causes of death
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2022 ◽  
Vol 127 ◽  
pp. 108492
Yanzi Jin ◽  
Yujiao Liu ◽  
Xianrui Xu ◽  
Xu Wang ◽  
Qing Zhang

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 196-201
Sonisha Gupta ◽  
Ankur Porwal ◽  
Atul Kumar Gupta

Tuberculosis (TB) is, one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide and the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent.This Prospective study was conducted at Santosh medical college Ghaziabad from 1 April 2018 to 30 September 2019. All diagnosed PTB patients above 12yrs were taken. Patients with EPTB, HIV positive, MDR TB, XDR TB were excluded from the study. At the end of study treatment outcome was evaluated.Total of 208 patients diagnosed as tuberculosis were enrolled in the study. 6 patients died during course of study, 10 were treatment failure, 4 were lost to follow-up, 3 transferred out & 1 shifted to private treatment. 184 patients completed treatment successfully. Out of 184, only 152 patients were available for interview at 6 months follow up after completion of treatment. 19 could not be traced, 11 patients refused and 2 died. Out of 152, 110 were asymptomatic, 1 relapsed & rest 41 patients were symptomatic. All symptomatic patients were subjected to Chest X-Ray. Fibrosis was seen on CXR of 30 patients, bronchiectasis was seen in 3 patients, 1 patient had destroyed lung, nothing abnormal detected in 7 patients.Even after successful treatment under RNTCP, these patients need to be followed up as many of them relapse or suffer from sequelae of tuberculosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Chaoyu Wang ◽  
Jun Liu ◽  
Yao Liu

With the wide use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), the life expectancy of HIV-infected individuals drastically improved. However, HIV infection and HIV-associated cancers were the most common causes of death in the HIV-infected populations. The HIV-associated cancers are divided into acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining and non-AIDS-defining cancers based on the incidence among the HIV-infected patients. Among HIV-associated cancers, acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related lymphoma (ARL) is still the most common condition and the leading cause of HIV/AIDS-related deaths. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) are the most common subtypes of the ARL. Although Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) is not considered as an AIDS-defining cancer, incidence of HL in HIV-infected individuals is higher than the general population. The review summarizes the new progress in the treatment of HIV-associated lymphoma.

2022 ◽  
Guangrong Lu ◽  
Mayank Rao ◽  
Ping Zhu ◽  
Nadine Linendoll ◽  
Maximilian L. Buja ◽  

Abstract Purpose Systemic monotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ) or bevacizumab (BEV); two-drug combinations, such as Irinotecan (IRI) and BEV, TMZ and BEV and a three-drug combination with TMZ, IRI and BEV (TIB) have been used in treating patients with progressive high-grade gliomas including glioblastoma. Most patients tolerated these regimens well with well-established sides effects of hypertension, proteinuria, and reversible clinical myelosuppression (CM). However, organ-specific toxicities have never been examined by postmortem studies. Methods Postmortem tissues (from all major organs) were prospectively collected and examined by standard institution autopsy and brain cutting procedures from 76 decedents, including gliomas (N=68, 44/M, and 24/F) and brain metastases (N=8, 5/M, and 3/F) between 2009 and 2019. Standard hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) were performed on all major organs and brain samples harvested. Electronic microscopic (EM) study was carried on selected subjects kidney samples per standard EM protocol. Results Twenty-four glioma subjects were treated with TIB [median: 5.5 (range: 1-25) cycles] at glioma recurrence. Exposure to IRI significantly increased the frequency of CM (p=0.05). No unexpected adverse events were detected clinically or permenant end-organ damage by postmortem examination among subjects who received TIB compared to subjects who received standard of care (SOC) therapies. Among glioma decedents, the most common causes of death (COD) were tumor progression (63.2%, N=43), followed by aspiration pneumonia (48.5%, N=33). No COD was attributed to acute toxicity from TIB. The study also demonstrated that postmortem kidney specimen is unsuitable for studying renal ultrastructural pathological changes due to autolysis. Conclusion IRI, but not the extended use of TMZ, significantly increased CM in recurrent glioma patients. There is no permanent organ-specific toxicity among glioma decedents who received prolonged BEV, TMZ or TIB regimen based chemotherapies except expected occasional myelosuppresson. COD are most commonly resulted from glioma tumor progression and aspiration pneumonia.

Enrico Grande ◽  
Ugo Fedeli ◽  
Marilena Pappagallo ◽  
Roberta Crialesi ◽  
Stefano Marchetti ◽  

Italy was a country severely hit by the first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic wave in early 2020. Mortality studies have focused on the overall excess mortality observed during the pandemic. This paper investigates the cause-specific mortality in Italy from March 2020 to April 2020 and the variation in mortality rates compared with those in 2015–2019 regarding sex, age, and epidemic area. Causes of death were derived from the national cause-of-death register. COVID-19 was the leading cause of death among males and the second leading cause among females. Chronic diseases, such as diabetes and hypertensive, ischemic heart, and cerebrovascular diseases, with decreasing or stable mortality rates in 2015–2019, showed a reversal in the mortality trend. Moreover, mortality due to pneumonia and influenza increased. No increase in neoplasm mortality was observed. Among external causes of death, mortality increased for accidental falls but reduced for transport accidents and suicide. Mortality from causes other than COVID-19 increased similarly in both genders and more at ages 65 years or above. Compared with other areas in Italy, the Lombardy region showed the largest excess in mortality for all leading causes. Underdiagnosis of COVID-19 at the beginning of the pandemic may, to some extent, explain the mortality increase for some causes of death, especially pneumonia and other respiratory diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Shinn-Yn Lin ◽  
Din-Li Tsan ◽  
Chi-Cheng Chuang ◽  
Chi-Cheng Yang ◽  
Ping-Ching Pai ◽  

BackgroundPromisingly, the technique of hippocampus sparing during WBRT (HS-WBRT) might preserve NCFs. In this research, we examined oncological outcomes, with emphasis on neurologic/non-neurologic causes of death, CNS progression, and leptomeningeal disease (LMD) recurrence in cancer patients who underwent HS-WBRT.MethodsOne hundred and fourteen cancer patients with newly diagnosed brain oligometastases underwent HS-WBRT were consecutively enrolled. The cumulative incidence of cancer-specific deaths (neurologic or non-neurologic), LMD recurrence, and the composite endpoint of CNS progression (CNS-CE) as the first event were computed with a competing-risks approach to characterize the oncological outcomes after HS-WBRT.ResultsPatients with intact brain metastases had a significantly increased likelihood of dying from non-neurologic causes of death associated with early manifestation of progressive systemic disease (hazard ratio for non-neurologic death, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.08–2.95; p = 0.025; competing-risks Fine–Gray regression), which reciprocally rendered them unlikely to encounter LMD recurrence or any pattern of CNS progression (HR for CNS-CE as the first event, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.02–0.97; p = 0.047; competing-risks Fine–Gray regression). By contrast, patients with resection cavities post-craniotomy had reciprocally increased likelihood of CNS progression which might be associated with neurologic death eventually.ConclusionsPatterns of oncological endpoints including neurologic/non-neurologic death and cumulative incidence of CNS progression manifesting as LMD recurrence are clearly clarified and contrasted between patients with intact BMs and those with resection cavities, indicating they are clinically distinct subgroups.Trial, Identifier: NCT02504788, NCT03223675.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Simran K. Bhandari ◽  
Hui Zhou ◽  
Sally F. Shaw ◽  
Jiaxiao Shi ◽  
Natasha S. Tilluckdharry ◽  

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Using a large diverse population of incident end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients from an integrated health system, we sought to evaluate the concordance of causes of death (CODs) between the underlying COD from the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) registry and CODs obtained from Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC). <b><i>Methods:</i></b> A retrospective cohort study was performed among incident ESKD patients who had mortality records and CODs reported in both KPSC and USRDS databases between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2016. Underlying CODs reported by the KPSC were compared to the CODs reported by USRDS. Overall and subcategory-specific COD agreements were assessed using Cohen’s weighted kappa statistic (95% CI). Proportions of positive and negative agreement were also determined. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Among 4,188 ESKD patient deaths, 4,118 patients had CODs recorded in both KPSC and USRDS. The most common KPSC CODs were circulatory system diseases (35.7%), endocrine/nutritional/metabolic diseases (24.2%), genitourinary diseases (12.9%), and neoplasms (9.6%). Most common USRDS CODs were cardiac disease (46.9%), withdrawal from dialysis (12.6%), and infection (10.1%). Of 2,593 records with causes listed NOT as “Other,” 453 (17.4%) had no agreement in CODs between the USRDS and the underlying, secondary, tertiary, or quaternary causes recorded by KPSC. In comparing CODs recorded within KPSC to the USRDS, Cohen’s weighted kappa (95% CI) was 0.20 (0.18–0.22) with overall agreement of 36.4%. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Among an incident ESKD population with mortality records, we found that there was only fair or slight agreement between CODs reported between the USRDS registry and KPSC, a large integrated health care system.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Julian Mutz ◽  
Cathryn M. Lewis

AbstractRisk stratification is an important public health priority that is central to clinical decision making and resource allocation. The aim of this study was to examine how different combinations of self-rated and objective health status predict all-cause mortality and leading causes of death in the UK. The UK Biobank study recruited > 500,000 participants between 2006 and 2010. Self-rated health was assessed using a single-item question and health status was derived from medical history, including data on 81 cancer and 443 non-cancer illnesses. Analyses included > 370,000 middle-aged and older adults with a median follow-up of 11.75 (IQR = 1.4) years, yielding 4,320,270 person-years of follow-up. Compared to individuals with excellent self-rated health and favourable health status, individuals with other combinations of self-rated and objective health status had a greater mortality risk, with hazard ratios ranging from HR = 1.22 (95% CI 1.15–1.29, PBonf. < 0.001) for individuals with good self-rated health and favourable health status to HR = 7.14 (95% CI 6.70–7.60, PBonf. < 0.001) for individuals with poor self-rated health and unfavourable health status. Our findings highlight that self-rated health captures additional health-related information and should be more widely assessed. The cross-classification between self-rated health and health status represents a straightforward metric for risk stratification, with applications to population health, clinical decision making and resource allocation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Julian Prangenberg ◽  
Elke Doberentz ◽  
Anthea Mawick ◽  
Burkhard Madea

Forensic pathologists are routinely confronted with unclear causes of death or related findings. In some instances, difficulties arise in relation to questions posed by criminal investigators or prosecutors. Such scenarios may include questions about wound vitality or cause of death where typical or landmark findings are difficult to ascertain. In addition to the usual examinations required to clarify unclear causes of death or address specific questions, immunohistochemistry and genetic analyses have become increasingly important techniques in this area since their establishment last century. Since then, many studies have determined the usefulness and significance of immunohistochemical and genetic investigations on cellular structures and proteins. For example, these proteins include heat shock proteins (Hsp), which were first described in 1962 and are so called based on their molecular weight. They predominantly act as molecular chaperones with cytoprotective functions that support cell survival under (sub) lethal conditions. They are expressed in specific cellular compartments and have many divergent functions. Central family members include, Hsp 27, 60, and 70. This mini review investigates recent research on the Hsp family, their application range, respective forensic importance, and current limitations and provides an outlook on possible applications within forensic science.

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