Distress Syndrome
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Lorenzo Ball ◽  
Yuda Sutherasan ◽  
Martina Fiorito ◽  
Antonella Dall'Orto ◽  
Lorenzo Maiello ◽  

Background: Variable pressure support ventilation (vPSV) is an assisted ventilation mode that varies the level of pressure support on a breath-by-breath basis to restore the physiological variability of breathing activity. We aimed to compare the effects of vPSV at different levels of variability and pressure support (ΔPS) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).Methods: This study was a crossover randomized clinical trial. We included patients with mild to moderate ARDS already ventilated in conventional pressure support ventilation (PSV). The study consisted of two blocks of interventions, and variability during vPSV was set as the coefficient of variation of the ΔPS level. In the first block, the effects of three levels of variability were tested at constant ΔPS: 0% (PSV0%, conventional PSV), 15% (vPSV15%), and 30% (vPSV30%). In the second block, two levels of variability (0% and variability set to achieve ±5 cmH2O variability) were tested at two ΔPS levels (baseline ΔPS and ΔPS reduced by 5 cmH2O from baseline). The following four ventilation strategies were tested in the second block: PSV with baseline ΔPS and 0% variability (PSVBL) or ±5 cmH2O variability (vPSVBL), PSV with ΔPS reduced by 5 cmH2O and 0% variability (PSV−5) or ±5 cmH2O variability (vPSV−5). Outcomes included gas exchange, respiratory mechanics, and patient-ventilator asynchronies.Results: The study enrolled 20 patients. In the first block of interventions, oxygenation and respiratory mechanics parameters did not differ between vPSV15% and vPSV30% compared with PSV0%. The variability of tidal volume (VT) was higher with vPSV15% and vPSV30% compared with PSV0%. The incidence of asynchronies and the variability of transpulmonary pressure (PL) were higher with vPSV30% compared with PSV0%. In the second block of interventions, different levels of pressure support with and without variability did not change oxygenation. The variability of VT and PL was higher with vPSV−5 compared with PSV−5, but not with vPSVBL compared with PSVBL.Conclusion: In patients with mild-moderate ARDS, the addition of variability did not improve oxygenation at different pressure support levels. Moreover, high variability levels were associated with worse patient-ventilator synchrony.Clinical Trial Registration:www.clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT01683669.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (21) ◽  
pp. 4839
Nicolas Dognon ◽  
Alexandre Gaudet ◽  
Erika Parmentier-Decrucq ◽  
Sylvain Normandin ◽  
André Vincentelli ◽  

We aimed to compare the outcomes of patients under veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO) for COVID-19-Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (CARDS) between the first and the second wave. From 1 March 2020 to 30 November 2020, fifty patients requiring a V-V ECMO support for CARDS were included. Patient demographics, pre-ECMO, and day one, three, and seven on-ECMO data and outcomes were collected. The 90-day mortality was 11% higher during the second wave (18/26 (69%)) compared to the first wave (14/24 (58%) (p = 0.423). During the second wave, all of the patients were given steroids compared to 16.7% during the first wave (p < 0.001). The second wave’s patients had been on non-invasive ventilation support for a longer period than in the first wave, with the median time from ICU admission to ECMO implantation being significantly higher (14 (11–20) vs. 7.7 (5–12) days; p < 0.001). Mechanical properties of the lung were worsened in the second wave’s CARDS patients before ECMO implantation (median static compliance 20 (16–26) vs. 29 (25–37) mL/cmH2O; p < 0.001) and during ECMO days one, three, and seven. More bacterial co-infections before implantation and under ECMO were documented in the second wave group. Despite a better evidence-driven critical care management, we depicted fewer encouraging outcomes during the second wave.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zachary M. Holliday ◽  
Alexander P. Earhart ◽  
Mohammed M. Alnijoumi ◽  
Armin Krvavac ◽  
Lee-Ann H. Allen ◽  

BackgroundThe most severe cases of Coronavirus-Disease-2019 (COVID-19) develop into Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). It has been proposed that oxygenation may be inhibited by extracellular deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the form of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Dornase alfa (Pulmozyme, Genentech) is recombinant human deoxyribonuclease I that acts as a mucolytic by cleaving and degrading extracellular DNA. We performed a pilot study to evaluate the effects of dornase alfa in patients with ARDS secondary to COVID-19.MethodsWe performed a pilot, non-randomized, case-controlled clinical trial of inhaled dornase for patients who developed ARDS secondary to COVID-19 pneumonia.ResultsImprovement in arterial oxygen saturation to inhaled fraction of oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2) was noted in the treatment group compared to control at day 2 (95% CI, 2.96 to 95.66, P-value = 0.038), as well as in static lung compliance at days 3 through 5 (95% CI, 4.8 to 19.1 mL/cmH2O, 2.7 to 16.5 mL/cmH2O, and 5.3 to 19.2 mL/cmH2O, respectively). These effects were not sustained at 14 days. A reduction in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) myeloperoxidase-DNA (DNA : MPO) complexes (95% CI, -14.7 to -1.32, P-value = 0.01) was observed after therapy with dornase alfa.ConclusionTreatment with dornase alfa was associated with improved oxygenation and decreased DNA : MPO complexes in BALF. The positive effects, however, were limited to the time of drug delivery. These data suggest that degradation of extracellular DNA associated with NETs or other structures by inhaled dornase alfa can be beneficial. We propose a more extensive clinical trial is warranted.Clinical Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT04402970.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Joseph Alge ◽  
Kristin Dolan ◽  
Joseph Angelo ◽  
Sameer Thadani ◽  
Manpreet Virk ◽  

Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is an independent risk factor for mortality in hospitalized patients. AKI syndrome leads to fluid overload, electrolyte and acid-base disturbances, immunoparalysis, and propagates multiple organ dysfunction through organ “crosstalk”. Preclinical models suggest AKI causes acute lung injury (ALI), and conversely, mechanical ventilation and ALI cause AKI. In the clinical setting, respiratory complications are a key driver of increased mortality in patients with AKI, highlighting the bidirectional relationship. This article highlights the challenging and complex interactions between the lung and kidney in critically ill patients with AKI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and global implications of AKI. We discuss disease-specific molecular mediators and inflammatory pathways involved in organ crosstalk in the AKI-ARDS construct, and highlight the reciprocal hemodynamic effects of elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and central venous pressure (CVP) leading to renal hypoperfusion and pulmonary edema associated with fluid overload and increased right ventricular afterload. Finally, we discuss the notion of different ARDS “phenotypes” and the response to fluid overload, suggesting differential organ crosstalk in specific pathological states. While the directionality of effect remains challenging to distinguish at the bedside due to lag in diagnosis with conventional renal function markers and lack of tangible damage markers, this review provides a paradigm for understanding kidney-lung interactions in the critically ill patient.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Martin Cour ◽  
Marie Simon ◽  
Laurent Argaud ◽  
Guillaume Monneret ◽  
Fabienne Venet

AbstractDexamethasone improves survival of patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome, but might shorten the delay between the start of invasive mechanical ventilation and the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, suggesting possible worsening of COVID-19-induced immune dysfunction with this treatment. In a prospective observational study, we found that mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 treated with dexamethasone presented earlier ventilator-associated pneumonia, had significantly lower monocyte Human Leukocyte Antigen-DR expression and number of circulating CD4 + cells after ICU admission, than those not treated with corticoids.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 59-69
Е. А. Krasilnikova ◽  
V. D. Zavadovskaya ◽  
V. A. Zhelev ◽  
J. O. Lyulko ◽  
S. P. Ermolenko ◽  

Introduction. Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is characterized by immaturity of lung tissue, surfactant deficiency and is a common cause of mortality in premature infants. X-ray is the main method for determining the causes and severity of respiratory failure in newborns.Purpose. Systematization of the results of X-ray examination of the lungs of newborns with varying degrees of prematurity, compared with autopsy data.Materials and methods. The analysis of X-ray data and sectional material of 32 premature infants with low and extremely low body weight who died with clinical manifestations of RDS was performed.Research results. The article provides a comparative analysis of various types of radiological changes in the lungs (reticulo-nodular pulmonary pattern (n=10), cellular deformity of the pulmonary pattern (n=5), «air bronchogram» (n=20), «air leakage» syndrome (n=6), focal-confluent shadows/infiltrative-like foci of darkening (n=9)) and autopsy results of premature newborns.Conclusion. The greatest number of coincidences of radiological and histological data took place in BPD (80%), the smallest — in pulmonary hemorrhages (20%). The coincidence of conclusions for pneumonia and GM disease is 58–56%, respectively. Difficulty in the differential diagnosis of the X-ray picture of the lungs in low birth-weight infants lies in the frequent combination of pathological conditions. Respiratory failure with a wide range of pathological changes in the lungs developed in 15 (53,6%) newborns in the absence of criteria for surfactant insufficiency against the background of respiratory support.

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