Transfer Mechanisms
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Shinya Kano ◽  
Harutaka MEKARU

Abstract We study a proton transport on the surface of insulating nanoparticles for humidity sensors. We use the approach to reveal proton transfer mechanisms in humidity sensitive materials. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic ligand-terminated silica nanoparticle films are adopted for evaluating temperature dependence of the ion conductivity. According to the activation energy of the conductivity, we explain the Grotthuss (H+ transfer) and vehicular (H3O+ transfer) mechanisms are mainly dominant on hydrophilic (-OH terminated) and hydrophobic (acrylate terminated) surface of nanoparticles, respectively. This investigation gives us a clue to understand a proton transfer mechanism in solution-processed humidity-sensitive materials such as oxide nanomaterials.

Hang Duong

The literature on policy transfer shows that it may result in simultaneous policy convergence and policy divergence. However, little is known about how such results happen when transferring from multiple and possibly contrasting sources. This study finds that civil service reforms in Vietnam’s merit-based policies are influenced by both western and Asian models of meritocracy. This makes them both closer to universal ‘best practices’ and at the same time sharpens the distinctiveness of Vietnam’s policy. The calculations of political actors in combination with the context of a one-party authoritarian state have led to policy transfer through mechanisms of translation and assemblage which brings about a hybrid of convergence and divergence. This study enhances understanding of policy transfer in the context of Asian authoritarianism. In finding hybridity in transfer outcomes in this national context, the article shows the uniqueness of resultant policy change and develops an analytical framework for the influence of policy transfer on policy outcomes.

2021 ◽  
Khelfaoui ◽  

In this paper, we analyze a relatively recent commercial strategy devised by large academic publishers, consisting in the branding of their most prestigious scientific journals. Using Pierre Bourdieu’s model of capital conversion, we show how publishers transfer the symbolic capital of an already prestigious journal to derivative journals that capture part of the prestige of the original brand and transform it into new economic capital. As shown by their high impact factors, these new journals, bearing the mark of the original journal in their titles, are rapidly adopted by researchers. Through manuscript transfer mechanisms, publishers also use part of the papers rejected by their flagship and highly selective journals to recycle and monetize them in lower impact or open access derivative journals of their lists.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 137
Richard Turner

The thermodynamic heat-transfer mechanisms, which occur as a heated billet cools in an air environment, are of clear importance in determining the rate at which a heated billet cools. However, in finite element modelling simulations, the convective heat transfer term of the heat transfer mechanisms is often reduced to simplified or guessed constants, whereas thermal conductivity and radiative emissivity are entered as detailed temperature dependent functions. As such, in both natural and forced convection environments, the fundamental physical relationships for the Nusselt number, Reynolds number, Raleigh parameter, and Grashof parameter were consulted and combined to form a fundamental relationship for the natural convective heat transfer as a temperature-dependent function. This function was calculated using values for air as found in the literature. These functions were then applied within an FE framework for a simple billet cooling model, compared against FE predictions with constant convective coefficient, and further compared with experimental data for a real steel billet cooling. The modified, temperature-dependent convective transfer coefficient displayed an improved prediction of the cooling curves in the majority of experiments, although on occasion a constant value model also produced very similar predicted cooling curves. Finally, a grain growth kinetics numerical model was implemented in order to predict how different convective models influence grain size and, as such, mechanical properties. The resulting findings could offer improved cooling rate predictions for all types of FE models for metal forming and heat treatment operations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Haoran Cui ◽  
Yaxian Zhang ◽  
Leiliang Zhang

Poxviruses have evolved a variety of innate immunity evasion mechanisms, some of which involve poxvirus-encoded E3 ubiquitin ligases and adaptor proteins. Based on their functional domains and ubiquitin transfer mechanisms, these poxvirus-encoded E3 ubiquitin ligases and adaptor proteins can be divided into five categories: PRANC, ANK/BC, BBK, P28/RING, and MARCH proteins. Although the substrates of many poxvirus E3 ubiquitin ligases remain to be discovered, most of the identified substrates are components of the innate immune system. In this review, we discuss the current research progress on poxvirus-encoded E3 ubiquitin ligases and adaptor proteins to provide mechanistic insights into the interplay between these viruses and their hosts.

2021 ◽  
pp. 126579
Bhim Sen Thapa ◽  
Taeyoung Kim ◽  
Soumya Pandit ◽  
Young Eun Song ◽  
Yasamin Pesaran Afsharian ◽  

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