respiratory complications
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xia Guo ◽  
Christudas Sunil ◽  
Guoqing Qian

Obesity is an epidemic worldwide and the obese people suffer from a range of respiratory complications including fibrotic changes in the lung. The influence of obesity on the lung is multi-factorial, which is related to both mechanical injury and various inflammatory mediators produced by excessive adipose tissues, and infiltrated immune cells. Adiposity causes increased production of inflammatory mediators, for example, cytokines, chemokines, and adipokines, both locally and in the systemic circulation, thereby rendering susceptibility to respiratory diseases, and altered responses. Lung fibrosis is closely related to chronic inflammation in the lung. Current data suggest a link between lung fibrosis and diet-induced obesity, although the mechanism remains incomplete understood. This review summarizes findings on the association of lung fibrosis with obesity, highlights the role of several critical inflammatory mediators (e.g., TNF-α, TGF-β, and MCP-1) in obesity related lung fibrosis and the implication of obesity in the outcomes of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients.

2022 ◽  
pp. 000313482110604
Dudley B. Christie ◽  
Timothy E. Nowack ◽  
Cory J. Nonnemacher ◽  
Anne Montgomery ◽  
Dennis W. Ashley

Introduction Rib fractures in the ≥65-year-old population have been shown to strongly influence mortality and pneumonia rates. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating improvements in the geriatric patient’s survival statistics and respiratory performances after surgical stabilization of rib fractures (SSRF). We have observed a strong survival and complication avoidance trend in geriatric patients who undergo SSRF. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of geriatric patients with rib fractures treated with SSRF compared to those who only receive conservative therapies. Methods We performed a retrospective review of our trauma registry analyzing outcomes of patients ≥65 years with rib fractures. Patients admitted from 2015 to 2019 receiving SSRF (RP group) were compared to a nonoperative controls (NO group) admitted during the same time. Bilateral fractures were excluded. Independent variables analyzed = ISS, mortalities, hospital days, ICU days, pleural space complications, and readmissions. Follow-up was 60 days after discharge. Group comparison was performed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Shapiro-Wilk, and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results 257 patients were analyzed: 172 in the NO group with mean age of 75 (65-10) and 85 in the RP group with mean age of 74 (65-96). Mean ISS = 13 (1-38) for the NO group and 20 (9-59) for the RP group ( P < .001). Mean hospital days = 8 (1-39) and 15 (3-49) in NO and RP groups, respectively. Mean ICU days = 10 (1-32) and 8 (1-11) in NO and RP groups, respectively. Deaths, pneumonia, readmissions, and pleural effusions in the NO group were statistically significant ( P < .01). Analysis of complications revealed 4 RP patients (4.7%) with respiratory complications out to 60 days and 65 NO patients (37.8%) ( P < .001). Conclusions Surgical stabilization of rib fractures appears to be associated with a survival advantage and an avoidance of respiratory-related complications in the ≥65-year-old patient population.

2022 ◽  
Yukihiro Goto ◽  
Shinji Nozuchi ◽  
Takuro Inoue

Abstract Purpose: In the very elderly, complications such as postoperative pneumonia or delirium, which are directly associated with longer hospitalization, are more frequent. In order to overcome these drawbacks, we switched from general anesthesia to rachianesthesia for the lumboperitoneal shunt (LPS) procedure in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) patients. This is because iNPH suffers particularly elderly patients, and neuraxial anesthesia techniques such as rachianesthesia reportedly decrease postoperative complications in patients of very advanced age as compared with general anesthesia. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 45 patients who underwent LPS in our institution, and divided them into two groups based on the anesthetic approach; 1) general anesthesia, 2) rachianesthesia. We analyzed these two groups with regard to postoperative delirium score and the hospital stay.Results: In the general anesthesia group, two patients had respiratory complications after the surgery. The mean postoperative delirium score using the intensive care delirium screening checklist (ICDSC) was 1.3 (1.4) and the length of hospital stay was 13.9 (4.7) days. In the rachianesthesia group, no patients had respiratory complications. The postoperative mean ICDSC was 1.3 (1.4), and the length of hospital stay was 10.8 (2.1) days. The statistical analysis showed the rachianesthesia group to have significantly shorter hospital stays.Conclusions: LPS under rachianesthesia is an alternative to performing this procedure under general anesthesia in elderly patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. e246663
Lindsey M Shain ◽  
Taha Ahmed ◽  
Michele L Bodine ◽  
Jennifer G Bauman

Right-sided infective endocarditis is frequently accompanied by septic pulmonary emboli, which may result in a spectrum of respiratory complications. We present the case of a 25-year-old woman diagnosed with infective endocarditis secondary to intravenous drug use. During a long and arduous hospital course, the patient developed empyema with bronchopleural fistula, representing severe but uncommon sequelae that may arise from this disease process. She was treated with several weeks of antibiotics as well as surgical thorascopic decortication and parietal pleurectomy.

2021 ◽  
pp. 000313482110651
Timothy Nowack ◽  
Dudley Christie ◽  
Cory Nonnemacher ◽  
John Buchanan

Surgical stabilization of rib fractures in an effective technique for the management of bony thoracic trauma. However, rib fractures location or morphology may make the placement of the recommended 6 screws impossible. A retrospective analysis of patients receiving SSRF at our facility from 2009–2019 identified cases where less than the recommended screw placement was used. Respiratory complications and hardware integrity were analyzed using follow-up imaging and examinations when available. A total of 62 patients were identified that used less than the recommended number of screws. The majority of these were in the lateral and posterior chest wall positions. 1 pleural effusion, no pneumothoraces, deaths, or hardware dislodgments were identified. While the authors do not advocate for the routine deviation from manufacture recommendations, we concluded that in select circumstances, adequate fixation can be achieved with less than 6 screws across a plated fracture.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Lucia Barbieri ◽  
Daniela Trabattoni ◽  
Giulio G. Stefanini ◽  
Enrico Vizzardi ◽  
Gabriele Tumminello ◽  

Conflicting results are available regarding the influence of ACEi/ARBs on the risk of COVID-19 infection, while less is known about their impact on the clinical outcome of patients with STEMI diagnosed with COVID-19. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of ACEi/ARBs therapy on in-hospital mortality and clinical outcomes of patients with STEMI during the COVID-19 pandemic. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive patients with STEMI hospitalized from February 20 to May 10, 2020 in four Hospitals in Lombardy. SARS-COV-2 diagnosis was performed by nasopharyngeal swab test. Procedural outcome, respiratory complications, and in-hospital mortality were reported. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed by logistic regressions. Our population was represented by 182 patients with STEMI, 76.9% of which were males, and mean age was 67 ± 12.5. Hypertension was reported in 53.3%, and 29.1% was treated with ACEi/ARBs. COVID-19 diagnosis was confirmed in 17.1% of the patients. In-hospital mortality (13.2%) was significantly higher in patients with COVID-19 (31 vs. 10%, p = 0.003), even if ejection fraction [OR 0.93 (95% CI) 0.87–0.99; p = 0.03] and respiratory complications [OR 9.39 (95% CI) 1.91–45.9; p = 0.006] were the only two independent predictors. The incidence of COVID-19 infection was not influenced by ACEi/ARBs (16.5 in naïve vs. 18.8%) whose presence on admission did not correlate with respiratory complications or mortality both in the case of discontinuation and maintenance. In conclusion, in a high-risk population, such as that of patients with STEMI, the potential benefit of ACEi/ARB discontinuation in patients with COVID-19 is overcome by its detrimental effect. Intensive care, additional preventive respiratory investigations, regardless of swab test result, should be suggested for all patients admitted for STEMI during the pandemic.

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