In order to study the effect of biomass on the pyrolysis characteristics of urea-formaldehyde resin, the thermogravimetric experiments were carried out respectively using urea-formaldehyde resin (UF), rice straw (RS), and their mixed pellets with different proportions. The pyrolysis kinetics analysis was conducted. The results showed that the pyrolysis process of UF resin and mixed pellets could be divided into three stages: the drying and dehydration of the material, the rapid decomposition of volatile matter, and residue decomposition. The reaction order of UF resin and mixed pellets was discussed using the Coats–Redfern method, the activation energy of UF resin was 54.27 kJ/mol, and this value decreased with the addition of rice straw. As the mass ratio of UF resin to rice straw was 3:1, the activation energy achieved the lowest value, which means that the addition of rice straw was beneficial to the pyrolysis process of UF. In the process of pellet preparation, the falling strength and compressive strength of UF resin pellets can be improved by adding an appropriate proportion of rice straw. In this test, the yield of pyrolytic carbon reached the highest value of 23.93%, as the mass ratio of UF resin to rice straw was 3:2. When the mass ratio was 4:1, the highest liquid product yield of 43.21% was achieved.
We study a proton transport on the surface of insulating nanoparticles for humidity sensors. We use the approach to reveal proton transfer mechanisms in humidity sensitive materials. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic ligand-terminated silica nanoparticle films are adopted for evaluating temperature dependence of the ion conductivity. According to the activation energy of the conductivity, we explain the Grotthuss (H+ transfer) and vehicular (H3O+ transfer) mechanisms are mainly dominant on hydrophilic (-OH terminated) and hydrophobic (acrylate terminated) surface of nanoparticles, respectively. This investigation gives us a clue to understand a proton transfer mechanism in solution-processed humidity-sensitive materials such as oxide nanomaterials.
The sulfur–iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle is a promising route proposed for hydrogen production. The decomposition temperature remains a challenge in the process. Catalysts, such as Pd supported on Al2O3, are being considered to decrease reaction temperatures. However, little is known regarding the kinetic behavior of such systems. In this work, zinc sulfate thermal decomposition was studied through non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis to understand the effect of a catalyst within the sulfur–iodine reaction system context. The findings of this analysis were also related to a thermodynamic assessment. It was observed that the presence of Pd/Al2O3 modified the reaction mechanism, possibly with some intermediate reactions that were suppressed or remarkably accelerated. The proposed model suggests that zinc sulfate transformation occurred in two sequential stages without the Pd-based material. Activation energy values of 238 and 368 kJ.mol−1 were calculated. In the presence of Pd/Al2O3, an activation energy value of 204 kJ.mol−1 was calculated, which is lower than observed previously.
The present work investigated the comparison of the effects of Na2SO3 and Na2SiO3 on thiourea stabilization, and a systematic study was undertaken to establish the effects of these stabilizers on the stability of alkaline thiourea, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The effects of these stabilizers on the activation energy of alkaline thiourea gold leaching was also studied. The results showed that sodium silicate was more suitable as a stabilizer in this system than sodium sulfite because the peak current of gold dissolution with sodium sulfite was higher than that with sodium silicate, but the inhibition of thiourea decomposition by the former was less obvious than that of sodium silicate in the cyclic voltammetry curve. The quartz crystal microbalance results showed that the quality decreased to about 100 ng cm2 in the presence of a stabilizer, while it increased to 300 ng cm2 in the absence of the stabilizer. It is inferred that gold can be dissolved by alkaline thiourea in the presence of a stabilizer, while it cannot without a stabilizer because of the decomposition of thiourea. This assumption was confirmed by atomic force microscopy measurements. The surface activation energy of Au dissolution decreased from 183.76 to 98.07 kJ/moL with the addition of sodium silicate, indicating that Au dissolution was promoted with the chemical.
The ultra-high significances of thermal radiation, magnetic field and activation energy in thermal enhancement processes allow significant applications in chemical and mechanical engineering, modern technology and various thermal engineering eras. The improvement in energy resources and production became one of the major challenges for researchers and scientists for sustained development in industrial growths. Beside this, the bioconvection assessment in nanomaterials conveys prestigious applications in biotechnology like bio-sensors, enzymes, petroleum industry, bio-fuels and many more. In view of such renewable applications, present exploration discloses unsteady two-dimensional flow of third-grade nanomaterial accommodating gyrotactic microorganisms induced by unsteady stretched Riga sheet in porous medium. The formulated flow problem is further scrutinized by utilizing the chemical reaction, activation energy, thermal radiation and magnetic aspects. The convective Nield constraints are further subjected in the current investigation. Apposite transformations are used to condense the nonlinear developed problem into dimensionless ordinary form. The numerical solution of such similar flow problem is presented via shooting technique. The detailed graphical illustrations of the dimensionless temperature, nanoparticles concentration, velocity and motile microorganisms for physical significance of diverse relevant parameters are deliberated. Furthermore, numerical data of local Sherwood, Nusselt and motile density numbers is designated in tabular form. Study accentuated that velocity increases for higher modified Hartmann and material constants, while the effects of buoyancy ratio and bioconvected Rayleigh numbers are rather opposite. The temperature, microorganism and concentration distributions were enhanced for unsteady parameter. It is also acknowledged that the concentration distribution is enhanced for activating the energy number. Moreover, the microorganism distribution enhances for concentration difference and magneto-porous constants, while bioconvected Lewis and Peclet numbers show conflicting trend.
This study investigated the effects of particle size and pH of SiO2-based slurry on chemical mechanical polishing for SiO2 film. It was found that the removal rates and surface roughness of the material was highly dependent on the particle size and pH. As the particle size varied, the main polishing mechanism provided the activation energy to mechanical erasure. In addition, pH affected the particle size and Zeta potential, which had an important effect on the strength of the mechanical and chemical action of the chemical mechanical polishing. The change in mechanical action greatly influenced the removal rate. According to the experimental results, the best polishing of SiO2 film was achieved with 40 nm particle size SiO2 abrasives when the pH was 4.
AbstractThe evolution of compact density heat gadgets demands effective thermal transportation. The notion of nanofluid plays active role for this requirements. A comparative account for Maxwell nanofluids and Williamson nanofluid is analyzed. The bioconvection of self motive microorganisms, non Fourier heat flux and activation energy are new aspects of this study. This article elaborates the effects of viscous dissipation, Cattaneo–Christov diffusion for Maxwell and Williamson nanofluid transportation that occurs due to porous stretching sheet. The higher order non-linear partial differential equations are solved by using similarity transformations and a new set of ordinary differential equations is formed. For numerical purpose, Runge–Kutta method with shooting technique is applied. Matlab plateform is used for computational procedure. The graphs for various profiles .i.e. velocity, temperature, concentration and concentration of motile micro-organisms are revealed for specific non-dimensional parameters. It is observed that enhancing the magnetic parameter M, the velocity of fluid decreases but opposite behavior happens for temperature, concentration and motile density profile. Also the motile density profile decrease down for Pe and Lb. The skin friction coefficient is enhanced for both the Williamson and Maxwell fluid.