respiratory distress
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jing Liu ◽  
David A. Dean

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating clinical syndrome that leads to acute respiratory failure and accounts for over 70,000 deaths per year in the United States alone, even prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. While its molecular details have been teased apart and its pathophysiology largely established over the past 30 years, relatively few pharmacological advances in treatment have been made based on this knowledge. Indeed, mortality remains very close to what it was 30 years ago. As an alternative to traditional pharmacological approaches, gene therapy offers a highly controlled and targeted strategy to treat the disease at the molecular level. Although there is no single gene or combination of genes responsible for ARDS, there are a number of genes that can be targeted for upregulation or downregulation that could alleviate many of the symptoms and address the underlying mechanisms of this syndrome. This review will focus on the pathophysiology of ARDS and how gene therapy has been used for prevention and treatment. Strategies for gene delivery to the lung, such as barriers encountered during gene transfer, specific classes of genes that have been targeted, and the outcomes of these approaches on ARDS pathogenesis and resolution will be discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Claude Guérin ◽  
Martin Cour ◽  
Laurent Argaud

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is mostly characterized by the loss of aerated lung volume associated with an increase in lung tissue and intense and complex lung inflammation. ARDS has long been associated with the histological pattern of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). However, DAD is not the unique pathological figure in ARDS and it can also be observed in settings other than ARDS. In the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related ARDS, the impairment of lung microvasculature has been pointed out. The airways, and of notice the small peripheral airways, may contribute to the loss of aeration observed in ARDS. High-resolution lung imaging techniques found that in specific experimental conditions small airway closure was a reality. Furthermore, low-volume ventilator-induced lung injury, also called as atelectrauma, should involve the airways. Atelectrauma is one of the basic tenet subtending the use of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) set at the ventilator in ARDS. Recent data revisited the role of airways in humans with ARDS and provided findings consistent with the expiratory flow limitation and airway closure in a substantial number of patients with ARDS. We discussed the pattern of airway opening pressure disclosed in the inspiratory volume-pressure curves in COVID-19 and in non-COVID-19 related ARDS. In addition, we discussed the functional interplay between airway opening pressure and expiratory flow limitation displayed in the flow-volume curves. We discussed the individualization of the PEEP setting based on these findings.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 105
Kona Chowdhury ◽  
Mainul Haque ◽  
Nadia Nusrat ◽  
Nihad Adnan ◽  
Salequl Islam ◽  

There is an increasing focus on researching children admitted to hospital with new variants of COVID-19, combined with concerns with hyperinflammatory syndromes and the overuse of antimicrobials. Paediatric guidelines have been produced in Bangladesh to improve their care. Consequently, the objective is to document the management of children with COVID-19 among 24 hospitals in Bangladesh. Key outcome measures included the percentage prescribed different antimicrobials, adherence to paediatric guidelines and mortality rates using purposely developed report forms. The majority of 146 admitted children were aged 5 years or under (62.3%) and were boys (58.9%). Reasons for admission included fever, respiratory distress and coughing; 86.3% were prescribed antibiotics, typically parenterally, on the WHO ‘Watch’ list, and empirically (98.4%). There were no differences in antibiotic use whether hospitals followed paediatric guidance or not. There was no prescribing of antimalarials and limited prescribing of antivirals (5.5% of children) and antiparasitic medicines (0.7%). The majority of children (92.5%) made a full recovery. It was encouraging to see the low hospitalisation rates and limited use of antimalarials, antivirals and antiparasitic medicines. However, the high empiric use of antibiotics, alongside limited switching to oral formulations, is a concern that can be addressed by instigating the appropriate programmes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Martina Hermann ◽  
Daniel Laxar ◽  
Christoph Krall ◽  
Christina Hafner ◽  
Oliver Herzog ◽  

Abstract Background Duration of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) prior to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) affects outcome in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related ARDS, the role of pre-ECMO IMV duration is unclear. This single-centre, retrospective study included critically ill adults treated with ECMO due to severe COVID-19-related ARDS between 01/2020 and 05/2021. The primary objective was to determine whether duration of IMV prior to ECMO cannulation influenced ICU mortality. Results During the study period, 101 patients (mean age 56 [SD ± 10] years; 70 [69%] men; median RESP score 2 [IQR 1–4]) were treated with ECMO for COVID-19. Sixty patients (59%) survived to ICU discharge. Median ICU length of stay was 31 [IQR 20.7–51] days, median ECMO duration was 16.4 [IQR 8.7–27.7] days, and median time from intubation to ECMO start was 7.7 [IQR 3.6–12.5] days. Fifty-three (52%) patients had a pre-ECMO IMV duration of > 7 days. Pre-ECMO IMV duration had no effect on survival (p = 0.95). No significant difference in survival was found when patients with a pre-ECMO IMV duration of < 7 days (< 10 days) were compared to ≥ 7 days (≥ 10 days) (p = 0.59 and p = 1.0). Conclusions The role of prolonged pre-ECMO IMV duration as a contraindication for ECMO in patients with COVID-19-related ARDS should be scrutinised. Evaluation for ECMO should be assessed on an individual and patient-centred basis.

2022 ◽  
pp. 106002802110691
Hannah L. Niss ◽  
Adham Mohamed ◽  
Timothy P. Berry ◽  
Timothy M. Saettele ◽  
Michelle M. Haines ◽  

Background Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) management is primarily supportive. Pulmonary vasodilators, such as inhaled epoprostenol (iEPO), have been shown to improve PaO2:FiO2 (PF) and are used as adjunctive therapy. Objective To identify the positive response rate and variables associated with response to iEPO in adults with ARDS. A positive response to iEPO was defined as a 10% improvement in PF within 6 hours. Methods This retrospective study included adults with ARDS treated with iEPO. The primary endpoint was the variables associated with a positive response to iEPO. Secondary endpoints were positive response rate and the change in PF and SpO2:FiO2 within 6 hours. Statistical analysis included multivariable regression. Results Three hundred thirty-one patients were included. As baseline PF increased, the odds of responding to iEPO decreased (odds ratio [OR], 0.752, 95% CI, 0.69-0.819, p < 0.001). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related ARDS (OR 0.478, 95% CI, 0.281-0.814, p = 0.007) was associated with decreased odds of a positive response to iEPO. The total population had a 68.3% positive response rate to iEPO. SARS-CoV-2-related ARDS and non-SARS-CoV-2-related ARDS had a 59.5% and 72.7% positive response rate, respectively. iEPO significantly improved PF (71 vs 95, P < 0.001) in the whole population. Conclusion and Relevance iEPO was associated with a positive effect in a majority of moderate-to-severe ARDS patients, including patients with SARS-CoV-2-related ARDS. Lower baseline PF and non-SARS-CoV-2-related ARDS were significantly associated with a positive response to iEPO. The ability to predict which patients will respond to iEPO can facilitate better utilization.

T Yoshida ◽  
C Chieh-Jen ◽  
ASA Mandour ◽  
HAMM Hendawy ◽  
N Machida ◽  

A two-month-old, male intact, mixed-breed cat weighing 0.6 kg was presented with respiratory distress and anorexia. From the transthoracic echocardiographic, reduced fractional shortening (FS) and increased endocardial echogenicity were recognised with severe congestive heart failure (CHF). The kitten was administered an antibiotic and pimobendane under oxygen supplementation in an ICU cage. However, the respiratory condition worsened and the cat died the next day, and the subsequent necropsy and histopathology examinations confirmed endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE). There is a lack of information regarding the antemortem cardiac function evaluated by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in EFE cases. We report on the echocardiographic findings including the TDI in the EFE cat with a concomitant necropsy and histopathology confirmation in this paper. The echocardiographic findings showed presence of a ventricular false tendon within the left ventricle, a decrease in the left ventricular contractility (FS 11.1%, and a marked CHF). In this case, the echocardiographic findings were consistent with the human counterpart. However, these findings were like those of dilated cardiomyopathy and, hence, non-specific to EFE. As a result, veterinarians should keep in mind that endocardial fibroelastosis might be a possible reason for respiratory distress resulting from CHF with a low fractional shortening in young cats.

2022 ◽  
Daoran Dong ◽  
Yan Wang ◽  
Chan Wang ◽  
Yuan Zong

Abstract Introduction: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has high mortality and is mainly related to the circulatory failure.Therefore, real-time monitoring of cardiac function and structural changes has important clinical significance.Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is a simple and noninvasive real-time cardiac examination which is widely used in intensive care unit (ICU) patients.The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of TTE on the prognosis of ICU patients with ARDS.Methods: The data of ARDS patients were retrieved from the MIMIC-III v1.4 database and patients were divided into the TTE group and non-TTE group. Then, the baseline data were compared between the two groups, and the effect of TTE on the prognosis of ARDS patients was analyzed through multivariate logistic analysis and the propensity score (PS).Results: A total of 1,346 ARDS patients were enrolled, including 519 (38.6%) cases in the TTE group and 827 (61.4%) cases in the non-TTE group. Compared with the non-TTE group, the 28-day mortality of patients in the TTE group was greatly improved (OR=0.64 95%CI: 0.48-0.86, P=0.003). The length of ICU stay in the TTE group was significantly shorter than that in the non-TTE group (17d vs.14d, P=0.0001). The infusion volume in the TTE group was significantly less than that of the non-TTE group (6.2L vs.5.5L on day 1, P=0.0012). Importantly, the patients in the TTE group were weaned ventilators earlier than those in the non-TTE group (ventilator-free days within 28 d: 21 d vs. 19.8 d, respectively, P = 0.071).Conclusion: TTE can lower the risk of 28-d mortality in patients with ARDS.

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