tumor biology
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Anna Sebestyén ◽  
Titanilla Dankó ◽  
Dániel Sztankovics ◽  
Dorottya Moldvai ◽  
Regina Raffay ◽  

AbstractDespite advancements in cancer management, tumor relapse and metastasis are associated with poor outcomes in many cancers. Over the past decade, oncogene-driven carcinogenesis, dysregulated cellular signaling networks, dynamic changes in the tissue microenvironment, epithelial-mesenchymal transitions, protein expression within regulatory pathways, and their part in tumor progression are described in several studies. However, the complexity of metabolic enzyme expression is considerably under evaluated. Alterations in cellular metabolism determine the individual phenotype and behavior of cells, which is a well-recognized hallmark of cancer progression, especially in the adaptation mechanisms underlying therapy resistance. In metabolic symbiosis, cells compete, communicate, and even feed each other, supervised by tumor cells. Metabolic reprogramming forms a unique fingerprint for each tumor tissue, depending on the cellular content and genetic, epigenetic, and microenvironmental alterations of the developing cancer. Based on its sensing and effector functions, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase is considered the master regulator of metabolic adaptation. Moreover, mTOR kinase hyperactivity is associated with poor prognosis in various tumor types. In situ metabolic phenotyping in recent studies highlights the importance of metabolic plasticity, mTOR hyperactivity, and their role in tumor progression. In this review, we update recent developments in metabolic phenotyping of the cancer ecosystem, metabolic symbiosis, and plasticity which could provide new research directions in tumor biology. In addition, we suggest pathomorphological and analytical studies relating to metabolic alterations, mTOR activity, and their associations which are necessary to improve understanding of tumor heterogeneity and expand the therapeutic management of cancer.

2022 ◽  
Luca Hladek ◽  
Katrin Bankov ◽  
Jens von der Grün ◽  
Natalie Filmann ◽  
Melanie Demes ◽  

AbstractPenile squamous cell carcinomas are rare tumor entities throughout Europe. Early lymphonodal spread urges for aggressive therapeutic approaches in advanced tumor stages. Therefore, understanding tumor biology and its microenvironment and correlation with known survival data is of substantial interest in order to establish treatment strategies adapted to the individual patient. Fifty-five therapy naïve squamous cell carcinomas, age range between 41 and 85 years with known clinicopathological data, were investigated with the use of tissue microarrays (TMA) regarding the tumor-associated immune cell infiltrate density (ICID). Slides were stained with antibodies against CD3, CD8 and CD20. An image analysis software was applied for evaluation. Data were correlated with clinicopathological characteristics and overall survival. There was a significant increase of ICID in squamous cell carcinomas of the penis in relation to tumor adjacent physiological tissue. Higher CD3-positive ICID was significantly associated with lower tumor stage in our cohort. The ICID was not associated with overall survival. Our data sharpens the view on tumor-associated immune cell infiltrate in penile squamous cell carcinomas with an unbiased digital and automated cell count. Further investigations on the immune cell infiltrate and its prognostic and possible therapeutic impact are needed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 369
Harrison Sicheng Lin ◽  
Qiang Ding ◽  
Zsuzsanna Lichner ◽  
Sung Sun Kim ◽  
Rola Saleeb ◽  

With sunitinib treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, most patients end up developing resistance over time. Recent clinical trials have shown that individualizing treatment protocols could delay resistance and result in better outcomes. We developed an in vivo xenograft tumor model and compared tumor growth rate, morphological, and transcriptomic differences between alternative and traditional treatment schedules. Our results show that the alternative treatment regime could delay/postpone cancer progression. Additionally, we identified distinct morphological changes in the tumor with alternative and traditional treatments, likely due to the significantly dysregulated signaling pathways between the protocols. Further investigation of the signaling pathways underlying these morphological changes may lead potential therapeutic targets to be used in a combined treatment with sunitinib, which offers promise in postponing/reversing the resistance of sunitinib.

2022 ◽  
Stefan R Bornstein ◽  
Igor Shapiro ◽  
Maria Malyukov ◽  
Richard Züllig ◽  
Edlira Luca ◽  

The adrenal gland provides an important function by integrating neuronal, immune, vascular, metabolic and endocrine signals under a common organ capsule. It is the central organ of the stress response system and has been implicated in numerous stress-related disorders. While for other diseases, regeneration of healthy organ tissue has been aimed at such approaches are lacking for endocrine diseases - with the exception of type-I-diabetes. Moreover, tumor formation is very common, however, appropriate high-throughput applications reflecting the high heterogeneity and furthermore relevant 3D-structures in vitro are still widely lacking. Recently, we have initiated the development of standardized multidimensional models of a variety of endocrine cell/tissue sources in a new multiwell-format. Firstly, we confirmed common applicability for pancreatic pseudo-islets. Next, we translated applicability for spheroid establishment to adrenocortical cell lines as well as patient material to establish spheroids from malignant, but also benign adrenal tumors. We aimed furthermore at the development of bovine derived adrenal organoids and were able to establish steroidogenic active organoids containing both, cells of cortical and medullary origin. Overall, we hope to open new avenues for basic research, endocrine cancer and adrenal tissue-replacement therapies as we demonstrate potential for innovative mechanistic insights and personalized medicine in endocrine (tumor)-biology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Cristina Zarotti ◽  
Bärbel Papassotiropoulos ◽  
Constanze Elfgen ◽  
Konstantin Dedes ◽  
Denise Vorburger ◽  

AbstractBreast cancer is a biologically diverse disease with treatment modalities selected based on tumor stage and tumor biology. Distinct intrinsic subtypes and surrogate biomarker profiles play a major role for therapeutic decisions. Response rates to systemic and local treatments as well as the interaction with epidemiological risk factors have been validated in clinical trials and translational studies. This retrospective study addresses the question how biomarker profiles and treatment modalities in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy setting have changed during the past 15 years and what prognostic impact these changes implicate. 342 female breast cancer stage I-IV patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy between 2003 and 2017 were analyzed. Overall survival (OS) was correlated with preoperative clinical stage, postoperative pathological stage, treatment modalities and tumor biology before and after chemotherapy. Two subgroups were separated using an arbitrary cut-off year at 2009/2010, due to 2010 when platinum containing regimens were first administered. Median follow-up was 54 months. 57 (17%) patients died; recurrences occurred in 103 of 342 (30%) patients. Nodal stage and intrinsic subtypes (pre- and postoperative) significantly correlated with OS (p < 0.001). Preoperative histological grading lacked prognostic power. When comparing the patient characteristics of the subgroups, we found significant difference in the following characteristics: cT, ypT, ypN, pCR and chemotherapy regimens (p < 0.001). There was no difference in OS when comparing the two subgroups. Pathological complete response (pCR) rates had a significant impact on OS and disease-free survival (DFS) in HER2+ and triple negative subtypes (p = 0.03). In multivariate analysis, high proliferation index (> 30%), clinical metastatic stage and pathological tumor stage had prognostic impact on OS (p < 0.001, p = 0.0001, p = 0.002). Clinico-pathological factors and distinct therapy regiments especially in triple negative and HER2+ subtypes have prognostic impact on pCR, OS and DFS after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Qing Nie ◽  
Yue Hu ◽  
Xiao Yu ◽  
Xiao Li ◽  
Xuedong Fang

AbstractAt present, more than one cell death pathways have been found, one of which is ferroptosis. Ferroptosis was discovered in 2012 and described as an iron-dependent and lipid peroxidation-driven regulated cell death pathway. In the past few years, ferroptosis has been shown to induce tumor cell death, providing new ideas for tumor treatment. In this article, we summarize the latest advances in ferroptosis-induced tumor therapy at the intersection of tumor biology, molecular biology, redox biology, and materials chemistry. First, we state the characteristics of ferroptosis in cells, then introduce the key molecular mechanism of ferroptosis, and describes the relationship between ferroptosis and oxidative stress signaling pathways. Finally, we focused on several types of ferroptosis inducers discovered by scholars, and the application of ferroptosis in systemic chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy and nanomedicine, in the hope that ferroptosis can exert its potential in the treatment of tumors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Wen-jin Chen ◽  
Hao Cao ◽  
Jian-wei Cao ◽  
Li Zuo ◽  
Fa-jun Qu ◽  

AbstractNon-clear renal cell carcinomas (nccRCCs) are less frequent in kidney cancer with histopathological heterogeneity. A better understanding of the tumor biology of nccRCC can provide more effective treatment paradigms for different subtypes. To reveal the heterogeneity of tumor microenvironment (TME) in nccRCC, we performed 10x sing-cell genomics on tumor and normal tissues from patients with papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC), chromophobe RCC (chrRCC), collecting duct carcinoma (CDRCC) and sarcomatoid RCC (sarRCC). 15 tissue samples were finally included. 34561 cells were identified as 16 major cell clusters with 34 cell subtypes. Our study presented the sing-cell landscape for four types of nccRCC, and demonstrated that CD8+ T cells exhaustion, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and sarcomatoid process were the pivotal factors in immunosuppression of nccRCC tissues and were closely correlated with poor prognosis. Abnormal metabolic patterns were present in both cancer cells and tumor-infiltrating stromal cells, such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Combined with CIBERSORTx tool, the expression data of bulk RNA-seq from TCGA were labeled with cell types of our sing-cell data. Calculation of the relative abundance of cell types revealed that greater proportion of exhausted CD8+ T cells, TAMs and sarRCC derived cells were correlated with poor prognosis in the cohort of 274 nccRCC patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that provides a more comprehensive sight about the heterogeneity and tumor biology of nccRCC, which may potentially facilitate the development of more effective therapies for nccRCC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 1993-2005
Prachitee Borkar ◽  
Prasan Bhandari ◽  
Shraddha Yadav ◽  
Ashwini Prabhu

Ovarian cancer is one of the most common gynecological cancers. Recently, there is increase in incidence of ovarian cancer not only India but also worldwide. Ovarian cancer patients exhibit nonspecific symptoms during early course of disease. As a consequence, 70% of these patients are diagnosed in advanced stages. Ovarian cancer treatment includes cytoreductive surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy. However, these patients develop fatal recurrence due to development of platinum resistance. Cisplatin, (platinum analog) resistance is multifactorial and complex. Earlier, resistance was mainly attributed to conventional molecular mechanisms like decreased intracellular accumulation of cisplatin, enhanced DNA repair and increased cisplatin detoxification. Nevertheless, emergence of knowledge of tumor biology have lead to discovery of other contributing mechanisms. These tumor microenvironment related factors include physical blockade, hypoxia, cancer stem cells, cancer associated fibroblasts and many others. Understanding these mechanisms of cisplatin resistance is crucial for development of novel strategy to combat the same. Hence, this review summarizes all the mechanisms of resistance of cisplatin in ovarian cancer.

Ashley O. London ◽  
Liam W. Gallagher ◽  
Rahul K. Sharma ◽  
Daniel Spielman ◽  
Justin S. Golub ◽  

Abstract Introduction Race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES) are complex, interconnected social determinants of health outcomes. This study uses multivariable analysis on a combination of large national datasets to examine the effects of these factors on 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) and conditional DSS (CDSS) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods A retrospective study of adults with NPC between 2000 and 2017 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, End Results (SEER) registry was performed, using the National Cancer Institute Yost Index, a census tract–level composite score of SES to categorize patients. Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox's regression for DSS and CDSS were stratified by SES. Logistic regression was conducted to identify risk factors for advanced cancer stage at time of diagnosis and receiving multimodal therapy. Results Our analysis included 5,632 patients. DSS was significantly associated with race and SES (p < 0.01). Asian/Pacific Islander patients exhibited increased survival when controlling for other variables (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.73, p < 0.01). Although Black patients were more likely to be diagnosed with advanced disease (Black odds ratio [OR] = 1.47, p < 0.01), Black patients were also less likely to receive multimodal therapy; however, this relationship lost statistical significance once SES was incorporated into the multivariable analysis. DSS was decreased among the lowest (first) and middle (second) tertiles of SES (first HR = 1.34, p < 0.01; second HR = 1.20, p < 0.01) compared with the highest (third). Conclusion Our results indicate that race, ethnicity, and SES significantly affect survival, stage at diagnosis, and treatment of NPC. An interplay of tumor biology and inequalities in access to care likely drives these disparities.

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