Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is ubiquitous and carried by approximately 90% of the world’s adult population. Several mechanisms and pathways have been proposed as to how EBV facilitates the pathogenesis and progression of malignancies, such as Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and gastric cancers, the majority of which have been linked to viral proteins that are expressed upon infection including latent membrane proteins (LMPs) and Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigens (EBNAs). EBV expresses microRNAs that facilitate the progression of some cancers. Mostly, EBV induces epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes, degradation of tumor suppressor mRNA transcripts, post-translational modification, and inactivation of tumor suppressor proteins. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which EBV modulates different tumor suppressors at the molecular and cellular levels in associated cancers. Briefly, EBV gene products upregulate DNA methylases to induce epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes via hypermethylation. MicroRNAs expressed by EBV are also involved in the direct targeting of tumor suppressor genes for degradation, and other EBV gene products directly bind to tumor suppressor proteins to inactivate them. All these processes result in downregulation and impaired function of tumor suppressors, ultimately promoting malignances.
Purpose: Plant-derived phytochemicals have shown epigenetic modulatory effect in different types of cancer by reversing the pattern of DNA methylation and chromatin modulation, thereby restoring the function of silenced tumor-suppressor genes. In the present study, attempts have been made to explore chrysin-mediated epigenetic alterations in HeLa cells.Methods: Colony formation and migration assays followed by methylation-specific PCR for examining the methylation status of CpG promoters of various tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs) and the expression of these TSGs at the transcript and protein levels were performed. Furthermore, global DNA methylation; biochemical activities of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), histone methyl transferases (HMTs), histone deacetylases (HDACs), and histone acetyl transferases (HATs) along with the expression analysis of chromatin-modifying enzymes; and H3 and H4 histone modification marks analyses were performed after chrysin treatment.Results: The experimental analyses revealed that chrysin treatment encourages cytostatic behavior as well as inhibits the migration capacity of HeLa cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Chrysin reduces the methylation of various tumor-suppressor genes, leading to their reactivation at mRNA and protein levels. The expression levels of various chromatin-modifying enzymes viz DNMTs, HMTs, HDACs, and HATS were found to be decreased, and H3 and H4 histone modification marks were modulated too. Also, reduced global DNA methylation was observed following the treatment of chrysin.Conclusion: This study concludes that chrysin can be used as a potential epigenetic modifier for cancer treatment and warrants for further experimental validation.
Hypermethylation of the RcgY sites is shown for many cancer diseases. such aberrant methylation, suppressing the gene activity, occurs at early stages of carcinogenesis. Recently, using glad-pcR assay, we have detected aberrantly methylated RcgY sites, which can be considered to be epigenetic markers of colorectal, lung, and gastric cancers. in breast cancer, methylation of the regulatory regions of ALX4, BMP2, CCND2, CDH13, CDX1, FOXA1, GALR1, GATA5, GREM1, HIC1, HMX2, HS3ST2, HOXC10, ICAM5, LAMA1, RARB, RASSF1A, RUNX3, RXRG, RYR2, SFRP2, SOX17, TERT, and ZNF613 tumor-suppressor genes is reported. in the present work, we determined aberrantly methylated RcgY sites in the regulatory regions of these genes in dNa preparations from breast cancer tissues. the study of dNa samples from 30 tumor and 22 normal mammary tissue samples demonstrates a high diagnostic potential of selected R(5mc)gY sites in regulatory regions of CCND2, BMP2, GALR1, SOX17, HMX2, and HS3ST2 genes with total index of sensitivity and specificity for R(5mc)gY detection in tumor dNa 90.0 % and 100.0 %, respectively.
The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) NKILA, localized to 20q13.31, is a negative regulator of NF-κB signaling implicated in carcinogenesis. As a CpG island is embedded in the promoter region of NKILA, it is hypothesized as a tumor suppressor lncRNA silenced by promoter DNA methylation in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). By pyrosequencing-verified methylation-specific PCR, NKILA methylation was detected in 1/10 (10%) NHL cell lines, but not in normal peripheral blood buffy coats or tonsils. NKILA methylation correlated with the repression of NKILA in cell lines. Hypomethylation treatment with 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine resulted in promoter demethylation and the re-expression of NKILA. In 102 NHL primary samples, NKILA was methylated in 29 (51.79%) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and 4 (20%) peripheral T-cell lymphoma cases, but unmethylated in all 26 mantle cell lymphoma cases. Mechanistically, the knockdown of NKILA resulted in promoting IkBα phosphorylation, associated with nucleus translocation of total p65 and phosphorylated p65 in SU-DHL-1 cells, hence constitutive NF-κB activation. Functionally, the knockdown of NKILA in SU-DHL-1 cells led to decreased cell death and increased cellular proliferation. Collectively, NKILA was a tumor suppressor lncRNA frequently hypermethylated in DLBCL. Promoter DNA methylation-mediated NKILA silencing resulted in increased cellular proliferation and decreased cell death via the repression of NF-κB signaling in NHL.
AbstractPutative tumor suppressor ALDH1L1, the product of natural fusion of three unrelated genes, regulates folate metabolism by catalyzing NADP+-dependent conversion of 10-formyltetrahydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate and CO2. Cryo-EM structures of tetrameric rat ALDH1L1 revealed the architecture and functional domain interactions of this complex enzyme. Highly mobile N-terminal domains, which remove formyl from 10-formyltetrahydrofolate, undergo multiple transient inter-domain interactions. The C-terminal aldehyde dehydrogenase domains, which convert formyl to CO2, form unusually large interfaces with the intermediate domains, homologs of acyl/peptidyl carrier proteins (A/PCPs), which transfer the formyl group between the catalytic domains. The 4′-phosphopantetheine arm of the intermediate domain is fully extended and reaches deep into the catalytic pocket of the C-terminal domain. Remarkably, the tetrameric state of ALDH1L1 is indispensable for catalysis because the intermediate domain transfers formyl between the catalytic domains of different protomers. These findings emphasize the versatility of A/PCPs in complex, highly dynamic enzymatic systems.