respiratory monitoring
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2021 ◽  
Philippe Bourrianne ◽  
Stanley Chidzik ◽  
Daniel Cohen ◽  
Peter Elmer ◽  
Thomas Hallowell ◽  

Abstract Helmet continuous positive applied pressure is a form of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) that has been used to provide respiratory support to COVID-19 patients. Helmet NIV is low-cost, readily available, provides viral filters between the patient and clinician, and may reduce the need for invasive ventilation. Its widespread adoption has been limited, however, by the lack of a respiratory monitoring system needed to address known safety vulnerabilities and to monitor patients. To address these safety and clinical needs, we developed an inexpensive respiratory monitoring system based on readily available components suitable for local manufacture. Open-source design and manufacturing documents are provided. The monitoring system comprises flow, pressure and CO2 sensors on the expiratory path of the helmet circuit and a central remote station to monitor up to 20 patients. The system is validated in bench tests, in human-subject tests on healthy volunteers, and in experiments that compare respiratory features obtained at the expiratory path to simultaneous ground-truth measurements from proximal sensors. Measurements of flow and pressure at the expiratory path are shown to deviate at high flow rates, and the tidal volumes reported via the expiratory path are systematically underestimated. Helmet monitoring systems exhibit high-flow rate, non-linear effects from flow and helmet dynamics. These deviations are found to be within a reasonable margin and should, in principle, allow for calibration, correction and deployment of clinically accurate derived quantities.

Nano Energy ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 106612
Qixin Lu ◽  
Hong Chen ◽  
Yuanming Zeng ◽  
Jiehui Xue ◽  
Xia Cao ◽  

Daniela Lo Presti ◽  
Carlo Massaroni ◽  
Domenico Formica ◽  
Emiliano Schena

Stephanie Lua ◽  
Anna Taylor ◽  
Malcolm Sim ◽  
Bruce Henderson ◽  
Chris Trueman ◽  

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