Invasive Ventilation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 35 (13) ◽  
Themistoklis Paraskevas ◽  
Eleousa Oikonomou ◽  
Maria Lagadinou ◽  
Vasileios Karamouzos ◽  
Nikolaos Zareifopoulos ◽  

Introduction: Oxygen therapy remains the cornerstone for managing patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and several modalities of non-invasive ventilation are used worldwide. High-flow oxygen via nasal canula is one therapeutic option which may in certain cases prevent the need of mechanical ventilation. The aim of this review is to summarize the current evidence on the use of high-flow nasal oxygen in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection.Material and Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search of the databases PubMed and Cochrane Library until April 2021 using the following search terms: “high flow oxygen and COVID-19” and “high flow nasal and COVID-19’’.Results: Twenty-three articles were included in this review, in four of which prone positioning was used as an adjunctive measure. Most of the articles were cohort studies or case series. High-flow nasal oxygen therapy was associated with a reduced need for invasive ventilation compared to conventional oxygen therapy and led to an improvement in secondary clinical outcomes such as length of stay. The efficacy of high-flow nasal oxygen therapy was comparable to that of other non-invasive ventilation options, but its tolerability is likely higher. Failure of this modality was associated with increased mortality.Conclusion: High flow nasal oxygen is an established option for respiratory support in COVID-19 patients. Further investigation is required to quantify its efficacy and utility in preventing the requirement of invasive ventilation.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262315
Christian Karagiannidis ◽  
Corinna Hentschker ◽  
Michael Westhoff ◽  
Steffen Weber-Carstens ◽  
Uwe Janssens ◽  

Background The role of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in severe COVID-19 remains a matter of debate. Therefore, the utilization and outcome of NIV in COVID-19 in an unbiased cohort was determined. Aim The aim was to provide a detailed account of hospitalized COVID-19 patients requiring non-invasive ventilation during their hospital stay. Furthermore, differences of patients treated with NIV between the first and second wave are explored. Methods Confirmed COVID-19 cases of claims data of the Local Health Care Funds with non-invasive and/or invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) in the spring and autumn pandemic period in 2020 were comparable analysed. Results Nationwide cohort of 17.023 cases (median/IQR age 71/61–80 years, 64% male) 7235 (42.5%) patients primarily received IMV without NIV, 4469 (26.3%) patients received NIV without subsequent intubation, and 3472 (20.4%) patients had NIV failure (NIV-F), defined by subsequent endotracheal intubation. The proportion of patients who received invasive MV decreased from 75% to 37% during the second period. Accordingly, the proportion of patients with NIV exclusively increased from 9% to 30%, and those failing NIV increased from 9% to 23%. Median length of hospital stay decreased from 26 to 21 days, and duration of MV decreased from 11.9 to 7.3 days. The NIV failure rate decreased from 49% to 43%. Overall mortality increased from 51% versus 54%. Mortality was 44% with NIV-only, 54% with IMV and 66% with NIV-F with mortality rates steadily increasing from 62% in early NIV-F (day 1) to 72% in late NIV-F (>4 days). Conclusions Utilization of NIV rapidly increased during the autumn period, which was associated with a reduced duration of MV, but not with overall mortality. High NIV-F rates are associated with increased mortality, particularly in late NIV-F.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 391
Benedikt Schmid ◽  
Mirko Griesel ◽  
Anna-Lena Fischer ◽  
Carolina S. Romero ◽  
Maria-Inti Metzendorf ◽  

Background: Acute respiratory failure is the most important organ dysfunction of COVID-19 patients. While non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen are frequently used, efficacy and safety remain uncertain. Benefits and harms of awake prone positioning (APP) in COVID-19 patients are unknown. Methods: We searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing HFNC vs. NIV and APP vs. standard care. We meta-analyzed data for mortality, intubation rate, and safety. Results: Five RCTs (2182 patients) were identified. While it remains uncertain whether HFNC compared to NIV alters mortality (RR: 0.92, 95% CI 0.65–1.33), HFNC may increase rate of intubation or death (composite endpoint; RR 1.22, 1.03–1.45). We do not know if HFNC alters risk for harm. APP compared to standard care probably decreases intubation rate (RR 0.83, 0.71–0.96) but may have little or no effect on mortality (RR: 1.08, 0.51–2.31). Conclusions: Certainty of evidence is moderate to very low. There is no compelling evidence for either HFNC or NIV, but both carry substantial risk for harm. The use of APP probably has benefits although mortality appears unaffected.

2022 ◽  
Amal Francis Sam ◽  
Anil Yogendra Yadav

Conventionally, oxygen is given at 4 to 6 L/min through nasal cannula for supplementation of oxygen. The FiO2 achieved through this can be up to 0.4. Flows more than this can cause dryness to the nasal mucosa without much increase in the FiO2. High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) uses flow up to 60 L/min. Positive end-expiratory pressure is created in the nasopharynx and it is also conducted to the lower airways. Studies have shown HFNC improves washout of CO2 and decreases respiratory rate. Patient compliance also improves due to the comfort of the cannula compared to the non-invasive ventilation through a mask.

Trials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
L. Morales-Quinteros ◽  
M. J. Schultz ◽  
A. Serpa-Neto ◽  
M. Antonelli ◽  
D. L. Grieco ◽  

Abstract Background It is uncertain whether awake prone positioning can prevent intubation for invasive ventilation in spontaneous breathing critically ill patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Awake prone positioning could benefit these patients for various reasons, including a reduction in direct harm to lung tissue, and prevention of tracheal intubation-related complications. Design and methods The PRONELIFE study is an investigator-initiated, international, multicenter, randomized clinical trial in patients who may need invasive ventilation because of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Consecutive patients admitted to participating ICUs are randomly assigned to standard care with awake prone positioning, versus standard care without awake prone positioning. The primary endpoint is a composite of tracheal intubation and all-cause mortality in the first 14 days after enrolment. Secondary endpoints include time to tracheal intubation and effects of awake prone positioning on oxygenation parameters, dyspnea sensation, and complications. Other endpoints are the number of days free from ventilation and alive at 28 days, total duration of use of noninvasive respiratory support, total duration of invasive ventilation, length of stay in ICU and hospital, and mortality in ICU and hospital, and at 28, 60, and 90 days. We will also collect data regarding the tolerance of prone positioning. Discussion The PRONELIFE study is among the first randomized clinical trials investigating the effect of awake prone positioning on intubation rate in ICU patients with acute hypoxemic failure from any cause. The PRONELIFE study is sufficiently sized to determine the effect of awake prone positioning on intubation for invasive ventilation—patients are eligible in case of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure without restrictions regarding etiology. The PRONELIFE study is a pragmatic trial in which blinding is impossible—however, as around 35 ICUs worldwide will participate in this study, its findings will be highly generalizable. The findings of the PRONELIFE study have the potential to change clinical management of patients who may need invasive ventilation because of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Trial registration ISRCTN ISRCTN11536318. Registered on 17 September 2021. The PRONELIFE study is registered at with reference number NCT04142736 (October, 2019).

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Christel M. A. Valk ◽  
Claudio Zimatore ◽  
Guido Mazzinari ◽  
Charalampos Pierrakos ◽  
Chaisith Sivakorn ◽  

Background: The radiographic assessment for lung edema (RALE) score has an association with mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It is uncertain whether the RALE scores at the start of invasive ventilation or changes thereof in the next days have prognostic capacities in patients with COVID-19 ARDS.Aims and Objectives: To determine the prognostic capacity of the RALE score for mortality and duration of invasive ventilation in patients with COVID-19 ARDS.Methods: An international multicenter observational study included consecutive patients from 6 ICUs. Trained observers scored the first available chest X-ray (CXR) obtained within 48 h after the start of invasive ventilation (“baseline CXR”) and each CXRs thereafter up to day 14 (“follow-up CXR”). The primary endpoint was mortality at day 90. The secondary endpoint was the number of days free from the ventilator and alive at day 28 (VFD-28).Results: A total of 350 CXRs were scored in 139 patients with COVID-19 ARDS. The RALE score of the baseline CXR was high and was not different between survivors and non-survivors (33 [24–38] vs. 30 [25–38], P = 0.602). The RALE score of the baseline CXR had no association with mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.24 [95% CI 0.88–1.76]; P = 0.222; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) 0.50 [0.40–0.60]). A change in the RALE score over the first 14 days of invasive ventilation, however, had an independent association with mortality (HR, 1.03 [95% CI 1.01–1.05]; P < 0.001). When the event of death was considered, there was no significant association between the RALE score of the baseline CXR and the probability of being liberated from the ventilator (HR 1.02 [95% CI 0.99–1.04]; P = 0.08).Conclusion: In this cohort of patients with COVID-19 ARDS, with high RALE scores of the baseline CXR, the RALE score of the baseline CXR had no prognostic capacity, but an increase in the RALE score in the next days had an association with higher mortality.

Farahnaz Fallahian ◽  
Atabak Najafi ◽  
Arezoo Ahmadi

Clinical manifestations of COVID 19 is still unknown. We performed this study to determine the occurrence of pulmonary barotrauma as a complication of this disease. In this retrospective study, a total of 955 COVID 19 patients with respiratory insufficiency requiring oxygen support or invasive ventilation admitted to ICU of Sina Hospital from 20 March 2020 to 9 June 2021, were included and their chest imaging reviewed. Here, we report results of chest imaging of first 92 patients of this group. Barotrauma (pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium) occurred in 11 (11.9%) of 92 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection requiring ICU admission for respiratory support and monitoring. It seems barotrauma is a common complication of COVID 19 disease. The role of increased respiratory efforts, patient or ventilation induced lung injury, viral and host response should be assessed. It needs to consider the occurrence of barotrauma in Patients with COVID-19, before expansion of dead space for treatment and limiting the ventilation effects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Vaishali Gupte ◽  
Rashmi Hegde ◽  
Sandesh Sawant ◽  
Kabil Kalathingal ◽  
Sonali Jadhav ◽  

Abstract Background Real-world data on safety and clinical outcomes of remdesivir in COVID-19 management is scant. We present findings of data analysis conducted for assessing the safety and clinical outcomes of remdesivir treatment for COVID-19 in India. Methods This retrospective analysis used data from an active surveillance programme database of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 who were receiving remdesivir. Results Of the 2329 patients included, 67.40% were men. Diabetes (29.69%) and hypertension (20.33%) were the most common comorbidities. At remdesivir initiation, 2272 (97.55%) patients were receiving oxygen therapy. Remdesivir was administered for 5 days in 65.38% of patients. Antibiotics (64.90%) and steroids (47.90%) were the most common concomitant medications. Remdesivir was overall well tolerated, and total 119 adverse events were reported; most common were nausea and vomiting in 45.40% and increased liver enzymes in 14.28% patients. 84% of patients were cured/improved, 6.77% died and 9.16% showed no improvement in their clinical status at data collection. Subgroup analyses showed that the mortality rate was significantly lower in patients < 60 years old than in those > 60 years old. Amongst patients on oxygen therapy, the cure/improvement rate was significantly higher in those receiving standard low-flow oxygen than in those receiving mechanical ventilation, non-invasive ventilation, or high-flow oxygen. Factors that were associated with higher mortality were age > 60 years, cardiac disease, diabetes high flow oxygen, non-invasive ventilation and mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Our analysis showed that remdesivir is well tolerated and has an acceptable safety profile. The clinical outcome of cure/improvement was 84%, with a higher improvement in patients < 60 years old and on standard low-flow oxygen.

2022 ◽  
Alessandra Lio ◽  
Chiara Tirone ◽  
Milena Tana ◽  
Claudia Aurilia ◽  
Rita Blandino ◽  

Abstract Background Mechanical ventilation is still needed in most preterm newborns, even in the non-invasive ventilation era. Ventilator-induced lung injury is one of the known pathogenetic factors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm newborns. Lung injury has several patterns including surfactant dysfunction. Some recent trials have showed that a late surfactant administration can improve respiratory outcome in preterm babies still on invasive ventilation after the first week of life. Unfortunately, these results are still not conclusive. Moreover, giving surfactant after a recruitment manoeuvre in High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation (HFOV) was shown to be safe and to reduce mortality in extremely preterm infants in a recent RCT. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that endotracheal administration of poractant-alfa preceded by a recruitment manoeuvre in HFOV in preterm infants still requiring mechanical ventilation at 7-10 days of life could facilitate extubation. Methods/Design: This will be an unblinded monocentric pilot trial that will be conducted in a III level Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Fondazione Policlinico Agostino Gemelli IRCCS in Rome - Italy. Preterm newborns with a gestational age < 28 weeks still requiring invasive mechanical ventilation at 7-10 days of life with a fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) of more than 0.30 and/or an oxygenation index of 8 or more for at least 6 hours will be eligible for the study. Patients will be randomly assigned to intervention or to standard care. Intervention group infants will receive up to 4 doses of Poractant-alfa every 12 hours, each dose preceded by a recruitment manoeuvre in HFOV, until extubation. Primary endpoint will be the first successful extubation. Discussion Surfactant therapy is nowadays recommended in case of RDS in the first days of life but little is known about its effects in ventilator-dependant preterm newborns. Late administration of surfactant could help healing the lung of preterm babies in which RDS is evolving in a chronic pulmonary insufficiency of prematurity. The findings of this pilot trial will permit evaluation of the study design for a full-scale RCT. Trial registration: – ID NCT04825197. Registered 12 April 2021,

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