loss of function
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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Yasuto Yagi ◽  
Naoko Abeto ◽  
Junichi Shiraishi ◽  
Chieko Miyata ◽  
Satomi Inoue ◽  

AbstractHereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma caused by loss-of-function germline variants of the FH gene can develop into aggressive renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We report the case of a 27-year-old man who died of RCC. Genetic testing revealed a novel pathogenic variant of FH, NM_000143.3:c.1013_1014del (p.Ile338Serfs*3), that was also identified in healthy siblings. Identification of genetic causes in the proband helped us to provide relatives with precise genetic counseling and appropriate surveillance programs.

2022 ◽  
Monica Y Lee ◽  
Nur-Taz Rahman ◽  
Bill Sessa

Objective: We have previously demonstrated the in vivo importance of the Akt-eNOS substratekinase relationship, as defective postnatal angiogenesis characteristic of global Akt1-null mice is rescued when bred to gain-of-function eNOS S1176D mutant mice. While multiple studies support the cardioprotective role of endothelial NO generation, the causal role of Akt1-dependent eNOS S1176 phosphorylation during atherosclerotic plaque formation is not yet clear. Approach & Results: We herein bred congenic loss-of-function eNOS S1176A and gain-of function eNOS S1176D mutant mice to the proatherogenic Akt1-/-; ApoE-/- double knockout mice to definitively test the importance of Akt-mediated eNOS S1176 phosphorylation during atherogenesis. We find that a single amino acid substitution at the eNOS S1176 phosphorylation site yields divergent effects on atherosclerotic plaque formation, as an eNOS phospho-mimic aspartate (D) substitution at S1176 leads to decreased indices of atherosclerosis, even when on a proatherogenic Akt1 global deletion background. Conversely, mice harboring an unphosphorylatable mutation to alanine (S1176A) result in increased lipid deposition and cellular apoptosis, phenocopying the physiological consequence of eNOS deletion and/or impaired enzyme function. Furthermore, gene expression analyses of whole aortas indicate a combinatorial detriment from NO deficiency and Western Diet challenge, as loss-of-function eNOS SA mice on a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet present a unique expression pattern indicative of augmented T-cell activity when compared to eNOS S1176D mice. Conclusions: By using genetic epistasis approaches, we conclusively demonstrate that Akt mediated eNOS S1176 phosphorylation and subsequent activation remains to be the most physiologically relevant method of NO production to promote cardioprotective effects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Junyi Ouyang ◽  
Ziyan Cai ◽  
Yinjie Guo ◽  
Fen Nie ◽  
Mengdan Cao ◽  

Abstract Background Aniridia is a congenital, panocular disease that can affect the cornea, anterior chamber angle, iris, lens, retina and optic nerve. PAX6 loss-of-function variants are the most common cause of aniridia, and variants throughout the gene have been linked to a range of ophthalmic abnormalities. Furthermore, particular variants at a given site in PAX6 lead to distinct phenotypes. This study aimed to characterize genetic variants associated with congenital aniridia in a Chinese family. Methods The proband and family underwent ophthalmologic examinations. DNA was sampled from the peripheral blood of all 6 individuals, and whole-exome sequencing was performed. Sanger sequencing was used to verify the variant in this family members. Results A novel variant (c.114_119delinsAATTTCC: p.Pro39llefsTer17) in the PAX6 gene was identified in subjects II-1, III-1 and III-2, who exhibited complete aniridia and cataracts. The proband and the proband’s brother also had glaucoma, high myopia, and foveal hypoplasia. Conclusions We identified that a novel PAX6 frameshift heterozygous deletion variant is the predominant cause of aniridia in this Chinese family. Trial registration We did not perform any health-related interventions for the participants.

2022 ◽  
Soumyanetra Chandra ◽  
Kritika Gupta ◽  
Shruti Khare ◽  
Pehu Kohli ◽  
Aparna Asok ◽  

Deep mutational scanning studies suggest that single synonymous mutations are typically silent and that most exposed, non active-site residues are tolerant to mutations. Here we show that the ccdA antitoxin component of the E.coli ccdAB toxin-antitoxin operonic system is unusually sensitive to mutations when studied in the operonic context. A large fraction (~80%) of single codon mutations, including many synonymous mutations in the ccdA gene show inactive phenotypes that are correlated with the E.coli codon usage frequency but retain native-like binding affinity towards cognate toxin, CcdB. Therefore, the observed phenotypic effects are largely not due to alterations in protein structure or stability, consistent with the fact that a large region of CcdA is intrinsically disordered. In select cases, proteomics studies reveal altered ratios of CcdA:CcdB protein levels in vivo, suggesting that these mutations likely alter relative translation efficiencies of the two genes in the operon. We extend these results by predicting and validating single synonymous mutations that lead to loss of function phenotypes in the relBE operon upon introduction of rarer codons. Thus, in their native context, genes are likely to be more sensitive to both synonymous and non-synonymous point mutations than inferred from previous saturation mutagenesis studies.

2022 ◽  
Morwan M Osman ◽  
Jonthan K Shanahan ◽  
Frances Chu ◽  
Kevin Takaki ◽  
Malte Pinckert ◽  

Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its close relative Mycobacterium marinum infect macrophages and induce the formation of granulomas, organized macrophage-rich immune aggregates. These mycobacterial pathogens can accelerate and co-opt granuloma formation for their benefit, using the specialized secretion system ESX-1, a key virulence determinant. ESX-1-mediated virulence is attributed to the damage it causes to the membranes of macrophage phagosomal compartments, within which the bacteria reside. This phagosomal damage, in turn, has been attributed to the membranolytic activity of ESAT-6, the major secreted substrate of ESX-1. However, mutations that perturb ESAT-6 membranolytic activity often result in global impairment of ESX-1 secretion. This has precluded an understanding of the causal and mechanistic relationships between ESAT-6 membranolysis and ESX-1-mediated virulence. Here, we identify two conserved residues in the unstructured C-terminal tail of ESAT-6 required for phagosomal damage, granuloma formation and virulence. Importantly, these ESAT-6 mutants have near-normal levels of secretion, far higher than the minimal threshold we establish is needed for ESX-1-mediated virulence early in infection. Unexpectedly, these loss-of-function ESAT-6 mutants retain the ability to lyse acidified liposomes. Thus, ESAT-6 virulence functions in vivo can be uncoupled from this in vitro surrogate assay. These uncoupling mutants highlight an enigmatic functional domain of ESAT-6 and provide key tools to investigate the mechanism of phagosomal damage and virulence.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Julia Baumann ◽  
Chih-Chieh Tsao ◽  
Shalmali Patkar ◽  
Sheng-Fu Huang ◽  
Simona Francia ◽  

Abstract Background Ways to prevent disease-induced vascular modifications that accelerate brain damage remain largely elusive. Improved understanding of perivascular cell signalling could provide unparalleled insight as these cells impact vascular stability and functionality of the neurovascular unit as a whole. Identifying key drivers of astrocyte and pericyte responses that modify cell–cell interactions and crosstalk during injury is key. At the cellular level, injury-induced outcomes are closely entwined with activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway. Studies clearly suggest that endothelial HIF-1 signalling increases blood–brain barrier permeability but the influence of perivascular HIF-1 induction on outcome is unknown. Using novel mouse lines with astrocyte and pericyte targeted HIF-1 loss of function, we herein show that vascular stability in vivo is differentially impacted by perivascular hypoxia-induced HIF-1 stabilization. Methods To facilitate HIF-1 deletion in adult mice without developmental complications, novel Cre-inducible astrocyte-targeted (GFAP-CreERT2; HIF-1αfl/fl and GLAST-CreERT2; HIF-1αfl/fl) and pericyte-targeted (SMMHC-CreERT2; HIF-1αfl/fl) transgenic animals were generated. Mice in their home cages were exposed to either normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (8% O2) for 96 h in an oxygen-controlled humidified glove box. All lines were similarly responsive to hypoxic challenge and post-Cre activation showed significantly reduced HIF-1 target gene levels in the individual cells as predicted. Results Unexpectedly, hypoxia-induced vascular remodelling was unaffected by HIF-1 loss of function in the two astrocyte lines but effectively blocked in the pericyte line. In correlation, hypoxia-induced barrier permeability and water accumulation were abrogated only in pericyte targeted HIF-1 loss of function mice. In contrast to expectation, brain and serum levels of hypoxia-induced VEGF, TGF-β and MMPs (genes known to mediate vascular remodelling) were unaffected by HIF-1 deletion in all lines. However, in agreement with the permeability data, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy showed clear prevention of hypoxia-induced tight junction disruption in the pericyte loss of function line. Conclusion This study shows that pericyte but not astrocyte HIF-1 stabilization modulates endothelial tight junction functionality and thereby plays a pivotal role in hypoxia-induced vascular dysfunction. Whether the cells respond similarly or differentially to other injury stimuli will be of significant relevance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 444
Angelos Kaspiris ◽  
Olga D. Savvidou ◽  
Elias S. Vasiliadis ◽  
Argyris C. Hadjimichael ◽  
Dimitra Melissaridou ◽  

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), which is the most common phacomatoses, is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by clinical presentations in various tissues and organs, such as the skin, eyes and nervous and skeletal systems. The musculoskeletal implications of NF1 include a variety of deformities, including scoliosis, kyphoscoliosis, spondylolistheses, congenital bony bowing, pseudarthrosis and bone dysplasia. Scoliosis is the most common skeletal problem, affecting 10–30% of NF1 patients. Although the pathophysiology of spinal deformities has not been elucidated yet, defects in bone metabolism have been implicated in the progression of scoliotic curves. Measurements of Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in the lumbar spine by using dual energy absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computer tomography (QCT) have demonstrated a marked reduction in Z-score and osteoporosis. Additionally, serum bone metabolic markers, such as vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase, have been found to be abnormal. Intraoperative and histological vertebral analysis confirmed that alterations of the trabecular microarchitecture are associated with inadequate bone turnover, indicating generalized bone metabolic defects. At the molecular level, loss of function of neurofibromin dysregulates Ras and Transforming Growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling and leads to altered osteoclastic proliferation, osteoblastic activity and collagen production. Correlation between clinical characteristics and molecular pathways may provide targets for novel therapeutic approaches in NF1.

2022 ◽  
Ada Admin ◽  
Qianxing Hu ◽  
Jinming Mu ◽  
Yuhong Liu ◽  
Yue Yang ◽  

Pancreatic β-cell adapt to compensate for increased metabolic demand during obesity. Although the microRNA (miRNA) pathway has an essential role in β-cell expansion, whether it is involved in adaptive proliferation is largely unknown. First, we report that EGR2 binding to the miR-455 promoter induced miR-455 upregulation in the pancreatic islets of obesity mouse models. Then, in vitro gain- or loss-of-function studies showed that miR-455 overexpression facilitated β-cell proliferation. Knockdown of miR-455 in ob/ob mice via pancreatic intraductal infusion prevented compensatory β-cell expansion. Mechanistically, our results revealed that increased miR-455 expression inhibits the expression of its target cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 1 (CPEB1), an mRNA binding protein that plays an important role in regulating insulin resistance and cell proliferation. Decreased CPEB1 expression inhibits elongation of the poly-A tail and the subsequent translation of Cdkn1b mRNA, reducing the CDKN1B expression level and finally promoting β-cell proliferation. Taken together, our results show that the miR-455/CPEB1/CDKN1B pathway contributes to adaptive proliferation of β-cells to meet metabolic demand during obesity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Bret Sanders ◽  
Daniel D’Andrea ◽  
Mark O. Collins ◽  
Elliott Rees ◽  
Tom G. J. Steward ◽  

AbstractCoordinated programs of gene expression drive brain development. It is unclear which transcriptional programs, in which cell-types, are affected in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Here we integrate human genetics with transcriptomic data from differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into cortical excitatory neurons. We identify transcriptional programs expressed during early neurogenesis in vitro and in human foetal cortex that are down-regulated in DLG2−/− lines. Down-regulation impacted neuronal differentiation and maturation, impairing migration, morphology and action potential generation. Genetic variation in these programs is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and cognitive function, with associated variants predominantly concentrated in loss-of-function intolerant genes. Neurogenic programs also overlap schizophrenia GWAS enrichment previously identified in mature excitatory neurons, suggesting that pathways active during prenatal cortical development may also be associated with mature neuronal dysfunction. Our data from human embryonic stem cells, when combined with analysis of available foetal cortical gene expression data, de novo rare variants and GWAS statistics for neuropsychiatric disorders and cognition, reveal a convergence on transcriptional programs regulating excitatory cortical neurogenesis.

Genes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 139
Mei Fu ◽  
Xiaona Lin ◽  
Yining Zhou ◽  
Chunmei Zhang ◽  
Bing Liu ◽  

RNA editing is essential for compensating for defects or mutations in haploid organelle genomes and is regulated by numerous trans-factors. Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are the prime factors that are involved in RNA editing; however, many have not yet been identified. Here, we screened the plastid-targeted PLS-DYW subfamily of PPR proteins belonging to Arabidopsis thaliana and identified ORGANELLE TRANSCRIPT PROCESSING 970 (OTP970) as a key player in RNA editing in plastids. A loss-of-function otp970 mutant was impaired in RNA editing of ndhB transcripts at site 149 (ndhB-C149). RNA-immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that OTP970 was associated with the ndhB-C149 site. The complementation of the otp970 mutant with OTP970 lacking the DYW domain (OTP970∆DYW) failed to restore the RNA editing of ndhB-C149. ndhB gene encodes the B subunit of the NADH dehydrogenase-like (NDH) complex; however, neither NDH activity and stability nor NDH-PSI supercomplex formation were affected in otp970 mutant compared to the wild type, indicating that alteration in amino acid sequence is not necessary for NdhB function. Together, these results suggest that OTP970 is involved in the RNA editing of ndhB-C149 and that the DYW domain is essential for its function.

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