Invasive Ventilation
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Trials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Swagata Tripathy ◽  
P. Bhaskar Rao

Abstract Objectives We aim to study the effect of epidural morphine as a means to reduce high respiratory drive in COVID 19 patients on non-invasive ventilation (NIV)—primary end point—and to study its effect on respiratory parameters, subjective patient comfort, rates of endotracheal intubation, duration of mechanical ventilation and mortality. Trial design Parallel group, randomised, double blind, single centre placebo control trial. Allocation ratio 1:1, superiority trial Participants Trial site and population—COVID ICU patients in the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India Inclusion and exclusion criteria Inclusion criteria Adult patients on NIV with COVID-19 Exclusion criteria Metabolic acidosis HCO3-< 16 and pH < 7.2. Severe hypoxemia warranting cessation of NIV and intubation, non-acceptance of NIV and proven sepsis. Technical difficulty for epidural catheterization, coagulation abnormalities, low respiratory drive and EOL orders. Sources or methods of recruitment—daily discussion at 8 am of new admissions to COVID ICU on NIV—consenting adult patients with COVID19 on NIV and high respiratory drive; not meeting exclusion criteria will be recruited for the trial and randomised. Intervention and comparator Patients of both groups will be turned to a lateral or sitting position (as comfortable), and an injection of local anaesthetic be given at lumbar 2–3/3–4 space. In the intervention group, an epidural catheter will be inserted using aseptic technique and fixed to the skin. The control group will have a sham catheter fixed exactly like in the intervention group, but not entering the epidural space. The intervention group will be administered injection morphine sulphate once every 18–24 h into the epidural space. The doses will be escalated daily (5–10 mg), titrated to effect: escalation limited by hypoventilation resulting in respiratory acidosis (pH < 7.2). The intervention will continue for a minimum of 2 doses and a maximum of 5 doses (96 h) of morphine. It will be stopped if the epidural catheter gets dislodged before the second dose or the patient is weaned off non-invasive ventilation to high flow mask for a continuous period of 24 h or requires endotracheal intubation. The patient will be followed up till death or 28 days after ICU discharge. Main outcomes Primary outcome—diaphragm thickening index fraction (average of minimum 3 readings) Secondary outcomes—ventilator parameters, sedation and pain scores, subjective comfort and dyspnoea scores, time to intubation, length of stay on NIV and 28-day mortality Timing of outcome assessment—every 8th hour assessment for 24 h after the last dose of epidural morphine or 120 h whichever is greater Randomisation A central random number list will be kept with the study research assistant. She will randomise according to the numbers available in the list using an allocation ratio of 1:1. An opaque sealed envelope concealing the allotted randomisation code will be dispatched to the ICU team. Blinding (masking) The assessor, patient, nurses and physicians will be blind to group allocation. One member of the team not involved in research will administer the intervention. Numbers to be randomised (sample size) Twenty-five patients per group; 50 patients total Trial status Protocol version 1. Not recruiting yet. Recruitment to begin by 24 July 2021 and end by 31 August 2022 Trial registration Central Trials Registry India CTRI CTRI/2021/07/035093. Registered on 23 July 2021. Prospectively registered Full protocol The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Javier de-Miguel-Diez ◽  
Marta Lopez-Herranz ◽  
Valentín Hernandez-Barrera ◽  
David Jimenez ◽  
Manuel Monreal ◽  

AbstractWe determined sex differences in the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among patients hospitalized with pulmonary embolism (PE) in Spain (2016–2018). We also compared outcomes according to the presence of OSA, and identified variables associated with in-hospital-mortality (IHM) after PE using the Spanish National Hospital Discharge Database. We identified 46,794 hospital admissions for PE; of these, 5.47% had OSA. OSA was more prevalent among men than women (7.57% vs. 3.65%, p < 0.001), as in the general population. Propensity score matching did not reveal differences in concomitant conditions or procedures between patients with and without OSA, except for the use of non-invasive ventilation, which was more frequent in patients with OSA. IHM was similar in patients with and without OSA (3.58% vs. 4.31% for men and 4.39% vs. 4.93% for women; p > 0.05). Older age, cancer, atrial fibrillation, non-septic shock, and need for mechanical ventilation increased IHM in men and women with OSA hospitalized with PE. The logistic regression model showed no sex differences in IHM among patients with OSA.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0256903
Pia Clara Pafundi ◽  
Raffaele Galiero ◽  
Vittorio Simeon ◽  
Luca Rinaldi ◽  
Alessandro Perrella ◽  

Introduction During COVID-19 pandemic, the use of several drugs has represented the worldwide clinical practice. However, though the current increase of knowledge about the disease, there is still no effective treatment for the usage of drugs. Thus, we retrospectively assessed use and effects of therapeutic regimens in hospitalized patients on in-hospital mortality. Methods COVOCA is a retrospective observational cohort study on 18 COVID centres throughout Campania Region Hospitals. We included adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, discharged/dead between March/June 2020. Results 618 patients were included, with an overall in-hospital cumulative mortality incidence of 23.1%. Most prescribed early treatments were antivirals (72%), antibiotics (65%) and hydroxychloroquine/anticoagulants (≈50%). Tocilizumab, indeed, was largely prescribed late during hospitalization. Multivariable models, with a cut-off at day 2 for early COVID-19 therapy administration, did not disclose any significant association of a single drug administration on the clinical outcome. Discussion COVOCA represents the first multicenter database in Campania region. None drug class used during the pandemic significantly modified the outcome, regardless of therapy beginning, both overall and net of those already in non-invasive ventilation (NIV)/ orotracheal intubation (OTI) at hospitalization. Our cumulative incidence of mortality seems lower than other described during the same period, particularly in Northern Italy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (18) ◽  
pp. 4144
Sara Bülow Anderberg ◽  
Miklos Lipcsey ◽  
Michael Hultström ◽  
Ann-Katrin Eriksson ◽  
Per Venge ◽  

Neutrophils have been suggested mediators of organ dysfunction in COVID-19. The current study investigated if systemic neutrophil activity, estimated by human neutrophil lipocalin (HNL) concentration in peripheral blood, is associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) development. A total of 103 adult patients admitted to intensive care, with PCR-confirmed SARS -CoV-2 infection, were prospectively included (Clinical Trials ID: NCT04316884). HNL was analyzed in plasma (P-HNL Dimer) and in whole blood (B-HNL). The latter after ex vivo activation with N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine. All patients developed respiratory dysfunction and 62 (60%) were treated with invasive ventilation. Sixty-seven patients (65%) developed AKI, 18 (17%) progressed to AKI stage 3, and 14 (14%) were treated with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). P-HNL Dimer was higher in patients with invasive ventilation, vasopressors, AKI, AKI stage 3, dialysis, and 30-day mortality (p < 0.001–0.046). B-HNL performed similarly with the exception of mild AKI and mortality (p < 0.001–0.004). The cohort was dichotomized by ROC estimated cutoff concentrations of 13.2 µg/L and 190 µg/L for P-HNL Dimer and B-HNL respectively. Increased cumulative risks for AKI, AKI stage 3, and death were observed if above the P-HNL cutoff and for AKI stage 3 if above the B-HNL cutoff. The relative risk of developing AKI stage 3 was nine and 39 times greater if above the cutoffs in plasma and whole blood, respectively, for CRRT eight times greater for both. In conclusion, systemically elevated neutrophil lipocalin, interpreted as increased neutrophil activity, was shown to be associated with an increased risk of severe AKI, renal replacement therapy, and mortality in COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure.

Cureus ◽  
2021 ◽  
Harshil Shah ◽  
Jude ElSaygh ◽  
Abdur Raheem ◽  
Mohammed A Yousuf ◽  
Lac Han Nguyen ◽  

Brain ◽  
2021 ◽  
Jorge Alonso-Pérez ◽  
Lidia González-Quereda ◽  
Claudio Bruno ◽  
Chiara Panicucci ◽  
Afagh Alavi ◽  

Abstract Sarcoglycanopathies include four subtypes of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDR3, LGMDR4, LGMDR5 and LGMDR6) that are caused, respectively, by mutations in the SGCA, SGCB, SGCG and SGCD genes. Delta-sarcoglycanopathy (LGMDR6) is the least frequent and is considered an ultra-rare disease. Our aim was to characterize the clinical and genetic spectrum of a large international cohort of LGMDR6 patients and to investigate whether or not genetic or protein expression data could predict diseasés severity. This is a retrospective study collecting demographic, genetic, clinical and histological data of patients with genetically confirmed LGMDR6 including protein expression data from muscle biopsies. We contacted 128 pediatric and adult neuromuscular units around the world that reviewed genetic data of patients with a clinical diagnosis of a neuromuscular disorder. We identified 30 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of LGMDR6 of which 23 patients were included in this study. Eighty seven percent of the patients had consanguineous parents. Ninety one percent of the patients were symptomatic at the time of the analysis. Proximal muscle weakness of the upper and lower limbs was the most common presenting symptom. Distal muscle weakness was observed early over the course of the disease in 56.5% of the patients. Cardiac involvement was reported in 5 patients (21.7%) and 4 patients (17.4%) required non-invasive ventilation. Sixty percent of patients were wheelchair-bound since early teens (median age of 12.0 years old). Patients with absent expression of the sarcoglycan complex on muscle biopsy had a significant earlier onset of symptoms and an earlier age of loss of ambulation compared to patients with residual protein expression. This study confirmed that delta-sarcoglycanopathy is an ultra-rare neuromuscular condition and described the clinical and molecular characteristics of the largest yet-reported collected cohort of patients. Our results showed that this is a very severe and quickly progressive disease characterized by generalized muscle weakness affecting predominantly proximal and distal muscles of the limbs. Similar to other forms of sarcoglycanopathies, the severity and rate of progressive weakness correlates inversely with the abundance of protein on muscle biopsy.

Joram Huckriede ◽  
Femke de Vries ◽  
Michael Hultström ◽  
Kanin Wichapong ◽  
Chris Reutelingsperger ◽  

The severity of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is associated with neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. During NET formation, cytotoxic extracellular histones are released, the presence of which is linked to the initiation and progression of several acute inflammatory diseases. Here we study the presence and evolution of extracellular histone H3 and several other neutrophil-related molecules and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in the plasma of 117 COVID-19-positive ICU patients. We demonstrate that at ICU admission the levels of histone H3, MPO, and DNA-MPO complex were all significantly increased in COVID-19-positive patients compared to control samples. Furthermore, in a subset of 54 patients, the levels of each marker remained increased after 4+ days compared to admission. Histone H3 was found in 28% of the patients on admission to the ICU and in 50% of the patients during their stay at the ICU. Notably, in 47% of histone-positive patients, we observed proteolysis of histone in their plasma. The overall presence of histone H3 during ICU stay was associated with thromboembolic events and secondary infection, and non-cleaved histone H3 was associated with the need for vasoactive treatment, invasive ventilation, and the development of acute kidney injury. Our data support the validity of treatments that aim to reduce NET formation and additionally underscore that more targeted therapies focused on the neutralization of histones should be considered as treatment options for severe COVID-19 patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Michela Rauseo ◽  
Lucia Mirabella ◽  
Donato Laforgia ◽  
Angela Lamanna ◽  
Paolo Vetuschi ◽  

Background: Different severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia phenotypes were described that match with different lung compliance and level of oxygenation, thus requiring a personalized ventilator setting. The burden of so many patients and the lack of intensive care unit (ICU) beds often force physicians to choose non-invasive ventilation (NIV) as the first approach, even if no consent has still been reached to discriminate whether it is safer to choose straightforward intubation, paralysis, and protective ventilation. Under such conditions, electrical impedance tomography (EIT), a non-invasive bedside tool to monitor lung ventilation and perfusion defects, could be useful to assess the response of patients to NIV and choose rapidly the right ventilatory strategy.Objective: The rationale behind this study is that derecruitment is a more efficient measure of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP)-dependency of patients than recruitment. We hypothesized that patients who derecruit significantly when PEEP is reduced are the ones that do not need early intubation while small end-expiratory lung volume (ΔEELV) variations after a single step of PEEP de-escalation could be predictive of NIV failure.Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients admitted to ICU with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia ventilated in NIV were enrolled. Exclusion criteria were former intubation or NIV lasting &gt; 72 h. A trial of continuos positive airway pressure (CPAP) 12 was applied in every patient for at least 15 min, followed by the second period of CPAP 6, either in the supine or prone position. Besides standard monitoring, ventilation of patients was assessed by EIT, and end-expiratory lung impedance (ΔEELI) (%) was calculated as the difference in EELI between CPAP12 and CPAP6. Tidal volume (Vt), Ve, respiratory rate (RR), and FiO2 were recorded, and ABGs were measured. Data were analyzed offline using the dedicated software. The decision to intubate or continue NIV was in charge of treating physicians, independently from study results. Outcomes of patients in terms of intubation rate and ICU mortality were recorded.Results: We enrolled 10 male patients, with a mean age of 67 years. Six patients (60%) were successfully treated by NIV until ICU discharge (Group S), and four patients failed NIV and were intubated and switched to MV (Group F). All these patients died in ICU. During the supine CPAP decremental trial, all patients experienced an increase in RR and Ve. ΔEELI was &lt; 40% in Group F and &gt; 50% in Group S. In the prone trial, ΔEELI was &gt; 50% in all patients, while RR decreased in Group S and remained unchanged in Group F.Conclusion: ΔEELI &lt; 40% after a single PEEP de-escalation step in supine position seems to be a good predictor of poor recruitment and CPAP failure.

2021 ◽  
pp. 2101554
Alice Hadchouel ◽  
David Drummond ◽  
Clément Pontoizeau ◽  
Laura Aoust ◽  
Maria-Margarita Hurtado Nedelec ◽  

IntroductionPulmonary alveolar proteinosis related to mutations in the methionine tRNA synthetase (MARS1) gene is a severe, early-onset disease that results in death before the age of 2 years in one-third of patients. It is associated with a liver disease, growth failure and systemic inflammation. As methionine supplementation in yeast models restored normal enzymatic activity of the synthetase, we studied the tolerance, safety and efficacy of daily oral methionine supplementation in patients with severe and early disease.MethodsFour patients received methionine supplementation and were followed for respiratory, hepatic, growth, and inflammation-related outcomes. Their course was compared to those of historical controls. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by patient monocytes before and after methionine supplementation was also studied.ResultsMethionine supplementation was associated with respiratory improvement, clearance of the extracellular lipoproteinaceous material, and discontinuation of whole-lung lavage in all patients. The three patients who required oxygen or non-invasive ventilation could be weaned off within 60 days. Liver dysfunction, inflammation, and growth delay also improved or resolved. At a cellular level, methionine supplementation normalised the production of reactive oxygen species by peripheral monocytes.ConclusionMethionine supplementation was associated with important improvements in children with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis related to mutations in the MARS1 gene. This study paves the way for similar strategies for other tRNA synthetase deficiencies.

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