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2022 ◽  
Vol 162 ◽  
pp. 108051
Konstantinos Agathos ◽  
Konstantinos E. Tatsis ◽  
Konstantinos Vlachas ◽  
Eleni Chatzi

2022 ◽  
Vol 105 (1) ◽  
pp. 003685042110644
Ayisha Nayyar ◽  
Ummul Baneen ◽  
Muhammad Ahsan ◽  
Syed A Zilqurnain Naqvi ◽  
Asif Israr

Low-severity multiple damage detection relies on sensing minute deviations in the vibrational or dynamical characteristics of the structure. The problem becomes complicated when the reference vibrational profile of the healthy structure and corresponding input excitation, is unavailable as frequently experienced in real-life scenarios. Detection methods that require neither undamaged vibrational profile (baseline-free) nor excitation information (output-only) constitute state-of-art in structural health monitoring. Unfortunately, their efficacy is ultimately limited by non-ideal input excitation masking crucial attributes of system response such as resonant frequency peaks beyond first (few) natural frequency(ies) which can better resolve the issue of multiple damage detection. This study presents an improved frequency response function curvature method which is both baseline-free and output-only. It employs the cepstrum technique to eliminate [Formula: see text] decay of higher resonance peaks caused by the temporal spread of real impulse excitation. Long-pass liftering screens out the bulk of low-frequency sensor noise along with the excitation. With more visible resonant peaks, the cepstrum purified frequency response functions (regenerated frequency response functions) register finer deviation from an estimated baseline frequency response function and yield an accurate damage index profile. The simulation and experimental results on the beam show that the proposed method can successfully locate multiple damages of severity as low as 5%.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (24) ◽  
pp. 11751
Chang-Sheng Lin ◽  
Yi-Xiu Wu

The present paper is a study of output-only modal estimation based on the stochastic subspace identification technique (SSI) to avoid the restrictions of well-controlled laboratory conditions when performing experimental modal analysis and aims to develop the appropriate algorithms for ambient modal estimation. The conventional SSI technique, including two types of covariance-driven and data-driven algorithms, is employed for parametric identification of a system subjected to stationary white excitation. By introducing the procedure of solving the system matrix in SSI-COV in conjunction with SSI-DATA, the SSI technique can be efficiently performed without using the original large-dimension data matrix, through the singular value decomposition of the improved projection matrix. In addition, the computational efficiency of the SSI technique is also improved by extracting two predictive-state matrixes with recursive relationship from the same original predictive-state matrix, and then omitting the step of reevaluating the predictive-state matrix at the next-time moment. Numerical simulations and experimental verification illustrate and confirm that the present method can accurately implement modal estimation from stationary response data only.

2021 ◽  
pp. 147592172110537
Esmaeil Ghorbani ◽  
Dagmar Svecova ◽  
Douglas J Thomson ◽  
Young-Jin Cha

Soil scour near a bridge pier foundation is one of the leading causes of bridge failures. Traditional vibration-based scour monitoring methods are nearly incapable of quantifying scour levels using a single acceleration response without knowledge of excitation information. In this paper, a new output-only scour level prediction method is introduced via the integration of an unscented Kalman filter (UKF), random decrement (RD), and newly derived continuous Euler–Bernoulli beam addressing river water, traffic loads, and the linear and nonlinear behavior of sediments around the pier as external effects. We conducted extensive simulation studies and applied the method to an existing medium-span bridge with a steel girder and concrete deck in service in the province of Manitoba, Canada. These studies show that our proposed method can accurately estimate scour levels using only one accelerometer, which was validated with an independent bathymetric survey of the soil level at the pier foundation. Furthermore, three different linear and nonlinear soil profiles representing the soil behavior around the pier were also investigated as case studies in the scour level estimation process. The results confirm that a cubic function exhibits the best performance in quantifying the scour level around bridge piers.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0260297
Jørund Løken ◽  
Tom Erik Jorung Solstad ◽  
Nicolay Stien ◽  
Vidar Andersen ◽  
Atle Hole Saeterbakken

Bench press is a popular training-exercise in throw related sports such as javelin, baseball and handball. Athletes in these sports often use bouncing (i.e., letting the barbell collide with the chest) to create an increased momentum to accelerate the barbell upwards before completing the movement by throwing the barbell. Importantly, the effects of the bouncing technique in bench press have not been examined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of bench press throw with (BPTbounce) or without bounce (BPT) on throwing velocity (penalty and 3-step), 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) and average power output (20-60kg) in bench press among handball players. Sixteen male amateur handball players (7.1±1.9 years of handball experience) were randomly allocated to an eight-week supplementary power training program (2 x week-1) with either the BPT or BPTbounce. Except for the bounce technique, the training programs were identical and consisted of 3 sets with 3–5 repetitions at 40–60% of 1-RM with maximal effort in free-weight barbell bench press throw. The results revealed no significant differences between the groups in any of the tests (p = 0.109–0.957). However, both groups improved penalty throw (BPT; 4.6%, p<0.001, ES = 0.57; BPTbounce; 5.1%, p = 0.008, ES = 0.91) and 1-RM (BPT; 9.7%, p<0.001, ES = 0.49; BPTbounce; 8.7%, p = 0.018, ES = 0.60), but only the BPT improved the 3-step throw (BPT; 2.9%, p = 0.060, ES = 0.38; BPTbounce; 2.3%, p = 0.216, ES = 0.40). The BPT improved power output only at 20kg and 30kg loads (9.1% and 12.7%; p = 0.018–0.048, ES = 0.43–0.51) whereas BPTbounce demonstrated no significant differences across the loads (p = 0.252–0.806). In conclusion, the bounce technique demonstrated similar effects on throwing velocity, muscle strength and muscle power output as conventional bench press throw without the bounce technique.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (4) ◽  
pp. 4930-4940

Output-only Modal Analysis makes it possible to investigate the dynamic behaviour of machine tools, especially under process conditions. The differences between standstill and process state, which are important to be considered, result from process damping, gyroscopic moments of the rotating spindle, and changes in preloads and clearance in bearing and joints. Output-only Modal Analysis assumes a complete excitation of the structure by white noise characteristics. There are several mechanisms in a machine tool under process conditions that could cause a vibration response. Besides the cutting process itself, the movement of the NC-axes, as well as rotating fans of the control system and auxiliary units, can be excitation sources. This paper investigates to what extent several excitation mechanisms in machine tools fulfill the analysis assumption and in which way the identified modal parameters depend on the boundary conditions of the excitation characteristics.

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