Educational Interventions
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Catarina Falcão de Campos ◽  
Marta Gromicho ◽  
Hilmi Uysal ◽  
Julian Grosskreutz ◽  
Magdalena Kuzma-Kozakiewicz ◽  

Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with unsatisfactory treatment options. Best management and recruitment into clinical trials requires early diagnosis. However, diagnosis is often delayed. Analysis of the diagnostic pathway and identification of the causes of diagnostic delay are imperative.Methods: We studied a cohort of 580 ALS patients followed up in our ALS clinic in Lisbon. Demographic, disease, and sociocultural factors were collected. Time from first symptom onset to diagnosis, the specialist's assessment, and investigations requested were analyzed. Predictors of diagnostic delay were evaluated by multivariate linear regression, adjusting for potential confounders.Results: The median diagnostic delay from first symptom onset was 10 months. Spinal-onset, slower disease progression, cognitive symptoms at onset, and lower income were associated with increased diagnostic delay. Most patients were first assessed by general practitioners. Patients who were first evaluated by a neurologist were more likely to be correctly diagnosed, decreasing time to diagnosis. Electromyography was decisive in establishing the diagnosis.Conclusions: Late referral from non-neurologists to a neurologist is a potentially modifiable factor contributing to significant diagnostic delay. Educational interventions targeted to non-neurologists physicians, in order to increase awareness of ALS and, consequently, promote early referral to a neurologist at a tertiary center, will be important in reducing diagnostic delay.

2021 ◽  
Delelegn Emwodew Yehualashet ◽  
Binyam Tariku Seboka ◽  
Getanew Aschalew Tesfa ◽  
Tizalegn Tesfaye Mamo ◽  
Elias Seid

Abstract Background: Optimal antenatal care (ANC4 +) needs to be used throughout pregnancy to reduce pregnancy complications and maternal mortality. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends eight ANC contacts, while Ethiopia has the lowest coverage of at least four ANC visits. Therefore, this study aimed to identify factors associated with optimal ANC visits among pregnant women in Ethiopia. Methods: This study is a secondary data analysis of the 2019 Ethiopian Mini Demographic and Health Survey (EMDHS). A multilevel logistic regression model is set up to identify factors associated with optimal ANC visits. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to estimate the strength of the association between the outcome and the predictor variables. Results: Overall, 43% of women had optimal ANC visits during their last pregnancy. Higher educated women are 3.99 times more likely (AOR = 3.99; 95% CI: 2.62-6.02) to have optimal ANC visits than women with no formal education. The wealthiest women are 2.09 times more likely (AOR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.56-2.82) to have optimal ANC visits than women in the poorest quintile. The odds of optimal ANC visit is 42 percent lower in rural women (AOR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.41-0.83) compared to women living in urban areas. Conclusion: Women's educational status, wealth status, mass media exposure, place of residence and region are factors that are significantly associated with optimal ANC visit. These findings help health care programmers and policymakers to introduce appropriate policies and programs to ensure optimal ANC coverage. Priority should be given to addressing economic and educational interventions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (3) ◽  
Iina Ryhtä ◽  
Imane Elonen ◽  
Mari Hiekko ◽  
Jouko Katajisto ◽  
Terhi Saaranen ◽  

The purpose of this pilot study was to explore connection of an educational intervention on the competence of health care educators and educator candidates (n=11) in digital pedagogy as a part of national TerOpe project. An educational intervention, Basics of Digital Pedagogy was developed by the TerOpe project’s experts. The participating educators and educator candidates of the educational intervention were recruited from the universities and university of applied sciences, which were involved in TerOpe project. All the participants of the educational interventions were invited to take part in this study. The educational intervention was conducted during spring 2019. Pre- and post-tests were implemented digitally by using an Educators’ and Educator Candidates’ Competence in Digital Pedagogy self-assessment instrument (OODI), which was developed for this study. The OODI includes 32 items divided in six digital competence areas professional engagement, digital resources, teaching and learning, assessment, empowering learners and facilitating learners’ digital competence. The data was analysed statistically. The self-assessed level of overall competence in digital pedagogy and competence in all competence areas of digital pedagogy increased statistically significantly during the intervention. The educational intervention used in this study seems to increase educators’ self-assessed competence in digital pedagogy. We recommend that all educators be encouraged to conduct continuous education on the basics of digital pedagogy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Zhongliang Zhou ◽  
Dantong Zhao ◽  
Huarui Zhang ◽  
Chi Shen ◽  
Dan Cao ◽  

Abstract Background There is an increasing trend on the practices of parental self-medication with antibiotics (PSMA) around world, accelerating the antibiotic abuse. This study aims to examine the nationality differences in the practices of PSMA and knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) toward antibiotic use, and understand the practices of PSMA among parents of various nationalities in China. Methods A cross-sectional study based on a structured questionnaire survey was conducted in Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, China, from September 2018 to October 2018. A total of 299 respondents participated in. The practices of PSMA (a dichotomous variable) and KAP toward antibiotic use (a continuous variable) served as dependent variables. Participant’s nationality was regarded as the independent variable. Binary logistic regression and ordinary least square regression were employed to examine the association between parent’s nationality and the practices of PSMA, and KAP toward antibiotic use, respectively. Results 121 (40.88%) Chinese, 100 (33.76%) other Asians and 75 (25.34%) Occidentals were included in final analysis, with a sample size of 296. Chinese were more likely to practice PSMA (OR = 7.070; 95% CI 1.315, 38.01), with worse knowledge (Coef. = − 0.549; 95% CI − 1.021, − 0.078), attitudes (Coef. = − 3.069; 95% CI − 4.182, − 1.956) and practices (Coef. = − 1.976; 95% CI − 3.162, − 0.790) toward antibiotic use, compared to their Occidental counterparts. The main reasons for the practices of PSMA were enough previous medication experience (80.49%) and same ailments with no need to see a doctor (39.02%), with common symptoms such as fever (60.98%) and cough (58.54%). Purchasing antibiotics at pharmacies (92.08%) and using leftover antibiotics (26.83%) were usual approaches. Conclusions The study highlights the gaps in the practices of PSMA and KAP toward antibiotic use among parents of different nationalities. The access to obtain antibiotics from pharmacies reflects the pharmacists’ unaware of laws on prescription of antibiotics, fierce competition in the pharmacy market, and the government’s lax supervision in China. It suggests the need to improve pharmacists’ training, enforce current legislations on pharmacy market regarding the sale of antibiotics, and provide practical and effective educational interventions for residents about antibiotic use.

María Gázquez-López ◽  
Encarnación Martínez-García ◽  
Adelina Martín-Salvador ◽  
María Adelaida Álvarez-Serrano ◽  
Inmaculada García-García ◽  

(1) Background: Numerous educational interventions have been conducted to improve hand hygiene (HH) compliance and effectiveness among nursing students, with mixed results. The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of posters as a teaching tool and factors associated with HH quality. (2) Methods: A pre-post experimental intervention study was conducted with a total of 293 nursing students randomly assigned to two groups (experimental and control) who, before and after HH, took cell culture samples from their non-dominant hands. Only the experimental group was exposed to the poster. (3) Results: In the experimental group, significant differences were observed among students older than 22 years (p = 0.017; V = 0.188), with a higher percentage of failures (15.7% vs. 3.6%). Poster displaying was associated with passing, other variables being equal, although without statistical significance (ORa = 2.07; 95% CI = 0.81–5.26). Pre-practice hand contamination was weakly associated with lower HH quality (ORa = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.99–0.99). (4) Conclusions: The use of posters as a teaching method shows indications of efficacy. Prior hand contamination slightly affects the quality of HH. Further evaluation of teaching methods is needed to ensure good technical performance of HH to prevent the spread of infectious diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-41
Shuyan Chin ◽  
Raymond Wong ◽  
Vasant Hirani ◽  
Fiona O’Leary

Abstract Poor nutritional intake is common among older adults. Given that nutrition knowledge is an important determinant of eating behaviour and nutritional status, understanding areas of inadequate knowledge can guide educational interventions to reduce risk of nutritional deficiencies and promote healthy aging. This review investigated tools assessing general nutritional knowledge of older adults and their carers. Following the Joanna Briggs for Scoping Reviews guidelines, four databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Global Health, and Embase) and grey literature were searched. Studies of any type containing general nutrition knowledge assessment tools for older adults or their carers were included. 6934 articles were identified; 24 met the eligibility criteria; and 23 unique nutrition knowledge assessment tools were included. Of these tools, 14 were original, six were modified from other tools and three used dietary-related responses from national dietary survey questions. Six tools were developed for carers (mostly nurses) and 17 tools for older adults. Tools had between four to 110 items. The most common topics for general nutrition knowledge questions were related to nutrients and roles, food sources of nutrients and diet-disease relationships. Eight tools were developed prior to 2000. Most studies did not specify or assess psychometric properties of the tool, with only nine (38%) and six (26%) studies testing for reliability and validity respectively, and only one tool was considered reliable. Additional research for the development of reliable and validated tools or the validation of existing tools to assess nutrition knowledge of older adults and their carers is needed across different healthcare settings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 75 (1) ◽  
Thayná Champe da Silva ◽  
Elisabeta Albertina Nietsche ◽  
Silvana Bastos Cogo

ABSTRACT Objectives: to analyze scientific evidence on the implementation and performance of palliative care in Primary Health Care. Methods: an integrative literature review, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, carried out in the PubMed, SciVerse Scopus and LILACS databases, in December 2020, without a time frame. Results: 22 original scientific articles were analyzed, 14 classified as evidence level VI. The objective was to understand the experiences and roles of professionals, patients and families on palliative care in Primary Health Care, articles focused on the theme of management and organization of health services and on the importance of educational interventions on the subject. Final Considerations: evidence found relating palliative care in Primary Health Care points to the possibility of this care; health teams work closely with the family and their home, but the need to expand this theme is still perceived.

BMC Cancer ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Désirée Schliemann ◽  
Kogila Ramanathan ◽  
Nicholas Matovu ◽  
Ciaran O’Neill ◽  
Frank Kee ◽  

Abstract Background Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) experienced increasing rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence in the last decade and lower 5-year survival rates compared to high-income countries (HICs) where the implementation of screening and treatment services have advanced. This review scoped and mapped the literature regarding the content, implementation and uptake of CRC screening interventions as well as opportunities and challenges for the implementation of CRC screening interventions in LMICs. Methods We systematically followed a five-step scoping review framework to identify and review relevant literature about CRC screening in LMICs, written in the English language before February 2020. We searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Google Scholar for studies targeting the general, asymptomatic, at-risk adult population. The TIDieR tool and an implementation checklist were used to extract data from empirical studies; and we extracted data-informed insights from policy reviews and commentaries. Results CRC screening interventions (n = 24 studies) were implemented in nine middle-income countries. Population-based screening programmes (n = 11) as well as small-scale screening interventions (n = 13) utilised various recruitment strategies. Interventions that recruited participants face-to-face (alone or in combination with other recruitment strategies) (10/15), opportunistic clinic-based screening interventions (5/6) and educational interventions combined with screening (3/4), seemed to be the strategies that consistently achieved an uptake of > 65% in LMICs. FOBT/FIT and colonoscopy uptake ranged between 14 and 100%. The most commonly reported implementation indicator was ‘uptake/reach’. There was an absence of detail regarding implementation indicators and there is a need to improve reporting practice in order to disseminate learning about how to implement programmes. Conclusion Opportunities and challenges for the implementation of CRC screening programmes were related to the reporting of CRC cases and screening, cost-effective screening methods, knowledge about CRC and screening, staff resources and training, infrastructure of the health care system, financial resources, public health campaigns, policy commitment from governments, patient navigation, planning of screening programmes and quality assurance.

2021 ◽  
Vol In Press (In Press) ◽  
Mohammad Rostami ◽  
Yahiya Salimi ◽  
Fereshteh Jalalvandi

Background: Preoperative anxiety is a common problem of surgical patients because it causes a range of emotional, psychological and physical problems. Numerous pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods have been used to reduce the level of anxiety in patients undergoing general surgery. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of electronic education on preoperative anxiety in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Methods: The present study was a randomized controlled trial on 88 patients who were candidates for LC in two intervention and control groups in one of the Kermanshah hospitals. Patients in the intervention group received electronic education before surgery. The Visual Analog Scale Anxiety (VAS-A) questionnaire was used to measure anxiety before surgery in the study. Data analysis was performed using SPSS statistical software. Results: The results showed that there was no significant difference in the level of basic anxiety between the intervention and control groups. In second VAS-A evaluation, a significant mean difference was observed between the two groups so that the anxiety of the intervention group was calculated as 26.1 ± (SD = 16) vs. the control group as 45 ± (SD = 21). The mean of post-intervention anxiety compared to pre-intervention anxiety significantly decreased in the intervention group. Conclusions: Our findings highlight that electronic-based education can reduce the preoperative anxiety level in LC patients. Therefore, it's recommended to medical staff for delivering pre-surgery electronic educational interventions for LC surgical patients in order to reduce the level of preoperative anxiety.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Reza Kalantari ◽  
Zahra Zamanian ◽  
Mehdi Hasanshahi ◽  
Seyed Aliakbar Faghihi ◽  
Jamshid Jamali ◽  

Background. Nontechnical skills are necessary for clinicians’ safe performance and prevention of errors in the operating room. Educational intervention is a useful way to improve these skills, which are a vital area for improvement. Circulating nurses are surgical team members whose work depends heavily on using nontechnical skills. This study is aimed at assessing the effect of an educational intervention on the improvement of circulating nurses’ nontechnical skills. Methods. This semiexperimental study was conducted on 300 circulating nurses divided into the intervention and no intervention groups each containing 150 participants. The nontechnical skills were assessed using the circulating practitioners’ list of nontechnical skills. Then, the intervention group received training regarding these skills, and the two groups were evaluated again. After all, the data were entered into the SPSS 24 software and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon and Mann–Whitney tests. Furthermore, Kendall’s tau, independent sample t -test, and one-way ANOVA were used for assessment of relationship between median scores and demographics. Results. The results revealed a significant improvement in the scores of all domains of nontechnical skills in the intervention group ( p < 0.05 ). The highest and lowest improvements were observed in teamwork (42%) and situational awareness (16.7%), respectively. After the intervention, the scores of some of the behaviors were still below the average level or were not improved significantly. Conclusions. Circulating nurses’ nontechnical skills can be improved by educational interventions. However, regarding the low scores or no improvements in the scores of some behaviors, other intervention types such as policymaking and correcting the existing hierarchies in the operating room can be useful to complete the educational interventions.

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