Tumor Progression
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Nanomedicine ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Camila Sales Nascimento ◽  
Érica Alessandra Rocha Alves ◽  
Celso Pinto de Melo ◽  
Rodrigo Corrêa-Oliveira ◽  
Carlos Eduardo Calzavara-Silva

Cancer immunotherapy is the most promising trend in oncology, focusing on helping or activating the patient's immune system to identify and fight against cancer. In the last decade, interest in metabolic reprogramming of tumor-associated macrophages from M2-like phenotype (promoting tumor progression) to M1-like phenotypes (suppressing tumor growth) as a therapeutic strategy against cancer has increased considerably. Iron metabolism has been standing out as a target for the reprogramming of tumor-associated macrophages to M1-like phenotype with therapeutic purposes against cancer. Due to the importance of the iron levels in macrophage polarization states, iron oxide nanoparticles can be used to change the activation state of tumor-associated macrophages for a tumor suppressor phenotype and as an anti-tumor strategy.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Author(s):  
Xiaocui Li ◽  
Min An ◽  
Zhenjun Gao

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third-highest cause of cancer-related death in the world. miRNAs have a role in cell division, differentiation, and death biological processes. They are typically dysregulated in cancers, affecting tumor progression. miRNA-296-3p appears to play a crucial role in cancer control, according to new research. However, its expression and roles in HCC are unknown. This study used qRT-PCR and western blotting to detect the miRNA-296-3p and male-specific lethal 2 (MSL2) expression. In addition, cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis were studied using CCK-8, flow cytometric analysis, colony formation assay, wound healing test, and transwell assays. The results show that miRNA-296-3p is underexpressed in HCC cell lines, particularly in Huh-7 and HepG2 cells. miRNA-296-3p overexpression lowers the ability of HCC cells to proliferate, migrate, and invade while increasing cell death. Luciferase reporter experiments revealed that the MSL2 is a direct target of miRNA-296-3p. Furthermore, overexpression of miRNA-296-3p reduced MSL2 mRNA and protein levels considerably, according to our findings. Furthermore, the rescue experiments showed that the MSL2 overexpression partially blocked the inhibition effects of miRNA-296-3p mimic on the proliferation and migration of HCC cells. The above results show that miRNA-296-3p may have a repressive effect in HCC by targeting MSL2 and could be used as a therapeutic target for HCC treatment.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Marco Bolis ◽  
Daniela Bossi ◽  
Arianna Vallerga ◽  
Valentina Ceserani ◽  
Manuela Cavalli ◽  
...  

AbstractComprehensive genomic studies have delineated key driver mutations linked to disease progression for most cancers. However, corresponding transcriptional changes remain largely elusive because of the bias associated with cross-study analysis. Here, we overcome these hurdles and generate a comprehensive prostate cancer transcriptome atlas that describes the roadmap to tumor progression in a qualitative and quantitative manner. Most cancers follow a uniform trajectory characterized by upregulation of polycomb-repressive-complex-2, G2-M checkpoints, and M2 macrophage polarization. Using patient-derived xenograft models, we functionally validate our observations and add single-cell resolution. Thereby, we show that tumor progression occurs through transcriptional adaption rather than a selection of pre-existing cancer cell clusters. Moreover, we determine at the single-cell level how inhibition of EZH2 - the top upregulated gene along the trajectory – reverts tumor progression and macrophage polarization. Finally, a user-friendly web-resource is provided enabling the investigation of dynamic transcriptional perturbations linked to disease progression.


Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 6050
Author(s):  
Chorog Song ◽  
Hyunjin Park ◽  
Ho Yun Lee ◽  
Seunghak Lee ◽  
Joong Hyun Ahn ◽  
...  

Conventional methods to determine the response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are limited by the unique responses to an ICI. We performed a radiomics approach for all measurable lesions to identify radiomic variables that could distinguish hyperprogressive disease (HPD) on baseline CT scans and classify a dissociated response (DR). One hundred and ninety-six patients with advanced lung cancer, treated with ICI monotherapy, who underwent at least three CT scans, were retrospectively enrolled. For all 621 measurable lesions, HPDv was determined from baseline CT scans using the tumor growth kinetics (TGK) ratio, and radiomics features were extracted. Multivariable logistic regression analysis of radiomics features was performed to discriminate DR. Radiomics features that significantly discriminated HPDv on baseline CT differed according to organ. Of the 196 patients, 54 (27.6%) had a DR and 142 (72.4%) did not have a DR. Overall survival in the group with a DR was significantly inferior to that in the group without a DR (log rank test, p = 0.04). Our study shows that lesion-level analysis using radiomics features has great potential for discriminating HPDv and understanding heterogeneous tumor progression, including a DR, after ICI treatment.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Saili Duan ◽  
Shan Wang ◽  
Tao Huang ◽  
Junpu Wang ◽  
Xiaoqing Yuan

Currently, it is well known that the tumor microenvironment not only provides energy support for tumor growth but also regulates tumor signaling pathways and promotes the proliferation, invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance of tumor cells. The tumor microenvironment, especially the function and mechanism of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), has attracted great attention. TAMs are the most common immune cells in the tumor microenvironment and play a vital role in the occurrence and development of tumors. circular RNA (circRNA) is a unique, widespread, and stable form of non-coding RNA (ncRNA), but little is known about the role of circRNAs in TAMs or how TAMs affect circRNAs. In this review, we summarize the specific manifestations of circRNAs that affect the tumor-associated macrophages and play a significant role in tumor progression. This review helps improve our understanding of the association between circRNAs and TAMs, thereby promoting the development and progress of potential clinical targeted therapies.


Author(s):  
William W. Du ◽  
Xiangmin Li ◽  
Jian Ma ◽  
Ling Fang ◽  
Nan Wu ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Author(s):  
Yuxiang Li ◽  
Lin Zhang ◽  
Tianxin Xu ◽  
Xia Zhao ◽  
Xiaona Jiang ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Marta Opalińska ◽  
Anna Sowa-Staszczak ◽  
Helena Olearska ◽  
Magdalena Ulatowska-Bialas ◽  
Aleksandra Gilis-Januszewska ◽  
...  

BackgroundNeuroendocrine neoplasms are a heterogeneous group of cancers that develop from enterochromaffin cells of the diffuse endocrine system, with an increase in incidents over the last years. Ovarian neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are rare neoplasms, comprising 0.1% of all ovarian neoplasms and less than 5% of all neuroendocrine tumors. They may arise alone (as monodermal, specialized teratoma – ovarian carcinoid) or as a part of other ovarian lesion: cystic mature or immature teratomas. Due to the rarity and limited amount of such cases reported in the literature, there is no consensus on diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in this group of patients.Materials and MethodsThe group of 10 patients at the age of 19 to 77 years (mean 42.8 ± 17.9), diagnosed with unilateral NET within ovarian teratoma were analyzed. The histopathological type of tumor, progression free survival after surgical treatment and presence of hormonally active syndrome were assessed.Results70% (n=7) of patients was diagnosed with mature cystic teratomas containing NET component and 30% (n=3) with monodermal teratoma (strumal carcinoid). All cases of monodermal teratomas were found in women at premenopausal age. Determined Ki67 ranged from 2% to 9%. Ninety percent of lesions (n=9) stained positive for synaptophysin and chromogranin, while markers: CK20, CK7, TTF-1 and CDX2 were negative in all cases, which ruled out their metastatic nature. None of the patients presented with carcinoid syndrome. All followed-up patients remain progression-free, which confirms surgical intervention being a crucial and sufficient method of treatment.ConclusionsThe prognosis and clinical behavior of NETs associated with ovarian teratomas are good with long progression-free survival.


2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Elif Ulu ◽  
İlhan Yaylım ◽  
Soykan Arıkan ◽  
Canan Cacına

Abstract Objectives The PI3K (Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) is the member of lipid kinase family that plays important roles in tumorigenesis, cancer development and cell proliferation. In our study, we aimed to investigate the relationships between breast cancer risk and prognosis with PIK3CA rs6443624 (C>A) intron region gene polymorphism and serum PI3K levels. Methods A total of 61-patients with breast cancer and 101 controls were included to the study. PIK3CA polymorphism was detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Serum PI3K levels were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). Results PIK3CA (C>A) gene polymorphism genotype and allele distributions were no significant in cases and controls (p>0.05). The serum PI3K levels of breast cancer patients were found significantly higher than the control groups (p=0.033). There were not significant association between PIK3CA (C>A) gene polymorphism and clinic and prognostic parameters in our study group. We also evaluated serum PI3K levels in the term of tumor progression, but we did not observe any significant data. Conclusions We suggest that serum PI3K levels may play role in breast cancer risk and larger patient groups may have clinical value in assessment of the genetic risk and tumor progression of breast cancer.


Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 3352
Author(s):  
Kwai-Fong Ng ◽  
Tse-Ching Chen ◽  
Martin Stacey ◽  
Hsi-Hsien Lin

Cellular communication plays a critical role in diverse aspects of tumorigenesis including tumor cell growth/death, adhesion/detachment, migration/invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) which constitute the largest group of cell surface receptors are known to play fundamental roles in all these processes. When considering the importance of GPCRs in tumorigenesis, the adhesion GPCRs (aGPCRs) are unique due to their hybrid structural organization of a long extracellular cell-adhesive domain and a seven-transmembrane signaling domain. Indeed, aGPCRs have been increasingly shown to be associated with tumor development by participating in tumor cell interaction and signaling. ADGRG1/GPR56, a representative tumor-associated aGPCR, is recognized as a potential biomarker/prognostic factor of specific cancer types with both tumor-suppressive and tumor-promoting functions. We summarize herein the latest findings of the role of ADGRG1/GPR56 in tumor progression.


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