molecular level
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
R. M. Santos ◽  
A. C. Petry ◽  
V. L. Sousa ◽  
H. O. Souza ◽  
A. Azevedo ◽  

Abstract Petroleum water soluble fraction (WSF) impairs organisms, but damages may vary among cell and tissue levels. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute (24 h, 48 h, 72 h) and subchronic effects (36 days) of WSF (0%, 25% and 100%) in juveniles of the Neotropical top predator fish Hoplias aff. malabaricus. The effects of WSF were evaluated at a molecular level using the comet assay and micronucleus test for genome damage; and at a morphological level through histological identification of liver pathologic lesions. In both acute and subchronic exposure we found low levels of DNA damage (< 10% of comet tail) and non-significant frequency of micronucleus in WSF exposed fish. The most significant liver lesions in WSF exposed fish were fatty vacuolization, hypertrophy and focal necrosis. Since these tissue injuries were progressive and persistent, their irreversibility may negatively affect fish recruitment, even in a such resistant top predator.

Carbon ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 188 ◽  
pp. 543
Takashi Kyotani

2022 ◽  
Vol 123 ◽  
pp. 107177
Zhucheng Yin ◽  
Xuejiao Qie ◽  
Maomao Zeng ◽  
Zhaojun Wang ◽  
Fang Qin ◽  

2022 ◽  
Xiao Tan ◽  
Michał Sawczyk ◽  
Yixin Chang ◽  
Yiqing Wang ◽  
Adil Usman ◽  

К.П. Кравченко ◽  
К. Л. Козлов ◽  
А.О. Дробинцева ◽  
Д.С. Медведев ◽  
В.О. Полякова

Для понимания патогенеза дилатационной кардиомиопатии (ДКМП) необходимо установить молекулярно-клеточные механизмы старения миокарда, в том числе связанные с программируемой клеточной гибелью, молекулярные механизмы которого практически не изучены. Цель работы - изучение маркеров апоптоза в кардиомиоцитах у пациентов с ДКМП in vitro. В работе использовали метод первичных диссоциированных клеточных культур и метод иммунофлюоресцентной конфокальной лазерной микроскопии. Для моделирования клеточного старения использовали клетки 3-го и 14-го пассажей, соответствующие «молодым» и «старым» культурам. На молекулярном уровне старение клеток кардиомиоцитов сопровождалось повышением экспрессии р16 в 2 раза по сравнению с «молодыми культурами» как в контрольной, так и в группе с ДКМП. Также установлено, что экспрессия р16 в культурах, взятых от пациентов с патологией, была в 2 раза выше, чем в аналогичных культурах от здоровых пациентов. Экспрессия р21 была повышена в группе с ДКМП по сравнению с контрольной группой, однако при старении культуры экспрессия p21 не изменялась, оставаясь на высоком уровне. Наиболее значимые различия были получены при сравнении экспрессии Bax в культуре клеток кардиомиоцитов из группы с ДКМП в «молодой» культуре с нормой - в 3,2 раза. Старение клеток миокарда на молекулярном уровне проявлялось в повышении экспрессии белка Baх, именно он является запускающим механизмом митохондриального пути апоптоза. Возможно, этот путь клеточной гибели является превалирующем при ДКМП. To understand the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMP), it is necessary to establish the molecular-cellular mechanisms of myocardial aging, including those associated with programmed cell death, the molecular mechanisms of which have not been practically studied. The aim of this work is to study markers of apoptosis in cardiomyocytes of patients with DCMP in vitro. We used the method of primary dissociated cell cultures and the method of immunofluorescence confocal laser microscopy. Cells of the 3 and 14 passages, corresponding to «young» and «old» cultures, were used to simulate cellular senescence. Results. At the molecular level, aging of cardiomyocyte cells was accompanied by a twofold increase in the expression of p16 compared to «young cultures» both in the control group and in the group with DCMP. It was also found that the expression of p16 in cultures taken from patients with pathology was 2 times higher than in similar cultures from healthy patients. The expression of p21 was increased in the group with DCMP compared to the control; however, with aging of the culture, the expression of p21 did not change, remaining at a significant level. The most significant differences were obtained when comparing the expression of Bax in the cell culture of cardiomyocytes from the group with DCMP in a «young» culture compared with the norm, 3,2 times. Aging of myocardial cells at the molecular level was manifested in an increase in the expression of the Bax protein, which is the triggering mechanism of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. It is possible that this pathway of cell death is prevalent in DCMP.

2022 ◽  
Pedro Buzon ◽  
Alejandro Velazquez-Cruz ◽  
Katiuska Gonzalez-Arzola ◽  
Antonio Diaz-Quintana ◽  
Irene Diaz-Moreno ◽  

Chromatin homeostasis mediates some of the most fundamental processes in the eukaryotic cell. In this regard, histone chaperones have emerged as major regulatory factors during DNA replication, repair, and transcription. However, the dynamic nature of these processes has severely impeded their characterization at the molecular level. Here we apply single-molecule probing by fluorescence optical tweezers to follow histone chaperone dynamics in real-time. The molecular action of SET/template-activating factor-Iβ and nucleophosmin 1, representing the two most common histone chaperone folds, were examined using both nucleosomes and isolated core histones. We show that these chaperones present binding specificity for partially dismantled nucleosomes and are able to recognize and disrupt non-native histone-DNA interactions. Furthermore, we reveal that cytochrome c inhibition of histone chaperones is coupled to chaperone accumulation on DNA-bound histones. Our single-molecule approach shows that despite the drastically different structures of these chaperones, they present conserved modes of action mediating nucleosome remodeling.

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