cardiac autonomic dysfunction
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Lei Xu ◽  
Chengfen Yin ◽  
Jianguo Li ◽  
Zhiyong Wang ◽  
Yongle Zhi ◽  

On March 12, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak had become a pandemic. COVID-19 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which primarily infects the lower airways and binds to Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) on alveolar epithelial cells. ACE2 is widely expressed, not only in the lungs but also in the cardiovascular system. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 can also damage the myocardium. We analysed three COVID-19 cases that resulted in death and found that either COVID-19 or antiviral drugs could affect the coupling between the autonomic nervous system and the sinus node, thus affecting heart rate variability and preventing the heart rate from rising in response to the increase in body temperature. Early detection of the preclinical phase of cardiac autonomic dysfunction may help determine patients in need of aggressive treatment and control of cardiovascular risk factors. Antiviral drugs should be used with caution in patients with heart injury.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Afua A. Amoabeng Nti ◽  
Thomas G. Robins ◽  
John Arko Mensah ◽  
Duah Dwomoh ◽  
Lawrencia Kwarteng ◽  

Abstract Background Informal electronic waste recycling activities are major contributors to ambient air pollution, yet studies assessing the effects or relationship between direct/continuous exposure of informal e-waste workers to particulate matter and cardiovascular function are rare. Methods Repeated measurements of fractions of PM2.5, PM10–2.5, and PM10 in personal air of informal e-waste workers, (n = 142) and a comparable group (n = 65) were taken over a period of 20 months (March 2017 to November, 2018). Concurrently, 5-min resting electrocardiogram was performed on each participant to assess resting heart rate variability indices. Linear mixed-effects models were used to assess the association between PM fractions and cardiac function. Results SDNN, RMSSD, LF, HF and LH/HF ratio were all associated with PM. Significant associations were observed for PM2.5 and Mean NN (p = 0.039), PM10 and SDNN (p = 0.035) and PM 10–2.5 and LH/HF (p = 0.039). A 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentrations of PM 2.5, PM10–2.5, and PM10 in personal air was associated with reduced HRV indices and increased resting HR. A 10 μg/m3 per interquartile (IQR) increase in PM10–2.5 and PM10, decreased SDNN by 11% [(95% CI: − 0.002- 0.000); (p = 0.187)] and 34% [(95% CI: − 0.002-0.001); (p = 0.035)] respectively. However, PM2.5 increased SDNN by 34% (95% CI: − 1.32-0.64); (p = 0.493). Also, 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5, PM10–2.5 and PM10 decreased RMSSD by 27% [(− 1.34–0.79); (p = 0.620)], 11% [(− 1.73, 0.95); (p = 0.846)] and 0.57% [(− 1.56–0.46); (p = 0.255%)]. Conclusion Informal e-waste workers are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease from cardiac autonomic dysfunction as seen in reduced HRV and increased heart rate.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (22) ◽  
pp. 5414
Sooyeoun You ◽  
Kyoung-Sook Won ◽  
Keun-Tae Kim ◽  
Hyang-Woon Lee ◽  
Yong-Won Cho

123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) cardiac scintigraphy was performed to assess cardiac autonomic dysfunction and demonstrate its correlation with clinical and polysomnographic characteristics in patients with isolated rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder. All subjects including 39 patients with isolated REM sleep behavior disorder and 17 healthy controls underwent MIBG cardiac scintigraphy for cardiac autonomic dysfunction assessment. The isolated REM sleep behavior disorder was confirmed by in-lab overnight polysomnography. A receiver operating curve was constructed to determine the cut-off value of the early and delayed heart-to-mediastinum ratio in patients with isolated REM sleep behavior disorder. Based on each cut-off value, a comparison analysis of REM sleep without atonia was performed by dividing isolated REM sleep behavior disorder patients into two groups. MIBG uptake below the cut-off value was associated with higher REM sleep without atonia. The lower heart-to-mediastinum ratio had significantly higher REM sleep without atonia (%), both with cut-off values of early (11.0 ± 5.6 vs. 29.3 ± 23.2%, p = 0.018) and delayed heart-to-mediastinum ratio (9.1 ± 4.3 vs. 30.0 ± 22.9%, p = 0.011). These findings indicate that reduced MIBG uptake is associated with higher REM sleep without atonia in isolated REM sleep behavior disorder.

2021 ◽  
Vol 85 (3) ◽  
pp. AB170
Elias S. Siraj ◽  
Carolina M. Casellini ◽  
Henri K. Parson ◽  
Taylor M. Dyson ◽  
Abby S. Van Voorhees

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (16) ◽  
pp. 8769
Yue Zhang ◽  
Andi Liang ◽  
Jing Song ◽  
Yan Zhang ◽  
Xiaodan Niu ◽  

Performing high-intensity exercise (HIE) in the morning under sleep deprivation may harm the health benefits related to sufficient sleep and HIE. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the effects of acute-partial sleep deprivation on HIE performance and cardiac autonomic activity by monitoring heart rate variability (HRV) indices. Twenty-nine healthy male adolescents in college were recruited to perform a one-time HIE session on the treadmill (Bruce protocol) after ≥7 h of normal control sleep (control) and after ≤4 h of acute-partial sleep deprivation (SD). At the beginning of control and SD periods and after exercising under the two sleep conditions, heart rate (HR), standard deviation of normal to normal (SDNN), square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals (RMSSD), normalized low frequency power (LFn), normalized high frequency power (HFn), number of pairs adjacent NN intervals differing by ≥50 ms in the entire recording count divided by the total number of all NN intervals (pNN50), and short axis and long axis value in Poincaré plot (SD1 and SD2) were measured at rest in an upright sitting position. The participants slept 7.63 ± 0.52 and 3.78 ± 0.69 h during control and SD periods, respectively (p < 0.001). Compared with the control participants, those suffering sleep deprivation experienced a significant decrease in exercise duration, RMSSD, HFn, SD1, and pNN50 as well as a significant increase in maximum heart rate during exercise (p < 0.05). SDNN, RMSSD, HFn, SD1, and pNN50 decreased significantly after exercise (p < 0.05 and 0.01 and 0.001, respectively). In summary, acute-partial sleep deprivation affected aerobic exercise performance the next morning and led to decreased cardiac vagus activity and cardiac autonomic dysfunction.

Peter Hämmerle ◽  
Stefanie Aeschbacher ◽  
Anne Springer ◽  
Ceylan Eken ◽  
Michael Coslovsky ◽  

Abstract Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with loss of cognition and dementia. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction has been linked to cognitive decline. We aimed to investigate if reduced cardiac autonomic function (CAF) is associated with cognitive impairment in AF patients. Methods Patients with paroxysmal, persistent and permanent AF were enrolled from a multicenter cohort study if they had AF (“AF group”) or sinus rhythm (“SR group”) on a baseline 5 min ECG recording. Parameters quantifying CAF (heart rate variability triangular index (HRVI), mean heart rate (MHR), RMSSD, SDNN, total power and power in the VLF, LF, HF ranges) were calculated. We used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to assess global cognitive function. Results 1685 AF patients with a mean age of 73 ± 8 years, 29% females, were included. MoCA score was 24.5 ± 3.2 in the AF group (N = 710 patients) and 25.4 ± 3.2 in the SR group (N = 975 patients). After adjusting for multiple confounders, lower HRVI was associated with lower MoCA scores, both in the SR group [β = 0.049; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.016–0.081; p = 0.003] and in the AF group (β = 0.068; 95% CI 0.020–0.116; p = 0.006). In the AF group, higher MHR was associated with a poorer performance in the MoCA (β =  − 0.008; 95% CI − 0.014 to − 0.002; p = 0.014). We found no convincing evidence of association for other CAF parameters with cognition. Conclusion Our data suggest that impaired CAF is associated with worse cognitive performance in patients with AF. Among standard HRV parameters, HRVI might be the most promising ECG index. Trial registration Identifier: NCT02105844. Graphic abstract

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