricted codas. Thus, it is difficult to tell whether any problems in producing past tense morphology are due to first language L1-transferred coda restrictions, or an inability to acquire the abstract feature of past tense. To rule out native language syllable structure interference, this paper aims to examine the production of the English regular past tense verb by Arabic L1 ESL learners, a language that allows complex codas. The paper also examines the role of a phonological universal, the Obligatory Contour Principle (OCP) that disallows two adjacent similar sounds, and its effect on learners’ production. The data come from twenty-two English as a Second Language (ESL) students at three levels of proficiency. The task was a sentence list eliciting target clusters in past tense contexts that violate manner in OCP: fricative + stop ([st], [ft]) vs. stop + stop ([pt], [kt]). Results show that L1 Arabic speakers have difficulty in producing past tense morphology, even though their L1 allows complex codas. Fricative + stop clusters are repaired (epenthesis/deletion) at a lower rate (low =25.71%, intermediate = 6.6%, high=11.11%) than stop + stop clusters (low=57.14%, intermediate = 40.27%, high=22.91%). The higher rate of repair is clear in stops + stop clusters suggesting that learners abide by phonological universals and prefer not to violate OCP. Finally, proficiency level has an effect on target-like production, as higher-proficiency learners produce past-tense morphology at a higher rate than lower-proficiency learners. Together, these results indicate that L1 transfer is not the only source of difficulty in the production of past tense morphology, and that the abstract feature of tense is problematic, particularly at the early stages of ESL development.

2000 ◽  
Vol 46 (3) ◽  
pp. 399-403 ◽  
Daniel Biou ◽  
Jean-François Benoist ◽  
Claire Nguyen-Thi ◽  
Xuan Huong ◽  
Philippe Morel ◽  

Abstract Background: The published reference values for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) total protein concentrations in children suffer from two major drawbacks: (a) the age-related range often is too broad when applied to the steeply falling concentrations in early infancy; and (b) no values have been published for widely used dry chemistry methods. Methods: We conducted a 2-year retrospective survey of CSF results obtained in a children’s hospital with a dry chemistry-based method set up on the Vitros 700 analyzer. Results: The data related to ambulatory children up to 16 years of age and term neonates with no clinical or biological signs of brain disease (n = 1074). Seven age groups with significantly different CSF protein values were identified, and their age-related percentiles (5th, 50th, and 95th) were determined. On the basis of the upper 95th percentile, from age 0 to 6 months the CSF protein concentrations fell rapidly from 1.08 to 0.40 g/L. A plateau (0.32 g/L) was reached from age 6 months to 10 years, followed by a slight increase (0.41 g/L) in the 10–16 years age range. Conclusions: These results imply that CSF total protein concentrations in the pediatric setting, particularly in infants, must always be interpreted with regard to narrow age-related reference values to avoid false-positive results.

2018 ◽  
Vol 10 (3) ◽  
pp. 40 ◽  
Richard E. Hicks ◽  
Victoria E. Alexander ◽  
Mark Bahr

How our memory is affected as we age has been given considerable attention over recent decades as we strive to understand the cognitive processes involved. Memory types have been identified as either explicit (declarative - related to episodes or semantics) or implicit (non-declarative – related to procedures, habits, or earlier priming). Studies have identified likely age-related decline in explicit but not implicit memory though there are opposing results suggested from other studies. It is thought cognitive reserve capacities might explain any non-decline as aging individuals use alternative or additional pathways to ‘remember’. This theory might be supported indirectly if older members remember material accurately but take longer to supply answers. In our current study we re-examined whether age-related differences in accuracy and speed of access in memory are present in both implicit and explicit memory processes and we increased the number of experimental age groups (from 2 to 3) - most previous studies have compared just two groups (young, and old). With three groups (young, middle-old, and older aged groups) we can identify trends across the age range towards deterioration or preservation of memory. We examined sixty-six participants (49 females; 17 males) aged 18 to 86 years (M = 50.27, SD = 21.06) from South-Eastern Queensland and divided these into younger (18 to 46 years of age), middle old (50 to 64) and older aged (65+) cohorts. Participants were administered tasks assessing implicit and explicit memory using computer presentations. Consistent with most prior research, no age differences were identified on accuracy in the implicit memory tasks (verbal and non-verbal, including priming), suggesting that memory for implicit material remains preserved. However, on the explicit memory tasks, older adults performed less accurately than the younger adults, indicative of decline in explicit memory as we age. The finding of a decline in explicit memory but no significant decline in implicit memory confirms most earlier research and is consistent with a view of modular decline rather than overall decline in memory with increasing age. In addition, differences found in speed of response in otherwise accurate implicit memory with older respondents significantly slower, suggests possible support for the cognitive reserve hypothesis. 

2015 ◽  
Vol 50 (2) ◽  
pp. 212-226 ◽  
Norbert Schmitt ◽  
Tom Cobb ◽  
Marlise Horst ◽  
Diane Schmitt

There is current research consensus that second language (L2) learners are able to adequately comprehend general English written texts if they know 98% of the words that occur in the materials. This important finding prompts an important question: How much English vocabulary do English as a second language (ESL) learners need to know to achieve this crucial level of known-word coverage? A landmark paper by Nation (2006) provides a rather daunting answer. His exploration of the 98% figure through a variety of spoken and written corpora showed that knowledge of around 8,000–9,000 word families is needed for reading and 6,000–7,000 for listening. But is this the definitive picture? A recent study by van Zeeland & Schmitt (2012) suggests that 95% coverage may be sufficient for listening comprehension, and that this can be reached with 2,000–3,000 word families, which is much more manageable. Getting these figures right for a variety of text modalities, genres and conditions of reading and listening is essential. Teachers and learners need to be able to set goals, and as Cobb's study of learning opportunities (2007) has shown, coverage percentages and their associated vocabulary knowledge requirements have important implications for the acquisition of new word knowledge through exposure to comprehensible L2 input. This article proposes approximate replications of Nation (2006), van Zeeland & Schmitt (2012), and Cobb (2007), in order to clarify these key coverage and size figures.

Rafidah Kamarudin ◽  
Shazila Abdullah ◽  
Roslina Abdul Aziz

It is generally agreed that collocational knowledge is an important language form for language learners in order for them to be proficient and fluent in the target language. However, previous studies have reported that second language (L2) learners lack collocational competence and they encounter difficulties in learning and using collocations. The present study not only investigates the overall collocational knowledge of Malaysian ESL learners, but more specifically, their productive and receptive knowledge of lexical and grammatical, which so far have not been further explored. Additionally, the ESL learners’ performance on three different types of collocations: verb-noun, adjective-noun, and verb-preposition is also investigated. Results of the study reveals a few interesting findings with respect to the Malaysian ESL learners’ overall knowledge of collocations, in particular their productive and receptive knowledge of collocations in relation to the three different types of collocations (verb-noun, adjective-noun, and verb-preposition). Pedagogical implications with regard to collocations and recommendations for future research are also put forward. investigated both the receptive and productive aspects of collocational.

2016 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 513-535 ◽  
Hien Hoang ◽  
Frank Boers

Adult second language (L2) learners have often been found to produce discourse that manifests limited and non-native-like use of multiword expressions. One explanation for this is that adult L2 learners are relatively unsuccessful (in the absence of pedagogic intervention) at transferring multiword expressions from input texts to their own output resources. The present article reports an exploratory study where ESL learners were asked to re-tell a short story which they had read and listened to twice. The learners’ re-tells were subsequently examined for the extent to which they recycled multiword expressions from the original story. To gauge the influence of the input text on these learners’ renderings of the story, a control group was asked to tell the story based exclusively on a series of pictures. The results of the experiment suggest that multiword expressions were recycled from the input text to some extent, but this stayed very marginal in real terms, especially in comparison with the recycling of single words. Moreover, when learners did borrow expressions from the input text, their reproductions were often non-target-like.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0260525
Sho Yokoyama ◽  
Yoshiki Tanaka ◽  
Takashi Kojima ◽  
Rie Horai ◽  
Yukihito Kato ◽  

Purpose To evaluate the age-related change in color visual acuity (CVA) in normal eyes. Methods In total, 162 normal eyes (162 subjects, women: 52, men: 110, age range: 15–68 years) with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ≥20/13 were enrolled. Fifteen colors from the New Color Test (chroma 6) were applied to Landolt “C” rings, white point D65 was applied as background, and a luminance of 30 cd/m2 was set for both the rings and the background. These rings were used to measure the chromatic spatial discrimination acuity as the CVA value, while changing the stimulus size. Correlations of the CVA value of each color and age were evaluated. Mean CVA values of all 15 colors (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) were compared between age groups in 10-year increments. Results Nine CVA values (red, yellow-red, red-yellow, green, blue-green, green-blue, purple, red-purple, and purple-red) were negatively correlated with age (all p<0.05); the remaining six (yellow, green-yellow, yellow-green, blue, purple-blue, and blue-purple), as well as BCVA were not. The age groups with the best to worst mean CVA values of 15 colors were as follows: 20–29 (mean ± standard deviation, 0.303 ± 0.113), 30–39 (0.324 ± 0.096), 10–19 (0.333 ± 0.022), 50–59 (0.335 ± 0.078), 40–49 (0.339 ± 0.096), and 60–69 (0.379 ± 0.125) years. There were statistically significant differences between mean CVA values of the following groups: 20–29 and 40–49 years; 20–29 and 60–69 years; 30–39 and 60–69 years (all p<0.01). Conclusions The CVA values related to the medium/long-wavelength-sensitive cones were more susceptible to aging than those related to the short-wavelength-sensitive cones. This differed from previous reports, and may be related to the difference in the range of foveal cone function evaluated with each examination.

2017 ◽  
Vol 41 (S1) ◽  
pp. S72-S72
W. Sulis ◽  
I. Trofimova

A diversity of neurochemical hypotheses related to major depression (MD) suggests that further investigation is needed for uncovering the neurophysiological nature of MD. Since both temperament and mental illness have been linked to varying degrees of the same neurotransmitter imbalances in neurophysiological systems of behavioral regulation, the analysis of temperament traits as weak forms of neurochemical imbalances might give new insights into symptoms and nature of MD. This study analyzed the predictions of the opioid receptor hypothesis within the neurochemical model of functional ensemble of temperament proposing that a dysregulation of the opioid receptors acting on monoaminergic systems gives rise to the symptoms of major depression (MD). The study investigated the coupling of sex, age and temperament traits with MD across four age groups (17–24, 25–45, 46–65, 66–85) by reviewing the records of testing in 423 patients and volunteers with (210) and without (213) the MD. The records included testing with the personality assessment inventory, structure of temperament questionnaire, structured clinical interview and other diagnostic measures. In line with the hypothesis, patients with MD had significantly lower physical endurance, social-verbal endurance, mental endurance, plasticity, physical tempo, sensation seeking and self-confidence, and higher impulsivity and neuroticism than non-depressed individuals. Other sex- and age-related effects are reported. The results suggest that new versions of the DSM should consider an increase of impulsivity and a decrease in plasticity of behavior as criteria symptoms of MD.Disclosure of interestThe authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.

2013 ◽  
Vol 18 (3) ◽  
pp. 158-168 ◽  
Emily Frankenberg ◽  
Katharina Kupper ◽  
Ruth Wagner ◽  
Stephan Bongard

This paper reviews research on young migrants in Germany. Particular attention is given to the question of how Germany’s history of migration, immigration policies, and public attitude toward migrants influence the transcultural adaptation of children and adolescents from different ethnic backgrounds. We combine past research with the results of new empirical studies in order to shed light on migrants’ psychological and sociocultural adaptation. Studies comparing young migrants and their German peers in terms of psychological well-being, life satisfaction, and mental health outcome suggest higher rates of emotional and behavioral problems among migrants of most age groups. With regard to adolescent populations between the ages of 14 and 17 years, however, the existence of differences between migrants and natives appears to be less clear. Research has also yielded inconsistent findings regarding the time trajectory of transcultural adaptation among adolescents. The coincidence of acculturation and age-related change is discussed as a possible source of these inconsistencies. Further, we provide an overview of risk and protective factors such as conflicting role expectations and ethnic discrimination, which may cause heightened vulnerability to adverse adaptation outcomes in some groups. Large-scale studies have repeatedly shown migrants of all age groups to be less successful within the German school system, indicating poor sociocultural adaptation. Possible explanations, such as the idiosyncrasies of the German school system, are presented. Our own studies contribute to the understanding of young migrants’ adaptation process by showing that it is their orientation to German culture, rather than the acculturation strategy of integration, that leads to the most positive psychological and sociocultural outcomes. The paper concludes by discussing implications for future cross-cultural research on young migrants and by suggesting recommendations for multicultural policies.

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