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Author(s):  
Ghobad Ramezani ◽  
Maryam Aalaa ◽  
Farzaneh Zahedi ◽  
Seyed Kamran Soltani Arabshahi ◽  
Davood Rasouli ◽  
...  

The controversial role of ethics in clinical education and its ability to draw the attention of a large audience is inevitable. The issues and challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic have transformed the clinical education environment. This study was conducted to explore the challenges and ethical requirements of medical sciences education during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. The study was qualitative research and the instrument was a semi-structured interview. The participants included faculty members of the basic and clinical Sciences at Iran University of Medical Sciences. After 16 rounds of interviews, theoretical saturation was achieved. Qualitative data were analysed using conventional content analysis, which resulted in 81 preliminary codes and 28 sub-categories. Finally, two themes of "ethical challenges" and "ethical requirements", and 10 categories were achieved. The sub-categories were consisted of "being patient-centred", "social accountability of curriculums", "ethical challenges of the clinical environment", "the poor performance of the clinical faculty members and students", "being justice-centred", "raising awareness", "observing clinical research ethics", "preservation and promotion of mental health", "patient confidentiality", and "respect for individuals". We hope the ethical challenges in medical education that were created due to the emergence of Covid-19 can be reduced and eliminated by defining a framework for ethical requirements. 


Author(s):  
أزهار محمد محمد عبد البر

The aim of the research is to identify the personal characteristics of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him. The research sample consisted of 360 individuals from different spectrums in society. The descriptive and analytical method was used, and a questionnaire was prepared for the personal characteristics of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and a questionnaire of the moral and human values in the contemporary world. : The personal characteristics of the Prophet Muhammad were as follows: The Prophet Muhammad, upon him be prayers and peace, was characterized by sincerity, honesty and generosity among his companions. He was characterized by humility, justice, forgiveness and pardon. He was characterized by sincerity in secret, openness and mercy for children. He was never afraid of anyone as long as he was right and his courage increased after the prophetic mission, from the human and moral values that have been agreed upon in the contemporary world: love and defense of the homeland, preservation of sacred places, love for school and appreciation of teachers, rationalization of the use of water and electricity, appreciation of scientific progress Generous hospitality, advising others, visiting patients, appreciating professions and respecting their owners, being kind to others, maintaining order, maintaining the law and respecting rights Child, animal welfare, justice, loyalty, patience, honesty, humility and respect for the rights of others, sympathy for the poor, selflessness, sincerity in work, tolerance for others, seeking lawful earnings, suppressing anger, kindness to animals, generosity, avoiding bad behaviors, Hide anger and do good deeds, love beauty, arts and inventions, appreciate scientific progress, provide advice to others, and the research also found that there is a positive and statistically significant relationship between the personal characteristics of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him and between the human and moral values in the contemporary world.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shuangshuang Li ◽  
Guanhua Xu ◽  
Junyu Liang ◽  
Liyan Wan ◽  
Heng Cao ◽  
...  

Gout is a common form of inflammatory arthritis where urate crystals deposit in joints and surrounding tissues. With the high prevalence of gout, the standardized and effective treatment of gout is very important, but the long-term treatment effect of gout is not satisfied because of the poor adherence in patients to the medicines. Recently, advanced imaging modalities, including ultrasonography (US), dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), attracted more and more attention for their role on gout as intuitive and non-invasive tools for early gout diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic effect. This review summarized the role of US, DECT, and MRI in the management of gout from four perspectives: hyperuricemia, gout attacks, chronic gout, and gout complications described the scoring systems currently used to quantify disease severity and discussed the challenges and limitations of using these imaging tools to assess response to the gout treatment.


BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Chenna Swetha ◽  
Anushree Narjala ◽  
Awadhesh Pandit ◽  
Varsha Tirumalai ◽  
P. V. Shivaprasad

Abstract Background Small non-coding (s)RNAs are involved in the negative regulation of gene expression, playing critical roles in genome integrity, development and metabolic pathways. Targeting of RNAs by ribonucleoprotein complexes of sRNAs bound to Argonaute (AGO) proteins results in cleaved RNAs having precise and predictable 5` ends. While tools to study sliced bits of RNAs to confirm the efficiency of sRNA-mediated regulation are available, they are sub-optimal. In this study, we provide an improvised version of a tool with better efficiency to accurately validate sRNA targets. Results Here, we improvised the CleaveLand tool to identify additional micro (mi)RNA targets that belong to the same family and also other targets within a specified free energy cut-off. These additional targets were otherwise excluded during the default run. We employed these tools to understand the sRNA targeting efficiency in wild and cultivated rice, sequenced degradome from two rice lines, O. nivara and O. sativa indica Pusa Basmati-1 and analyzed variations in sRNA targeting. Our results indicate the existence of multiple miRNA-mediated targeting differences between domesticated and wild species. For example, Os5NG4 was targeted only in wild rice that might be responsible for the poor secondary wall formation when compared to cultivated rice. We also identified differential mRNA targets of secondary sRNAs that were generated after miRNA-mediated cleavage of primary targets. Conclusions We identified many differentially targeted mRNAs between wild and domesticated rice lines. In addition to providing a step-wise guide to generate and analyze degradome datasets, we showed how domestication altered sRNA-mediated cascade silencing during the evolution of indica rice.


Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 337
Author(s):  
Yurie Mikami ◽  
Keiko Motokawa ◽  
Maki Shirobe ◽  
Ayako Edahiro ◽  
Yuki Ohara ◽  
...  

One prominent factor associated with malnutrition is poor appetite. In Japan, the number of older adults living alone has increased annually. Those living alone tended to eat alone, which may lead to poor appetite. This study aimed to investigate the association between eating alone and poor appetite using an index called the Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ). We surveyed 818 people aged 70 and over in Takashimadaira, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, Japan, in 2016. Comparisons were made between two groups, a poor appetite group (n = 295) and a good appetite group (n = 523), and results indicate that the poor appetite group had a higher rate of eating alone than the good appetite group (38.0% vs. 20. 1%: p < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression (OR; 95%CI) was performed and poor appetite was significantly associated with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) score (1.707; 1.200–2.427), the number of medications (1.061; 1.007–1.118), JST score (0.894; 0.841–0.950), the indication of “very healthy” on a self-rated health scale (0.343; 0.152–0.774), and reports of eating alone (1.751; 1.130–2.712). Our results suggest that eating alone is associated with a poor appetite.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yang Luo ◽  
Hai Wang ◽  
Le-Yi Zhao ◽  
Yong-Lai Zhang

We have investigated a strong coupled system composed of a MAPbIxCl3-x perovskite film and aluminum conical nanopits array. The hybrid states formed by surface plasmons and free carriers, rather than the traditional excitons, is observed in both steady-state reflection measurements and transient absorption spectra. In particular, under near upper band resonant excitation, the bleaching signal from the band edge of uncoupled perovskite was completely separated into two distinctive bleaching signals of the hybrid system, which is clear evidence for the formation of strong coupling states between the free carrier–plasmon state. Besides this, a Rabi splitting up to 260 meV is achieved. The appearance of the lower bands can compensate for the poor absorption of the perovskite in the NIR region. Finally, we found that the lifetime of the free carrier–SP hybrid states is slightly shorter than that of uncoupled perovskite film, which can be caused by the ultrafast damping of the SPs modes. These peculiar features on the strong coupled hybrid states based on free charge carriers can open new perspectives for novel plasmonic perovskite solar cells.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Chen Liu ◽  
Yuhan Huang ◽  
Yaoyuan Cui ◽  
Jun Zhou ◽  
Xu Qin ◽  
...  

BackgroundOvarian cancer (OC) is one of the most lethal gynecologic cancers. Growing evidence has proven that CDK4/6 plays a key role in tumor immunity and the prognosis of many cancers. However, the expression and function of CDK4/6 in OC remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to explore the influence of CDK4/6 in OC, especially on immunity.MethodsWe analyzed CDK4/6 expression and prognosis using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and Genotype Tissue Expression (GTEx) data. Subsequently, we used the cytoHubba plug-in of Cytoscape software and starBase to identify the noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) regulating CDK4/6. Finally, we verified the effect of CDK4/6 on immunity in OC cell lines and animal models.ResultsCDK4/6 expression was higher in OC tissues than in normal ovarian tissues, and the high expression levels of CDK4/6 contributed to the immunosuppressive state of OC and were thus related to the poor prognosis of OC patients. This was also in general agreement with the results of OC cell line and animal experiments. Mechanistically, the CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib increased the secretion of interferon (IFN)-γ and the interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) response, thereby upregulating the expression of antigen-presenting molecules; this effect was partly dependent on the STING pathway and thus activated immunity in OC. Additionally, according to public data, the LRRC75A-AS1-hsa-miR-330-5p axis could inhibit the immune response of OC patients by upregulating CDK4/6, leading to a poor prognosis.ConclusionCDK4/6 affects the immune microenvironment of OC and correlates with the prognosis of OC patients.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Silvia Lucena Lage ◽  
Eduardo Pinheiro Amaral ◽  
Kerry L. Hilligan ◽  
Elizabeth Laidlaw ◽  
Adam Rupert ◽  
...  

The poor outcome of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, is associated with systemic hyperinflammatory response and immunopathology. Although inflammasome and oxidative stress have independently been implicated in COVID-19, it is poorly understood whether these two pathways cooperatively contribute to disease severity. Herein, we found an enrichment of CD14highCD16− monocytes displaying inflammasome activation evidenced by caspase-1/ASC-speck formation in severe COVID-19 patients when compared to mild ones and healthy controls, respectively. Those cells also showed aberrant levels of mitochondrial superoxide and lipid peroxidation, both hallmarks of the oxidative stress response, which strongly correlated with caspase-1 activity. In addition, we found that NLRP3 inflammasome-derived IL-1β secretion by SARS-CoV-2-exposed monocytes in vitro was partially dependent on lipid peroxidation. Importantly, altered inflammasome and stress responses persisted after short-term patient recovery. Collectively, our findings suggest oxidative stress/NLRP3 signaling pathway as a potential target for host-directed therapy to mitigate early COVID-19 hyperinflammation and also its long-term outcomes.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lei Yang ◽  
Ling Yu ◽  
Wei Qin ◽  
Yue Li ◽  
Shuna Yang ◽  
...  

Background and PurposePrevious studies on the presence of asymmetrical prominent cortical and medullary vessel signs (APCV/APMV) and collateral circulation in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) are rare, and the conclusions are inconsistent. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between the presence of APCV/APMV and collateral circulation in patients with ICAO.MethodsPatients with acute ischemic stroke with ICAO were recruited in this study. All 74 patients were divided into two groups depending on the presence of APCV and APMV. The status of the cerebral arterial circle (CAC) was graded as poor or good. The poor CAC was defined as MCA was invisible. Severe stroke was defined as cerebral watershed infarction (CWI) or territorial infarction (TI). Clinical and radiological markers were compared between these two groups. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between the APCV/APMV and clinical and radiological markers.ResultsA total of 74 patients with ICAO were enrolled. Forty-three patients (58.1%) presented with an APCV and APMV was found in 35 (47.2%) patients. Compared with patients with non-APCV, patients with APCV had a more severe stroke (P = 0.038) and had a significantly higher incidence of poor CAC (P = 0.022) than those with APCV. Patients with APMV had a more severe stroke (P = 0.001). Logistic regression showed that poor CAC was independently associated with APCV and severe stroke were independently associated with APMV.ConclusionsOur study demonstrates that poor CAC was independently associated with the presence of the APCV in patients with ICAO. Severe stroke was independently associated with the APMV.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Verónica González-Gambau ◽  
Estrella Olmedo ◽  
Antonio Turiel ◽  
Cristina González-Haro ◽  
Aina García-Espriu ◽  
...  

Abstract. This paper presents the first Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) dedicated products over the Baltic Sea. The SSS retrieval from L-band brightess temperature (TB) measurements over this basin is really challenging due to important technical issues, such as the land-sea and ice-sea contamination, the high contamination by Radio-Frequency Interferences (RFI) sources, the low sensitivity of L-band TB at SSS changes in cold waters and the poor characterization of dielectric constant models for the low SSS and SST ranges in the basin. For these reasons, exploratory research in the algorithms used from the level 0 up to level 4 has been required to develop these dedicated products. This work has been performed in the framework of the European Space Agency regional initiative Baltic+ Salinity Dynamics. Two Baltic+ SSS products have been generated for the period 2011–2019 and are freely distributed: the Level 3 (L3) product (daily generated 9-day maps in a 0.25° grid, https://doi.org/10.20350/digitalCSIC/13859) (González-Gambau et al., 2021a) and the Level 4 (L4) product (daily maps in a 0.05° grid, https://doi.org/10.20350/digitalCSIC/13860) (González-Gambau et al., 2021b)), that are computed by applying multifractal fusion to L3 SSS with Sea Surface Temperature (SST) maps. The accuracy of L3 SSS products is typically around 0.7–0.8 psu. The L4 product has an improved spatio-temporal resolution with respect to the L3 and the accuracy is typically around 0.4 psu. Regions with the highest errors and limited coverage are located in Arkona and Bornholm basins and Gulfs of Finland and Riga. The impact assessment of Baltic+ SSS products has shown that they can help in the understanding of salinity dynamics in the basin. They complement the temporally and spatially very sparse in situ measurements, covering data gaps in the region and they can also be useful for the validation of numerical models, particularly in areas where in situ data are very sparse.


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