Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Recently Published Documents
Rituximab (RTX), as a B cell-depleting agent, is indicated in treating several malignancies and autoimmune diseases. The management of patients currently receiving RTX and patients starting the medication raised concerns in the pandemic era. Theoretically, suppressing the immune response at the beginning of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) enhances viral replication, but it prevents acute respiratory distress syndrome as the disease progresses. This review aims to investigate the results of RTX administration in patients during the pandemic era. There is insufficient evidence to definitively conclude on the safety of RTX during the pandemic. For this purpose, high-quality controlled cohort studies, as well as registry-based studies, would be helpful.
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the complex therapy for septic shock in a patient with severe lung damage caused by COVID-19
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used for more than 20 years in the treatment of severe respiratory distress syndrome. However, ECMO in some categories of patients is not sufficiently covered in the literature, due to a small number of registered cases. This group includes pregnant women and women in labor. During the intensive care of such patients, the entire available range of therapeutic manipulations and measures that can favorably affect the outcome of the disease should be used. We have describe a clinical case of successful ECMO in a patient with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and obstetric sepsis developed in the early postpartum period.
AbstractAcute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has high mortality and multiple therapeutic strategies have been used to improve the outcome. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO), a pulmonary vasodilator, is used to improve oxygenation. This study was conducted to determine the role of sildenafil, an oral vasodilator, to improve oxygenation and mortality in pediatric ARDS (PARDS). The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in PARDS was studied as well. Inclusion criteria included children (1–18 years) with ARDS requiring invasive ventilation admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit of a teaching hospital in Northern India over a 1-year period of time. Thirty-five patients met the inclusion criteria. Cardiologist performed a detailed echocardiogram to determine pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP). Patients with persistent hypoxemia were started on oral sildenafil. The majority (77%) patients had a primary pulmonary etiology of PARDS. Elevated PAP (>25 mm Hg) was detected in 54.3% patients at admission. Sildenafil was given to 20 patients who had severe and persistent hypoxemia. Oxygenation improved in most patients after the first dose with statistically significant improvement in PaO2/FiO2 ratios at both 12 and 24 hours following initiation of therapeutic dosing of sildenafil. Improvement in oxygenation occurred irrespective of initial PAP. Outcomes included a total of 57.1% patients discharged, 28.6% discharged against medical advice (DAMA), and a 14.3% mortality rate. Mortality was related to the severity of PARDS and not the use of sildenafil. This is the first study to determine the effect of sildenafil in PARDS. Sildenafil led to improvement in oxygenation in nearly all the cases without affecting mortality. Due to unavailability of INO in most centers of developing countries, sildenafil may be considered as an inexpensive alternative in cases of persistent hypoxemia in PARDS. We recommend additional randomized controlled trials to confirm the effect of sildenafil in PARDS as determined in this study.
Objectives. This study evaluated the clinical manifestation of COVID-19 and adverse outcomes in patients with comorbidities (outcome: death). Methods. A comparative follow-up investigation involving 148 confirmed cases of COVID-19 was performed for a month (between April and May 2020) at Qaha Hospital to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes resulting from comorbidities. Participants were divided into two clusters based on the presence of comorbidities. Group I comprised cases with comorbidities, and Group II included subjects without comorbidity. Survival distributions were outlined for the group with comorbidities after the follow-up period. Results. Fever (74.3%), headache (78.4%), cough (78.4%), sore throat (78.4%), fatigue (78.4%), and shortness of breath (86.5%) were the most prevalent symptoms observed in COVID-19 patients with comorbidities. Such patients also suffered from acute respiratory distress syndrome (37.8%) and pneumonia three times more than patients without comorbidities. The survival distributions were statistically significant (chi-square = 26.06, p ≤ 0.001 ). Conclusion. Multiple comorbidities in COVID-19 patients are linked to severe clinical symptoms, disease complications, and critical disease progression. The presence of one or more comorbidities worsened the survival rate of patients.
Is the Pao 2:Fio 2 Ratio the Best Marker to Monitor the Blood-Air Barrier Function in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome?
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is an emergent infectious disease that has caused millions of deaths throughout the world. COVID-19 infection’s main symptoms are fever, cough, fatigue, and neurological manifestations such as headache, myalgias, anosmia, ageusia, impaired consciousness, seizures, and even neuromuscular junctions’ disorders. In addition, it is known that this disease causes a series of systemic complications such as adverse respiratory distress syndrome, cardiac injury, acute kidney injury, and liver dysfunction. Due to the neurological symptoms associated with COVID-19, damage in the central nervous system has been suggested as well as the neuroinvasive potential of SARS-CoV-2. It is known that CoV infections are associated with an inflammation process related to the imbalance of the antioxidant system; cellular changes caused by oxidative stress contribute to brain tissue damage. Although anti-COVID-19 vaccines are under development, there is no specific treatment for COVID-19 and its clinical manifestations and complications; only supportive treatments with immunomodulators, anti-vascular endothelial growth factors, modulating drugs, statins, or nutritional supplements have been used. In the present work, we analyzed the potential of antioxidants as adjuvants for the treatment of COVID-19 and specifically their possible role in preventing or decreasing the neurological manifestations and neurological complications present in the disease.
The current coronavirus pandemic is a serious public health emergency and has led to widespread damage globally. Although there are many coronaviruses, the particular that is responsible for this pandemic is the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).It has incubation period of around 2 to 7 days and most symptomatic patients can have fever, malaise, cough, or loss of taste or smell, with some cases developing into life threatening pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome with case fatality rates range from 1% to 2%. Pregnancy is considered as a vulnerable group for any infection and knowledge regarding the possible risk of vertical transmission of this virus is very limited but is important for counseling regarding COVID-19 related pregnancy risks and for further management. COVID 19 infection in mothers basically leads to hypoxia, inflammatory response & cytokine storm. It appears around 10% of SARS- Cov-2 infected pregnant women require hospitalization with respiratory support COVID-19 can infect the placenta as confirmed by the presence of SARSCoV- 2 viral RNA in the placenta and evidence of virions found within the syncytiotrophoblast. The possible neonatal outcomes are increased risk of