dose dependent
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. Hussain ◽  
I. Liaqat ◽  
N. M. Ali ◽  
N. Arshad ◽  
U. Hanif ◽  

Abstract Pheretima posthuma (Vaillant, 1868), a native earthworm of Pakistan and Southeast Asia, has wide utilization in vermicomposting and bioremediation process. In this study, P. posthuma coelomic fluid (PCF) and body paste (PBP) was evaluated as antibacterial agent against ampicillin (AMP) resistant five Gram positive and four Gram negative clinical isolates. The antibacterial effect of different doses (i.e. 25-100 µg/ml) of PCF and PBP along with AMP and azithromycin (AZM) (negative and positive controls, respectively) were observed through disc diffusion and micro-dilution methods. All nine clinical isolates were noticed as AMP resistant and AZM sensitive. Antibacterial effects of PCF and PBP were dose dependent and zone of inhibitions (ZI) against all clinical isolates were between 23.4 ± 0.92 to 0 ± 00 mm. The sensitivity profile of PCF and PBP against clinical isolates was noticed as 44.44 and 55.56%, respectively. Both PCF and PBP showed bacteriostatic (BTS) action against S. aureus, S. pyogenes, K. pneumonia, N. gonorrhoeae. Moreover, the cumulative BTS potential of PCF and PBP against all isolates was 66.67 and 55.56%, respectively. The MICs of PCF and PBP were ranged from 50-200 µg/ml against selected isolates. The bacterial growth curves indicated that PCF and PBP inhibited the growth of all isolates at their specific MIC concentrations. However, PBP has better antibacterial potential compared to PCF against selected isolates. Therefore, it is concluded that both PCF and PBP of P. posthuma possess antibacterial and BTS potential against ampicillin resistant clinical isolates. This organism might be considered as a second choice of antibacterial agents and can further be utilized in pharmaceutical industries for novel drug manufacturing by prospecting bioactive potential agents.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 665-672
Xiaojing Qin ◽  
Bowen Ding ◽  
Xueyan Zhang ◽  
Lan Wang ◽  
Qing Zhang ◽  

Objective: To discuss In Vitro and In Vivo the effects of curcumin on colon cancer. Material and Methods: SW620 cell and nude mice with tumor were respectively divided into 3 groups: NC, low, middle, high and 5-Fu groups. Measuring the cell activity by MTT, the cell cycle and cell apoptosis using flow cytometry and relative proteins by WB assay in cell experiment. Evaluating tumor volume and weight, cell apoptosis rate by TUNEL assay and relative proteins by Immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: Compared with NC group, the SW620 cell activity was significantly depressed with cell apoptosis and G1 phase rates increasing and PI3K, AKT and P53 proteins expression were significantly differences in curcumin treated groups with dose-dependent by WB assay; In Vivo study, the tumor volume and size were significantly suppressed and positive cell number were significantly up-regulation in curcumin treated groups with dose-dependent, and PI3K, AKT and P53 proteins expression were significantly differences in curcumin treated groups with dose-dependent by IHC. Conclusions: Curcumin had anti-tumor effects to colon cancer via regulation PI3K/AKT/P53 pathway In Vivo and vitro study.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
B. Javed ◽  
F. Farooq ◽  
M. Ibrahim ◽  
H. A. B. Abbas ◽  
H. Jawwad ◽  

Abstract The present study was aimed to manifest the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of Salix alba L. against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens e.g. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), S. aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), E. coli (2) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and three fungal isolates from the air such as Aspergillus terreus, A. ornatus, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Two different serotypes of S. aureus and E. coli were used. The agar well-diffusion method results showed the dose-dependent response of plant extracts against bacterial and fungal strains while some organisms were found resistant e.g. E. coli (1), S. sonnei, A. terreus and R. stolonifer. The highest antibacterial activity was recorded at 17.000±1.732 mm from 100 mg/mL of leaves methanolic extracts against S. pyogenes while the activity of most of the pathogens decreased after 24 h of incubation. The highest antifungal activity was reported at 11.833±1.0 mm against A. ornatus at 50 mg/mL after 48 h of the incubation period. These experimental findings endorse the use of S. alba in ethnopharmacological formulations and suggest the use of methanolic extracts of the said plant to develop drugs to control the proliferation of resistant disease causing pathogenic microbes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 506-513
Ying Lv ◽  
Liyan Ye ◽  
Xiujuan Zheng

This study aimed to explore the role of ATI-2341 in Asherman’s syndrome and its impact on menstrual blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MenSCs). Following establishment of endometrial injury model, MenSCs were extracted from rats and cultured. They were treated with ATI-2341 TFA at different concentrations (10 ng/mL, 50 ng/mL, 100 ng/mL) and MenSCs treated without ATI-2341 TFA were taken as controls. Flow cytometry was conducted to detect the cell cycle. MTT was carried out to evaluate proliferation of endometrial cells. The expression levels of MMP-9, TIMP-1, CK, and VIM were determined with staining used to reflect morphology of endometrium. Administration with ATI-2341 TFA resulted in decreased expression of MMP-9 and increased expression of TIMP-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Of note, the increase of ATI-2341 TFA concentration was accompanied with elevated cell proliferation rate, increased number of glands in the endometrium, and decreased fibrosis area. As treated with 100 ng/mL ATI-2341 TFA, the cells exhibited more glands than that under other concentrations with uniformly arranged glands and lowest expression levels of CK and VIM, control group had plenty of blue-stained collagen fibers in the intima and least amount of glands. ATI-2341 TFA 100 ng/mL induced endometrial epithelial recruitment effect on MenSCs and promoted endometrial repair more significantly than Gi-3 pathway agonists. Collectively, ATI-2341 TFA enhances MenSC recruitment and facilitates endometrial epithelial cells proliferation and the repair of uterine damage in Asherman’s syndrome through Gi pathway. These findings provide a\ novel insight into the MenSC-based treatment against Asherman’s syndrome and deserve further investigation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 907-913
Liyan Zhong ◽  
Yi Yi ◽  
Qian Liu ◽  
Yan Peng

This study intends to discuss the mechanism of MTH1 inhibitor (TH588) in the biological activity of ovarian carcinoma cells. A2780 and SKOV-3 cells were treated with different concentrations of TH588 and assigned into AT group (control), BT group (8 μmol/L TH588), CT group (16 μmol/L), DT group (32 μmol/L), ET group (64 μmol/L) and FT group (128 μmol/L) followed by measuring level of Bcl-2 and Bax by Western blot and PCR, and cell biological activities by MTT, FCM and Transwell chamber assay. The cell proliferative rate was not affected in AT group, but was lower in other groups in a reverse dose-dependent manner. There was significant difference on apoptotic rate and cell invasion among groups with increased apoptosis and reduce invasion after TH588 treatment. FT group showed lowest expression of Bcl-2 and Bax compared to other groups. In conclusion, the biological activity of A2780/SKOV3 cells could be reduced by MTH1 inhibitor which was probably through regulation of Bax and Bcl-2 expression.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
F. J. Siyal ◽  
R. A. Siddiqui ◽  
Z. Memon ◽  
Z. Aslam ◽  
U. Nisar ◽  

Abstract The most common form of psycho-social dysfunction is anxiety with depression being related closely without any age bar. They are present with combined state of sadness, confusion, stress, fear etc. Glyoxalase system contains enzyme named glyoxalase 1 (GLO1).It is a metabolic pathway which detoxifies alpha-oxo-aldehydes, particularly methylglyoxal (MG). Methylglyoxal is mainly made by the breakdown of the glycolytic intermediates, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphates and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Glyoxylase-1 expression is also related with anxiety behavior. A casual role or GLO-1 in anxiety behavior by using viral vectors for over expression in the anterior cingulate cortex was found and it was found that local GLO-1 over expression increased anxiety behavior. The present study deals with the molecular mechanism of protective activity of eugenol against anxiolytic disorder. A pre-clinical animal study was performed on 42 BALB/c mice. Animals were given stress through conventional restrain model. The mRNA expression of GLO-1 was analyzed by real time RT-PCR. Moreover, the GLO-1 protein expression was also examined by immunohistochemistry in whole brain and mean density was calculated. The mRNA and protein expressions were found to be increased in animals given anxiety as compared to the normal control. Whereas, the expressions were decreased in the animals treated with eugenol and its liposome-based nanocarriers in a dose dependent manner. However, the results were better in animals treated with nanocarriers as compared to the compound alone. It is concluded that the eugenol and its liposome-based nanocarriers exert anxiolytic activity by down-regulating GLO-1 protein expression in mice.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 625-629
Chunpei Ou ◽  
Pengfei Chen ◽  
Jinqi Song ◽  
Xuefeng Deng ◽  
Feiqiang Chen ◽  

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease of joints commonly occurring in the elderly and middleaged people. This study aimed to investigate the effect of recombinant human endostatin (rhEndo) on OA and the levels of MMP-13, IL-1 and IL-6 in the synovial fluid in osteoarthritis rats. OA models were made by injecting 4% papain into the knee joint cavity of rats once every three days for three times. The models were then injected subcutaneously with rhEndo and examined six weeks later for the Mankin scores and levels of MMP-13, IL-1 and IL-6 using ELISA. Compared with control, the Mankin score as well as the levels of IL-1, IL-6 and MMP-13 were significantly increased in the models (0.30 vs. 5.80, 1.12 vs. 12.84 pg/ mL, 12.22 vs. 43.82 pg/ mL and 0.23 vs. 26.31 ng/ mL). Following treatment with 4 mg/kg rhEndo, the Mankin score in model decreased to 0.90, meanwhile, the levels of IL-1, IL-6 and MMP-13 decreased significantly to 0.79 pg/ mL, 2.89 pg/mL and 1.17 ng/mL, respectively, in a dose dependent manner. Therefore, rhEndo can alleviate osteoarthritis by reducing MMP-13, IL-1 and IL-6 expression in rats.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
Kendra R. Vann ◽  
Dhananjaya Pal ◽  
Audrey L. Smith ◽  
Namood-e Sahar ◽  
Maddeboina Krishnaiah ◽  

AbstractMantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a subtype of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma characterized by poor prognosis. The complexity of MCL pathogenesis arises from aberrant activities of diverse signaling pathways, including BTK, PI3K–AKT–mTOR and MYC-BRD4. Here, we report that MCL-related signaling pathways can be altered by a single small molecule inhibitor, SRX3305. Binding and kinase activities along with resonance changes in NMR experiments reveal that SRX3305 targets both bromodomains of BRD4 and is highly potent in inhibition of the PI3K isoforms α, γ and δ, as well as BTK and the drug-resistant BTK mutant. Preclinical investigations herein reveal that SRX3305 perturbs the cell cycle, promotes apoptosis in MCL cell lines and shows dose dependent anti-proliferative activity in both MCL and drug-resistant MCL cells. Our findings underscore the effectiveness of novel multi-action small molecule inhibitors for potential treatment of MCL.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 928
Isao Ishii ◽  
Shotaro Kamata ◽  
Saki Ito ◽  
Aya Shimonaga ◽  
Maika Koizumi ◽  

Methionine (Met) is considered the most toxic amino acid in mammals. Here, we investigated biochemical and behavioral impacts of ad libitum one-week feeding of high-Met diets on mice. Adult male mice were fed the standard rodent diet that contained 0.44% Met (1×) or a diet containing 16 graded Met doses (1.2×–13×). High-Met diets for one-week induced a dose-dependent decrease in body weight and an increase in serum Met levels with a 2.55 mM peak (versus basal 53 µM) on the 12×Met diet. Total homocysteine (Hcy) levels were also upregulated while concentrations of other amino acids were almost maintained in serum. Similarly, levels of Met and Hcy (but not the other amino acids) were highly elevated in the cerebrospinal fluids of mice on the 10×Met diet; the Met levels were much higher than Hcy and the others. In a series of behavioral tests, mice on the 10×Met diet displayed increased anxiety and decreased traveled distances in an open-field test, increased activity to escape from water soaking and tail hanging, and normal learning/memory activity in a Y-maze test, which were reflections of negative/positive symptoms and normal cognitive function, respectively. These results indicate that high-Met ad libitum feeding even for a week can induce bipolar disorder-like disease models in mice.

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