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Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 581
Ivan Miguel Pires ◽  
María Vanessa Villasana ◽  
Juliana Sá ◽  
Hanna Vitaliyivna Denysyuk ◽  
Diogo Luís Marques ◽  

In the pandemic time, the monitoring of the progression of some diseases is affected and rehabilitation is more complicated. Remote monitoring may help solve this problem using mobile devices that embed low-cost sensors, which can help measure different physical parameters. Many tests can be applied remotely, one of which is the six-minute walk test (6MWT). The 6MWT is a sub-maximal exercise test that assesses aerobic capacity and endurance, allowing early detection of emerging medical conditions with changes. This paper presents a systematic review of the use of sensors to measure the different physical parameters during the performance of 6MWT, focusing on various diseases, sensors, and implemented methodologies. It was performed with the PRISMA methodology, where the search was conducted in different databases, including IEEE Xplore, ACM Digital Library, ScienceDirect, and PubMed Central. After filtering the papers related to 6MWT and sensors, we selected 31 papers that were analyzed in more detail. Our analysis discovered that the measurements of 6MWT are primarily performed with inertial and magnetic sensors. Likewise, most research studies related to this test focus on multiple sclerosis and pulmonary diseases.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1358863X2110688
Dereck L Salisbury ◽  
Kari Swanson ◽  
Rebecca JL Brown ◽  
Diane Treat-Jacobson

Background: Treadmill walking is the most commonly recommended exercise modality in supervised exercise therapy (SET) for peripheral artery disease (PAD); however, other modalities may be equally effective and more tolerable for patients. The primary aim of this single-blind, randomized pilot study was to compare the feasibility, safety, and preliminary efficacy of a treadmill walking (TM) versus a total body recumbent stepping (TBRS) exercise program for treatment of PAD. Methods: Participants ( n = 19) enrolled in a 12-week SET program and were randomized to either a TM ( n = 9) or TBRS ( n = 10) exercise group that followed current SET exercise guidelines. Feasibility, safety, and efficacy outcomes were assessed. Results: SET attendance was 86% and 71%, respectively, for TBRS and TM groups ( p = 0.07). Session exercise dose (metabolic equivalents of task [MET] minutes) (mean [SD]) for TM was 117.6 [27.4] compared to 144.7 [28.7] in the TBRS group ( p = 0.08). Study-related adverse events were nine in 236 training hours and three in 180 training hours for the TBRS and TM groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between groups for improvement in 6-minute walk distance (mean [SD]) (TM: 133.2 ft [53.5] vs TBRS: 154.8 ft [49.8]; p = 0.77) after adjusting for baseline 6-minute walk distance. Conclusion: This is the first randomized study comparing TBRS to TM exercise in SET using current SET guidelines. This pilot study showed that TBRS is a feasible and safe exercise modality in SET. This study provides preliminary efficacy of the use of TBRS exercise in SET programs following current guidelines. Larger studies should be conducted to confirm these findings.

JMIR Cancer ◽  
10.2196/31576 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. e31576
Erin L Van Blarigan ◽  
Anand Dhruva ◽  
Chloe E Atreya ◽  
Stacey A Kenfield ◽  
June M Chan ◽  

Background We conducted a pilot 2-arm randomized controlled trial to assess the feasibility of a digital health intervention to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) during chemotherapy. Objective This study aimed to determine whether a digital health physical activity intervention is feasible and acceptable during chemotherapy for CRC. Methods Potentially eligible patients with CRC expected to receive at least 12 weeks of chemotherapy were identified in person at the University of California, San Francisco, and on the web through advertising. Eligible patients were randomized 1:1 to a 12-week intervention (Fitbit Flex, automated SMS text messages) versus usual care. At 0 and 12 weeks, patients wore an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer for 7 days and completed surveys, body size measurements, and an optional 6-minute walk test. Participants could not be masked to their intervention arm, but people assessing the body size and 6-minute walk test outcomes were masked. The primary outcomes were adherence (eg, Fitbit wear and text response rate) and self-assessed acceptability of the intervention. The intervention would be considered feasible if we observed at least 80% complete follow-up and 70% adherence and satisfaction, a priori. Results From 2018 to 2020, we screened 240 patients; 53.3% (128/240) of patients were ineligible and 26.7% (64/240) declined to participate. A total of 44 patients (44/240, 18%) were randomized to the intervention (n=22) or control (n=22) groups. Of these, 57% (25/44) were women; 68% (30/44) identified as White and 25% (11/44) identified as Asian American or Pacific Islander; and 77% (34/44) had a 4-year college degree. The median age at enrollment was 54 years (IQR 45-62 years). Follow-up at 12 weeks was 91% (40/44) complete. In the intervention arm, patients wore Fitbit devices on a median of 67 out of 84 (80%) study days and responded to a median of 17 out of 27 (63%) questions sent via SMS text message. Among 19 out of 22 (86%) intervention patients who completed the feedback survey, 89% (17/19) were satisfied with the Fitbit device; 63% (12/19) were satisfied with the SMS text messages; 68% (13/19) said the SMS text messages motivated them to exercise; 74% (14/19) said the frequency of SMS text messages (1-3 days) was ideal; and 79% (15/19) said that receiving SMS text messages in the morning and evening was ideal. Conclusions This pilot study demonstrated that many people receiving chemotherapy for CRC are interested in participating in digital health physical activity interventions. Fitbit adherence was high; however, participants indicated a desire for more tailored SMS text message content. Studies with more socioeconomically diverse patients with CRC are required. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03524716; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03524716

Tess LaPatra ◽  
Grayson L. Baird ◽  
Randi Goodman ◽  
Diane Pinder ◽  
Maeve Gaffney ◽  

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262238
Narongkorn Saiphoklang ◽  
Apiwat Pugongchai ◽  
Kanyada Leelasittikul

Background A 30-m walkway length for the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is the standard recommendation established by the American Thoracic Society to assess patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aimed to compare between the distances of 20 and 30 m long corridor affecting 6MWT in COPD patients. Methods A randomized crossover study was conducted with patients. COPD patients were randomized 1:1 to either a 20-m or a 30-m walkway in the first test, then switched to the other in the second test. Physiologic parameters and 6-minute walking distance (6MWD) were recorded. Results Fifty subjects (92% men) were included: age 69.1±7.4 years, body mass index 22.9±5.5 kg/m2, FEV1 63.0±21.3%, and 50% having cardiovascular disease. The 6MWD in a 20-m and a 30-m walkway were 337.82±71.80 m and 359.85±77.25 m, respectively (P<0.001). Mean distance difference was 22.03 m (95% CI -28.29 to -15.76, P<0.001). Patients with a 20-m walkway had more turns than those with a 30-m walkway (mean difference of 4.88 turns, 95% CI 4.48 to 5.28, P<0.001). Also, higher systolic blood pressure was found in patients with a 20-m walkway after 6MWT (4.62 mmHg, P = 0.019). Other parameters and Borg dyspnea scale did not differ. Conclusions The walkway length had significant effect on walking distance in COPD patients. A 30-m walkway length should still be recommended in 6MWT for COPD assessment. Clinical trial registration Clinicaltrials.in.th number: TCTR20200206003.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (S2) ◽  
pp. 5-14
Mohd Naqiuddin Johar ◽  
Nor Azlin Mohd Nordin ◽  
Yusliza Azreen Mohd Yusoff

Despite being increasingly popular and commonly used in rehabilitation, both game-based exercise training and task-oriented circuit training have never been combined to provide a new training experience for stroke survivors undergoing rehabilitation. Past studies have assessed the effectiveness of these exercise approaches separately and reported positive outcomes. Combining the two training programs may create a more enriched environment and yield favorable outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of game-based task-oriented circuit training on the physical functions of stroke survivors. This research was a pretest-posttest experimental pilot trial involving 30 participants at post-acute and chronic stage post-stroke (mean age and standard deviation = 58.9 ± 6.6 years; mean Montreal Cognitive Assessment scoring = 23.4 ± 7.1) conducted at a state hospital in Kelantan, Malaysia between August 2019 to February 2020. All participants received game-based task-oriented circuit training using a “Checkercise Board” for 45 minutes, twice per week for 8 weeks. The outcome of the training was measured with regard to lower limb strength, functional stability and aerobic capacity, with the use of the 30-second chair rise test, Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) and 6-minute walk test, respectively. Analysis was done by the ‘intention-to-treat’ approach, using paired samples t-test to determine the differences between pre and post-training outcomes scores. All data was analyzed using the Statistics Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 23.0. The significance level was set at p < 0.05 and Cohen’s (d) was used to determine the effect size. Post-training, participants’ mean 30-second chair rise test, DGI and 6-minute walk test scores increased by 9%, 7% and 23% respectively compared to pre-treatment (p < 0.05), with medium effect size of 0.5 to 0.6. Game-based task-oriented circuit training effectively improves lower limb strength, functional stability and aerobic capacity of stroke survivors, and may be used as a therapy option for this population. A future study is needed to confirm these study finding.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 104
C. Kouala Landa ◽  
D. Motsambo ◽  
F. Ngamami ép Mongo ◽  
J. Makani Bassakouahou ◽  
M. Ikama ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 205521732110615
Bobbette J Miller ◽  
Thubi HA Kolobe ◽  
Rebecca D Larson ◽  
Brian A Pribble ◽  
Gabriel Pardo ◽  

Background Eighty-five percent of people with multiple sclerosis (MS) incur gait impairments debilitating enough to significantly impact their function. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine if a novel combination of intermuscular electrical stimulation, followed by functional electrical stimulation combined with supported bodyweight treadmill training, would improve gait, decrease spasticity and fatigue, and improve muscle strength. Methods Using a pre-post experimental design, we implemented this combination six-week protocol in 16 individuals with MS. We completed summary statistics and longitudinal pre-post results using Wilcoxon sign rank tests with Bonferroni adjustment. Results Participants responded with median increases of 29.4 feet ( p < 0.0001) during the Six Minute Walk Test, median decreases of 0.7 s ( p = 0.0011) in the 25-Foot Walk Test, median increases of 3.8 toe taps to fatigue ( p = 0.0306) and median increases of 5.0 heel raises ( p = 0.0093). Significant changes were noted in the Modified Ashworth Scale, both after intermuscular electrical stimulation (median change = −0.5 p = 0.0039) and after treadmill walking (median change = −0.5, p < 0.0005). Conclusions Results of this novel protocol suggest this intervention combination has the potential to decrease spasticity, and improve gait speed and endurance in individuals with MS. Observed changes in mobility occurred without accompanying increases in fatigue.

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