sit to stand
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 117
Naomichi Matsunaga ◽  
Tadashi Ito ◽  
Yuji Ito ◽  
Jun Mizusawa ◽  
Yingzhi Gu ◽  

Children with behavioral problems have a high risk of impaired motor performance. However, the characteristics of balance functions and their associations with behavioral traits are unclear in this population. This study aimed to evaluate balance functions and their relationships with the degree of behavioral problems in school-aged children. A total of 209 children, aged 6–10 years, were divided into two groups, those with and those without behavioral problems, using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Physical assessments included the one-leg standing test (OLST), the two-step test, and the five-times-sit-to-stand test. We compared the data between groups and assessed for correlations in terms of total difficulties and the SDQ subscale scores. Children with behavioral problems showed significantly reduced the OLST results (p < 0.001) and the two-step test results (p = 0.008). The five-times-sit-to-stand test results did not show significant differences between groups. The OLST results were significantly correlated with emotional symptoms (r = −0.22, p < 0.001), hyperactivity/inattention (r = −0.29, p < 0.001), peer relationship problems (r = −0.22, p < 0.001), and total difficulties (r = −0.32, p < 0.001). Meanwhile, the two-step test results showed no significant correlation with the SDQ scores. Children with behavioral problems have poor balance function, thereby increasing the risk for instability. This suggests that the balance function of children with behavioral problems needs to be considered.

2022 ◽  
Alicen A Whitaker ◽  
Eric D. Vidoni ◽  
Stacey E. Aaron ◽  
Adam G. Rouse ◽  
Sandra A Billinger

Purpose: Current sit-to-stand methods measuring dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) do not capture the precise onset of the time delay (TD) response. Reduced sit-to-stand reactions in older adults and individuals post-stroke could inadvertently introduce variability, error, and imprecise timing. We applied a force sensor during a sit-to-stand task to more accurately determine how TD before dCA onset may be altered. Methods: Middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured during two sit-to-stands separated by 15 minutes. Recordings started with participants sitting on a force-sensitive resistor for 60 seconds, then asked to stand for two minutes. Upon standing, the force sensor voltage immediately dropped and marked the exact moment of arise-and-off (AO). Time from AO until an increase in cerebrovascular conductance (CVC = MCAv/MAP) was calculated as TD. Results: We tested the sensor in 4 healthy young adults, 2 older adults, and 2 individuals post-stroke. Healthy young adults stood quickly and the force sensor detected a small change in TD compared to classically estimated AO, from verbal command to stand. When compared to the estimated AO, older adults had a delayed measured AO and TD decreased up to ~50% while individuals post-stroke had an early AO and TD increased up to ~14%. Conclusion: The transition reaction speed during the sit to stand has the potential to influence dCA metrics. As observed in the older adults and participants with stroke, this response may drastically vary and influence TD.

Eddy Saad ◽  
Karl Semaan ◽  
Georges Kawkabani ◽  
Abir Massaad ◽  
Renee Maria Salibv ◽  

Adults with spinal deformity (ASD) are known to have spinal malalignment affecting their quality of life and daily life activities. While walking kinematics were shown to be altered in ASD, other functional activities are yet to be evaluated such as sitting and standing, which are essential for patients’ autonomy and quality of life perception. In this cross-sectional study, 93 ASD subjects (50 ± 20 years; 71 F) age and sex matched to 31 controls (45 ± 15 years; 18 F) underwent biplanar radiographic imaging with subsequent calculation of standing radiographic spinopelvic parameters. All subjects filled HRQOL questionnaires such as SF36 and ODI. ASD were further divided into 34 ASD-sag (with PT &gt; 25° and/or SVA &gt;5 cm and/or PI-LL &gt;10°), 32 ASD-hyperTK (with only TK &gt;60°), and 27 ASD-front (with only frontal malalignment: Cobb &gt;20°). All subjects underwent 3D motion analysis during the sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit movements. The range of motion (ROM) and mean values of pelvis, lower limbs, thorax, head, and spinal segments were calculated on the kinematic waveforms. Kinematics were compared between groups and correlations to radiographic and HRQOL scores were computed. During sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit movements, ASD-sag had decreased pelvic anteversion (12.2 vs 15.2°), hip flexion (53.0 vs 62.2°), sagittal mobility in knees (87.1 vs 93.9°), and lumbar mobility (L1L3-L3L5: −9.1 vs −6.8°, all p &lt; 0.05) compared with controls. ASD-hyperTK showed increased dynamic lordosis (L1L3–L3L5: −9.1 vs −6.8°), segmental thoracic kyphosis (T2T10–T10L1: 32.0 vs 17.2°, C7T2–T2T10: 30.4 vs 17.7°), and thoracolumbar extension (T10L1–L1L3: −12.4 vs −5.5°, all p &lt; 0.05) compared with controls. They also had increased mobility at the thoracolumbar and upper-thoracic spine. Both ASD-sag and ASD-hyperTK maintained a flexed trunk, an extended head along with an increased trunk and head sagittal ROM. Kinematic alterations were correlated to radiographic parameters and HRQOL scores. Even after controlling for demographic factors, dynamic trunk flexion was determined by TK and PI-LL mismatch (adj. R2 = 0.44). Lumbar sagittal ROM was determined by PI-LL mismatch (adj. R2 = 0.13). In conclusion, the type of spinal deformity in ASD seems to determine the strategy used for sitting and standing. Future studies should evaluate whether surgical correction of the deformity could restore sitting and standing kinematics and ultimately improve quality of life.

Gerontology ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Sherri Thomson ◽  
Boyd Badiuk ◽  
Jessy Parokaran Varghese ◽  
Vanessa Thai ◽  
William E. McIlroy ◽  

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Independent mobility is a complex behavior that relies on the ability to walk, maintain stability, and transition between postures. However, guidelines for assessment that details <i>what</i> elements of mobility to evaluate and <i>how</i> they should be measured remain unclear. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Performance on tests of standing, sit-to-stand, and walking were evaluated in a cohort of 135 complex, comorbid, and older adults (mean age 87 ± 5.5 years). Correlational analysis was conducted to examine the degree of association for measures within and between mobility domains on a subset of participants (<i>n</i> = 83) able to complete all tasks unaided. Participants were also grouped by the presence of risk markers for frailty (gait speed and grip strength) to determine if the level of overall impairment impacted performance scores and if among those with risk markers, the degree of association was greater. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Within-domain relationships for sit-to-stand and walking were modest (rho = 0.01–0.60). Associations either did not exist or relationships were weak for measures reflecting different domains (rho = −0.35 to 0.25, <i>p</i> &#x3e; 0.05). As expected, gait speed differed between those with and without frailty risk markers (<i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.001); however, balance and sit-to-stand measures did not (<i>p</i> ≥ 0.05). <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> This study highlights the need to independently evaluate different mobility domains within an individual as a standard assessment approach. Modest within-domain relationships emphasize the need to account for multiple, unique control challenges within more complex domains. These findings have important implications for standardized mobility assessment and targeted rehabilitation strategies for older adults.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261459
M. Luz Sánchez-Tocino ◽  
Blanca Miranda-Serrano ◽  
Carolina Gracia-Iguacel ◽  
Ana María de-Alba-Peñaranda ◽  
Sebastian Mas-Fontao ◽  

Background In 2019, EWGSOP2 proposed 4 steps to diagnose and assess sarcopenia. We aimed to quantify the prevalence of sarcopenia according to the EWGSOP2 diagnostic algorithm and to assess its applicability in elderly patients on hemodialysis. Methods Prospective study of 60 outpatients on chronic hemodialysis aged 75- to 95-years, sarcopenia was assessed according to the 4-step EWGSOP2: Find: Strength, Assistance walking, Rise from a chair, Climb stairs, and Falls (SARC-F); Assess: grip strength by dynamometry (GSD) and sit to stand to sit 5 (STS5); Confirm: appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) by bioimpedance; Severity: gait speed (GS), Timed-Up and Go (TUG), and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Results The sequential four steps resulted in a prevalence of confirmed or severe sarcopenia of 20%. Most (97%) patients fulfilled at least one criterion for probable sarcopenia. The sensitivity of SARC-F for confirmed sarcopenia was low (46%). Skipping the SARC-F step increased the prevalence of confirmed and severe sarcopenia to 40% and 37%, respectively. However, 78% of all patients had evidence of dynapenia consistent with severe sarcopenia. Muscle mass (ASM) was normal in 60% of patients, while only 25% had normal muscle strength values (GSD). Conclusions According to the 4-step EWGSOP2, the prevalence of confirmed or severe sarcopenia was low in elderly hemodialysis patients. The diagnosis of confirmed sarcopenia underestimated the prevalence of dynapenia consistent with severe sarcopenia. Future studies should address whether a 2-step EWGSOP2 assessment (Assess-Severity) is simpler to apply and may provide better prognostic information than 4-step EWGSOP2 in elderly persons on hemodialysis.

2022 ◽  
pp. 91-103
Luciana Labanca ◽  
Jacopo E. Rocchi ◽  
Silvana Giannini ◽  
Emanuele R. Faloni ◽  
Giulio Montanari ◽  

The study aimed at investigating the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation superimposed on functional exercises (NMES+) early after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLr) with hamstring graft, on muscle strength, knee function, and morphology of thigh muscles and harvested tendons. Thirty-four participants were randomly allocated to either NMES+ group, who received standard rehabilitation with additional NMES of knee flexor and extensor muscles, superimposed on functional movements, or to a control group, who received no additional training (NAT) to traditional rehabilitation. Participants were assessed 15 (T1), 30 (T2), 60 (T3), 90 (T4) and at a mean of 380 days (T5) after ACLr. Knee strength of flexors and extensors was measured at T3, T4 and T5. Lower limb loading asymmetry was measured during a sit-to-stand-to-sit movement at T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, and a countermovement-jump at T4 and T5. An MRI was performed at T5 to assess morphology of thigh muscles and regeneration of the harvested tendons. NMES+ showed higher muscle strength for the hamstrings (T4, T5) and the quadriceps (T3, T4, T5), higher loading symmetry during stand-to-sit (T2, T3, T4, T5), sit-to-stand (T3, T4) and countermovement-jump (T5) than NAT. No differences were found between-groups for morphology of muscles and tendons, nor in regeneration of harvested tendons. NMES+ early after ACLr with hamstring graft improves muscle strength and knee function in the short- and long-term after surgery, regardless of tendon regeneration.

Ben Kirk ◽  
Nicky Lieu ◽  
Sara Vogrin ◽  
Myrla Sales ◽  
Julie A Pasco ◽  

Abstract Background Markers of bone metabolism have been associated with muscle mass and function. Whether serum cross-linked C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX) is also associated with these measures in older adults remains unknown. Methods In community-dwelling older adults at high risk of falls and fractures, serum CTX (biochemical immunoassays) was used as the exposure, while appendicular lean mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and muscle function (grip strength [hydraulic dynamometer], short physical performance battery [SPPB], gait speed, sit to stand, balance, Timed Up and Go [TUG]) were used as outcomes. Potential covariates including demographic, lifestyle and clinical factors were considered in statistical models. Areas under the ROC curves were calculated for significant outcomes. Results 299 older adults (median age: 79 years, IQR: 73, 84; 75.6% women) were included. In multivariable models, CTX was negatively associated with SPPB (β = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92, 0.98) and balance (β = 0.92, 0.86, 0.99) scores, and positively associated with sit to stand (β = 1.02, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.05) and TUG (β = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.05). Trend line for gait speed (β = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.01) was in the hypothesized direction but did not reach significance. AUC curves showed low diagnostic power (&lt;0.7) of CTX in identifying poor muscle function (SPPB: 0.63; sit to stand: 0.64; TUG: 0.61). Conclusion In older adults, higher CTX levels were associated with poorer lower-limb muscle function (but showed poor diagnostic power for these measures). These clinical data build on the biomedical link between bone and muscle.

Yu-Lin Wang ◽  
Wen-Chou Chi ◽  
Chiung-Ling Chen ◽  
Cheng-Hsieh Yang ◽  
Ya-Ling Teng ◽  

Hinged ankle-foot orthoses (HAFOs) and floor reaction ankle-foot orthoses (FRAFOs) are frequently prescribed to improve gait performance in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP). No study has investigated the effects of FRAFO on sit-to-stand (STS) performance nor scrutinized differences between the application of HAFOs and FRAFOs on postural control. This study compared the effects of HAFOs and FRAFOs on standing stability and STS performance in children with spastic diplegic CP. Nine children with spastic diplegic CP participated in this crossover repeated-measures design research. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected during static standing and STS performance using 3-D motion analysis and force plates. Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used to compare the differences in standing stability and STS performance between wearing HAFOs and FRAFOs. The results showed that during static standing, all center of pressure (COP) parameters (maximal anteroposterior/mediolateral displacement, maximal velocity, and sway area) were not significantly different between FRAFOs and HAFOs. During STS, the floor reaction force in the vertical direction was significantly higher with FRAFOs than with HAFOs (p = 0.018). There were no significant differences in the range of motion in the trunk, knee, and ankle, the maximal velocity of COP forward displacement, completion time, and the force of hip, knee, and ankle joints between the two orthoses. The results suggest both FRAFOs and HAFOs have a similar effect on standing stability, while FRAFOs may benefit STS performance more compared to HAFOs.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document