The Poor
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Alycia Sandra Dinar Andhini

Legal Aid is organized to help resolve legal issues faced by Legal Aid Recipients. The birth of Law No. 16 of 2011 concerning Legal Aid provides new hope for the poor to gain access to justice and equality before the law. This writing aims to determine the implementation of the provision of legal aid and the obstacles that influence it in its implementation because sometimes the implementation of Law Number 16 of 2011 concerning Legal Aid in Indonesian Courts is not optimal. This research focuses on the application of legal aid to the poor, the challenges and problems they face. The method used in this research is empirical research. This study found that in the application of legal aid in several regions in Indonesia, the main problem faced in addition to the lack of availability of accredited legal aid institutions, was also the issue of the budget provided by the state. In addition, in terms of the legal culture of the community, the implementation of legal aid is not optimal due to the understanding of the community not to have anything to do with the law so that many cases that should receive legal assistance cannot be accompanied.  

Khoirum Lutfiyah

Legal aid is something that is given by the state to people who are unable to get justice and their basic rights before the law. The state has an obligation to protect every citizen, especially legal protection for the poor or the poor. To ensure this protection, the government forms a law which can help the underprivileged or poor in dealing with the legal problems they experience. With the existence of the Law on Advocacy, the Law on Legal Aid, as well as the existence of this Legal Aid Institute, it is hoped that it will be able to reduce the burden on what people experience before the law, especially related to the costs of legal aid.

Muhamad Akhsanul Fadli

Legal aid in Indonesia, especially in terms of access to justice, legal aid provided by the state to the people still relies on positive law. The law governing legal aid in Indonesia still revolves around the number of cases and the budget absorption target given to legal aid institutions that have been verified and accredited by the state for people/groups in need. Verification and Accreditation from the state with the parameters written in the law prevent those who need legal assistance if they are not categorized as poor. The requirement of the poor to access legal aid implies that access to legal aid for everyone in conflict is far from fair. Access to legal aid is very important because the goal of law is justice. In addition, legal aid aims to provide justice for those who do not have legal knowledge, in other words, are blind to the law. Justice for all is the pulse of legal aid that cannot be separated from the right to legal aid for those in need. Legal aid can be managed by the community, legal aid institutions/institutions that should provide access to those who need legal assistance and those in dispute, both poor and rich, so that justice for all is achieved. This study discusses the transcendental dimensions of legal aid. This study uses a descriptive research method that aims to analyze legal aid from aid agencies seen from the study of legal philosophy and legal aid with a transcendental dimension.

Syalis Mei Setiani

Indonesia is a state of law, one of which is equality before the law. One of the forms is the existence of legal aid institutions to protect human rights. In this case, it is the suspect/defendant whose rights are often violated due to the arbitrariness of the legal apparatus from arrest to trial. Even though legal rules and codes of ethics have been regulated, every law enforcement officer cannot guarantee that the rights of the community, especially suspects and defendants, are fulfilled. So that this legal aid institution takes the role so that people's rights, both legal protection, legal assistance, good treatment can be accepted by suspects or defendants, so that arbitrariness does not occur. For this reason, legal aid institutions recruit advocates, paralegals, lecturers, and law students to participate in implementing legal aid. Legal aid is given to the poor but does not rule out the possibility of giving it to children, persons with disabilities, women, the elderly, Indonesian workers, or other vulnerable people or groups in accordance with their regional context and regulated in laws and regulations. The suspect himself must be given to the suspect who is threatened with imprisonment of more than 5 years and is incapacitated or is threatened with a sentence of 15 years or death. Otherwise, the claim is considered invalid. 

Chairani Azifah

The implementation of legal aid is a manifestation of Indonesia as a legal state that guarantees the human rights of citizens to equality before the law which is guaranteed in the 1945 Constitution. Within the framework of implementing this citizen's human rights, the provision of free legal aid is, among other things, obligated to advocates based on Article 22 Law on advocates and their implementing regulations. From this, two problem formulations were made as follows: What is the juridical review of the provision of pro bono legal aid? And what is the role of advocates in providing pro bono legal aid? This research is based on normative legal research, which is a research conducted by reviewing and analyzing legal materials and legal issues related to the problems studied. The results of the author's discussion found that free legal aid is the right of the poor to obtain the same justice as other communities, so that the protection of their rights is well fulfilled and the principle of equality before the law. Advocates are obliged to provide free legal aid to justice seekers, and to obtain free legal assistance, justice seekers must submit a written application to an advocate organization or legal aid institution.

Judith Prima Hapsari

One manifestation of justice or equality before the law is the existence of legal assistance for every citizen involved in legal problems, without exception the poor. The legal problems that ensnare many poor people or groups are currently increasing complex. Legal aid is a human right of all people, which is not given by the state and is not a mercy from the state, but is also the responsibility of the state in realizing equality before the law, access to justice, and fair trial. Therefore, the government made and ratified a regulation that regulates legal aid, namely Law Number 16 of 2011 concerning Legal Aid. This research is intended to analyze the implementation of legal aid for the poor communities in the context of access to justice in Indonesia.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (210) ◽  
pp. 1-24
Jhessica Larissa Carvalho Sarath

The present article deals with the cases of sexual abuse that occur in public transport, resulting from the patriarchal culture rooted in society, as well as the poor performance of the State in offering a public service, without guaranteeing its quality. Based on this situation, it is analyzed how the patriarchal and sexist culture is present in society and how the State is silent on public measures and policies that are in fact effective in guaranteeing the safety of women in the public space. Thus, it is concluded that for such a scenario to be solved or at least improved, there is a greater participation of the State as an essential service provider and policies with the objective of eradicating inequality of gender. This research uses the following methodology classified as: deductive, exploratory, with a monographic research, from a qualitative perspective.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (3) ◽  
pp. 101
Anastasia Nyawira Gakuru ◽  
Joseph Mwinzi ◽  
Joseph Nungu ◽  
Samson Gunga

Kenya, like other countries in Africa and across the world is in the grip of technological advances leading its agencies and parastatals to digitize their operations. A pertinent question, therefore, is whether adult and community education, in its current packaging in Kenya, is empowering the participants to engage in using e-consumer services actively, meaningfully, and in beneficial ways in their daily transactions. This study, therefore, sought to investigate the level of integration of e-Consumer elements in Adult and Community Education. The study adopted a mixed-method research study targeting adult learners in Nairobi County, adult education officers, and adult education instructors. The study collected data using interviews and questionnaires. The study established that integration of ICT services in adult centers is still facing numerous challenges which are evident by the poor use of e-consumer services by the adult learners.

Mohamad Ahmad Saleem Khasawneh Khasawneh

This study aimed at identifying the work pressures among teachers of learning disabilities in English language in Irbid governorate from their point of view. The total number of the study population was (60) male and female teachers, while the study sample included (30) male and female teachers. To collect the study information, the researcher developed a questionnaire to reveal the level of work stress among male and female teachers, and it included (40) items. The study found that there are pressures at work for teachers of LDs in English language. These pressures are the poor achievement of some students, large financial obligations for teachers, poor standards used to promote teachers, the large number of lessons taught by the teacher per week, daily planning, and overcrowding of students in class. The study recommended holding training courses for teachers in the private sector, similar to their colleagues in other sectors, to improve the educational process, and so that teachers can keep pace with the rapid scientific and technological development that the world is witnessing around them

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Vinodh Kannappan ◽  
Misha Ali ◽  
Benjamin Small ◽  
Gowtham Rajendran ◽  
Salena Elzhenni ◽  

Copper (Cu) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression by acting as a co-factor that regulates the activity of many enzymes and structural proteins in cancer cells. Therefore, Cu-based complexes have been investigated as novel anticancer metallodrugs and are considered as a complementary strategy for currently used platinum agents with undesirable general toxicity. Due to the high failure rate and increased cost of new drugs, there is a global drive towards the repositioning of known drugs for cancer treatment in recent years. Disulfiram (DSF) is a first-line antialcoholism drug used in clinics for more than 65 yr. In combination with Cu, it has shown great potential as an anticancer drug by targeting a wide range of cancers. The reaction between DSF and Cu ions forms a copper diethyldithiocarbamate complex (Cu(DDC)2 also known as CuET) which is the active, potent anticancer ingredient through inhibition of NF-κB and ubiquitin-proteasome system as well as alteration of the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Importantly, DSF/Cu inhibits several molecular targets related to drug resistance, stemness, angiogenesis and metastasis and is thus considered as a novel strategy for overcoming tumour recurrence and relapse in patients. Despite its excellent anticancer efficacy, DSF has proven unsuccessful in several cancer clinical trials. This is likely due to the poor stability, rapid metabolism and/or short plasma half-life of the currently used oral version of DSF and the inability to form Cu(DDC)2 at relevant concentrations in tumour tissues. Here, we summarize the scientific rationale, molecular targets, and mechanisms of action of DSF/Cu in cancer cells and the outcomes of oral DSF ± Cu in cancer clinical trials. We will focus on the novel insights on harnessing the immune system and hypoxic microenvironment using DSF/Cu complex and discuss the emerging delivery strategies that can overcome the shortcomings of DSF-based anticancer therapies and provide opportunities for translation of DSF/Cu or its Cu(DDC)2 complex into cancer therapeutics.

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