The paper studies approximations and control of a processor sharing (PS) server where the service rate depends on the number of jobs occupying the server. The control of such a system is implemented by imposing a limit on the number of jobs that can share the server concurrently, with the rest of the jobs waiting in a first-in-first-out (FIFO) buffer. A desirable control scheme should strike the right balance between efficiency (operating at a high service rate) and parallelism (preventing small jobs from getting stuck behind large ones). We use the framework of heavy-traffic diffusion analysis to devise near optimal control heuristics for such a queueing system. However, although the literature on diffusion control of state-dependent queueing systems begins with a sequence of systems and an exogenously defined drift function, we begin with a finite discrete PS server and propose an axiomatic recipe to explicitly construct a sequence of state-dependent PS servers that then yields a drift function. We establish diffusion approximations and use them to obtain insightful and closed-form approximations for the original system under a static concurrency limit control policy. We extend our study to control policies that dynamically adjust the concurrency limit. We provide two novel numerical algorithms to solve the associated diffusion control problem. Our algorithms can be viewed as “average cost” iteration: The first algorithm uses binary-search on the average cost, while the second faster algorithm uses Newton-Raphson method for root finding. Numerical experiments demonstrate the accuracy of our approximation for choosing optimal or near-optimal static and dynamic concurrency control heuristics.
AbstractBased on a standard general equilibrium economy, we develop a framework for pricing European options where the risk aversion parameter is state dependent, and aggregate wealth and the underlying asset have a bivariate transformed-normal distribution. Our results show that the volatility and the skewness of the risk aversion parameter change the slope of the pricing kernel, and that, as the volatility of the risk aversion parameter increases, the (Black and Scholes) implied volatility shifts upwards but its shape remains the same, which implies that the volatility of the risk aversion parameter does not change the shape of the risk neutral distribution. Also, we demonstrate that the pricing kernel may become non-monotonic for high levels of volatility and low levels of skewness of the risk aversion parameter. An empirical example shows that the estimated volatility of the risk aversion parameter tends to be low in periods of high market volatility and vice-versa.
In presence of predator population, the prey population may significantly change their behavior. Fear for predator population enhances the survival probability of prey population, and it can greatly reduce the reproduction of prey population. In this study, we propose a predator-prey fishery model introducing the cost of fear into prey reproduction with Holling type-II functional response and prey-dependent harvesting and investigate the global dynamics of the proposed model. For the system without harvest, it is shown that the level of fear may alter the stability of the positive equilibrium, and an expression of fear critical level is characterized. For the harvest system, the existence of the semitrivial order-1 periodic solution and positive order-
) periodic solution is discussed by the construction of a Poincaré map on the phase set, and the threshold conditions are given, which can not only transform state-dependent harvesting into a cycle one but also provide a possibility to determine the harvest frequency. In addition, to ensure a certain robustness of the adopted harvest policy, the threshold condition for the stability of the order-
periodic solution is given. Meanwhile, to achieve a good economic profit, an optimization problem is formulated and the optimum harvest level is obtained. Mathematical findings have been validated in numerical simulation by MATLAB. Different effects of different harvest levels and different fear levels have been demonstrated by depicting figures in numerical simulation using MATLAB.
This research paper deals with the passivity and synchronization problem of fractional-order memristor-based competitive neural networks (FOMBCNNs) for the first time. Since the FOMBCNNs’ parameters are state-dependent, FOMBCNNs may exhibit unexpected parameter mismatch when different initial conditions are chosen. Therefore, the conventional robust control scheme cannot guarantee the synchronization of FOMBCNNs. Under the framework of the Filippov solution, the drive and response FOMBCNNs are first transformed into systems with interval parameters. Then, the new sufficient criteria are obtained by linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) to ensure the passivity in finite-time criteria for FOMBCNNs with mismatched switching jumps. Further, a feedback control law is designed to ensure the finite-time synchronization of FOMBCNNs. Finally, three numerical cases are given to illustrate the usefulness of our passivity and synchronization results.
AbstractRecent human studies using electrocorticography have demonstrated that alpha and theta band oscillations form traveling waves on the cortical surface. According to neural synchronization theories, the cortical traveling waves may group local cortical regions and sequence them by phase synchronization; however these contributions have not yet been assessed. This study aimed to evaluate the functional contributions of traveling waves using connectome-based network modeling. In the simulation, we observed stable traveling waves on the entire cortical surface wherein the topographical pattern of these phases was substantially correlated with the empirically obtained resting-state networks, and local radial waves also appeared within the size of the empirical networks (< 50 mm). Importantly, individual regions in the entire network were instantaneously sequenced by their internal frequencies, and regions with higher intrinsic frequency were seen in the earlier phases of the traveling waves. Based on the communication-through-coherence theory, this phase configuration produced a hierarchical organization of each region by unidirectional communication between the arbitrarily paired regions. In conclusion, cortical traveling waves reflect the intrinsic frequency-dependent hierarchical sequencing of local regions, global traveling waves sequence the set of large-scale cortical networks, and local traveling waves sequence local regions within individual cortical networks.